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NOTICE. 



The Editor of the Handbook for Italy is very solicitous to be 
favoured with corrections of any mistakes and omissions which may 
be discovered by persons who have made use of the book. Those 
communications especially will be welcomed which are founded upon 
personal knowledge, and accompanied by the name of the writer to 
authenticate them. Travellers willing to make such communications 
are requested to have the kindness to address them to the Editor of the 
Handbook, care of Mr. Murray, Albemarle Street. 



Caution to Teavellebs. — ^By Act of Parliament, the introduction into 
England oi foreign pi/rated Editions of the works of British authors, in which 
the copyright subsists, is totalhf prohibited. Travellers will therefore bear in 
mind that even a single copy is contraband, and is liable to seizure at the English 
Custom-house. 

Caution to Innkeepers and othebs. — The Editor of the Handbooks has 
learned from various quarters that a person or persons have of late been 
extorting money from innkeepers, tradespeople, artists, and others, on the 
Continent, imder pretext of procuring recommendations and favourable notices 
of them and their establishments in the Handbooks for Travellers, or in 
Guides, which, being artfully styled " livres rouges," are passed off by these im- 
postors as the red Handbooks published by Mr. Murray. The Publisher, 
therefore, thinks proper to warn all whom it may concern, that recommenda- 
tions in the Handbooks are not to be obtained by siich^ means, and that 
the persons alluded to are not only imauthorised by him, but are totally 
unknown to him. All those, therefore, who put confidence in such promises, or 
in persons who go about, as the pretended agents of the Publisher, demanding 
money as the price of recommendations in the Handbooks, may rest assured that 
they wUl be defrauded of their money without attaining their object. — 1860. 



♦ ♦ 



^ No attention can be paid to letters from Hotel-keepers in praise 
of their own inns ; and the postage of them is so onerous, that they 
cannot be received. 



r 



HANDBOOK 



TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN ITALY. 



PIEDMONT, LIGUKIA, LOiniAKDY, TENETIA, 
PAEMA, MODENA, AND KOMAGNA 



..:..'' \ 



®i()^(^ lEbition, 



LONDON; 

JOHN MUKRAT, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

PARIS! A. W. GALIGNANI & CO. ; AND 8TASSIN & XAVIER. 

FLORENCE; GOODBAN. MILAN; MEINEES. 

TTENICE-. MXJNSTER. HOME: PJAI.E; SPITHOVER; GALLEHIHl. 



lifhi qf li-anilaHon ii retmseii. 




554582 

THE ENGLISH EDITIONS OP MURBAY'S HANDBOOKS MAY BB OBTAINED OP 

FOLLOWING AGENTS : 



Germany^ Holland, and Belgium. 



AIX-LA- X 

CHAPELLE f 

AMSTERDAM . 

ANTWERP 
BADEN-BADEN 
BERLIN . 
BRUSSELS 

CARLSRUHE . 
COBLENTZ . 
COLOGNE. 
DRESDEN 
FRANKFURT . 
GRATZ . 
THE HAGUE . 
HAMBURG 



BASLE . 

BERNE . 
COIRE 
CONSTANCE 
ST. GALLEN 
GENEVA . 



BOLOGNA 
FLORENCE . 
GRNOA . 
LEGUOON «•< 



I. A. MAYER. 

J. MULLER.-W. KIRBERGER. 

—VAN BAKKENESS. 
MAX. KORNICKER. 
D. R. MARX. 
A. DUNCKER. 
C. MUQUARDT. — KIESSLING 

& CO.— FROMENT. 
A. BIELEFELD. 
BAEDEKER. 
A. BAEDEKER.— EISEN. 
ARNOLD. 

C. JUGEL. 
DAMIAN & SOBGE. 
M. NIJHOF. 

PERTHES BESSER & 
MAUKE. 



HEIDELBERG . 

KISSINGEN . 
LEIPZIG . .^' 

LUXEMBOURG 
MANNHEIM . 
MAYENCE 
MUNICH . 
NURNBERO . 
PESTH . 

PRAGUE . 
ROTTERDAM . 
STUTTGART . 
TRIESTE • 

VIENNA . . 

WIESBADEN . 



MOHR. 

C. JUGEL. 
BROCKHAUS.— WETGEL. 

BUCK. 

ART ARIA & FONTAINE, 

VON ZARERN. 

COTTA.— PALM. 

SCHRAG. 

HARTLEBEN,— 

G. HECKENAST. 
CALVE. 

PETRI,— KRAMERS. 
P. NEFF. 
MUNSTER. 
C. GEROLD.— 

BRAUMiJLLER. 

C. JUGEL.-C. W. KBEIDEL. 



Switzerla/nd, 



LUCC^. i * 
MAN-POA / • • 

MiLAif ./ ;.; 



SCHWEIGHAUSER.— 

•NEUKIRCH. 
DALP.— HUBER * CO, 
GRUBENMANN. 
MECK. 
HUBER. 
KESSMANN.— MONROE.— 

DESROGIS.— CHERBU 

LIEZ.-GEX. 



RUSCONI. 
GOODBAN. 
ANTOINE BEUF. 
It AZZWhU • • 



LAUSANNE . HIGNOU A CO.— WEBER. 
LUCERNE. . F. KAISER. 
SCHAFFHAUSEN BRODTMANN. 
SOLEURE. . JENT. 
Zt^RICH '. • H. FUSSLI & CO.— MEYER 

& ZELLER. 
H. F. LEUTHOLD, POST- 

STRASSE. 



Italy. 



•/n^iNKiw.-LMeu 



« * 



MODENA • 
NAPLES . 
NICE • . 



AMIENS . 
ANGERS . 
AVRANCHE8 . 
BAYONNE 
BORDEAUX . 
BOULOGNE . 
BREST . 
CAEN 
CALAIS . 
DIEPPE . 
DINANT . 
DOUAI . 
DUNKERQUE . 
GRENOBLE . 
HAVRE . 

LILLE 
LYONS . 

MARSEILLES . 
METZ * • 



sangner.— p. & J. 

VALLARDI.— DUMOLARD 

FRkRES. 
VINCENZI & ROSSI. 
DETKEN. 
VISCONTI— GIRAUD. 



t « 



. CHARLES BEUF. 

• J.ZANGHIERIy \ 

• >IST»I.-«p8. VANNUCCHI. 
t AflNpzefZ. SARTELLI. 
•;;piAtE.^ Sf ITBpyER. - GA 

• • larTniZ-merle. 
. onorato torri. 

. H. p. MONSTER. 

• OIANNINI & FIORE.— 

BOCCA FR^RES. 
VENICE . . H. p. mOnSTER. 
VERONA • . H. F. MONSTER. 



PALERMO 
PARMA . 

'.TfOME* .*l 

c • *' " • 
SIENNA . 

TRIESTE . 
TURIN , 



France, 



CARON. 

BARASSE'. 

ANFRAY. 

JAYMEBON. 

CHAUMAS. 

WATEL.— MERRIDBW. 

HERBERT. 

VILLENEUVE. 

RIOAUX CAUX. 

MARAIS. 

COSTE. A 

JACQUART.— LEMALE. 

LEYSCHOCHART. 

VELLOT ET COMP. 

COCHARD.— BOURDIGNON.— 

FOUCHER. 
VANACKERE.— BEGHIN. 
GIBERTON-& BRUN.— 

AYNE' FILS. 
MADAME CAMOIN. 
WARION. 



MONTPELLIER 
NANCY . , 

NANTES. . 

ORLEANS. 
PARIS • 

PAU . 

PERPIGNAN . 
REIMS . 
ROCHEFORT . 
ROUEN . 
ST. ETIENNE . 
ST. MALO. 
ST. QUENTIN . 
STRASBOURG . 
TOULON . 
TOULOUSE . 
TOURS . 
TROYBS . 



Spain, 

MADRID . . MONIER. | GIBRALTAR 

Denmark and Sweden. 

COPENHAGEN. GYLDENDAHL.— REITZEL. I STOCKHOLM 



LEVALLE. 
GONET. 
GUERARD.— FOREST 

AINE'. 
GATINEAU.— PESTY, 
GALIGNANI.— FRANK.— 

STASSIN ET XAVIEB. 
AUG. BASSY.— LAFON. 
JULIA PRiERES. 
BRISSART BINET. 
BOUCARD. 
LEBRUMENT. 
DELARUE. 
HUE. 
DOLOY. 

TREUTELL ET WURTZ. 
MONGE ET VILLAMUS. 
H. LEBON.— GIMET. 
COUSTURIER. 



R0W8WELL. 



BONNIER.— SAMSON & 
WALLIN. 



Btissia, 



ST. PETERS- 1 
BURG. / 
MOSCOW . 

Malta, 

MVIR. 



WATKINS.— ISSAKOFF.— 

N. ISSAKOFF.— BELLIZARD. 
W. GAUTIER.— ARLT. 



ODESSA' 
RIGA 



VILLIETLY. 
KYMMEL. 



Ionian Islands. Constantinople. Greece. 

CORFU, , J.W.TAYLOR. WICK. ATHENS . C. WILDBERG 



P B E F A C E. 



5 publicatiou of the last eilitioiis ot the Hajidbaokt of Norlli and 
Italy, the Editor has hiul oocMion to roviHit titarly t-yery porl of 
itries described in them, the most considerablu portion duiiug 
Ttt year, and, while correcting some inHcciiracica that remained, 
QDb new infonnation useful to tlie trBVcllef, 
angea that hai'e taken place in the ]X)litical map of the PouitiBidn, 
Dt of the events of last jear, hove rendered ncce«Eary n di(FL*rcnl 
ent of the rentes; and to adopt ono more natural in a geogra- 
int ofTiew, whilst it will prove more convenient to ibu traroiler. 
if including Tuscany in the dcacrijition of North Italy, aud the 

amongst the Central Italian Province*, the Uanilhook of Nm-th 
I now embrace the great natural division comprised between the 

Apennines, and the Adriatic, wit^i the Ligiirinn Profincea on tlie 
mean; and that of Central Jtajy, Tuscflny, the PajMil States, and 
d of SaidiniB. 

terest which Sardinia offers for the Antiquarian, tlie NaturnUiit, 
^ortsman, coupled with the daily increamng feoilitieB for reaching 
Bing through it, induced the Editor in 195S to include a dcscrip- 

in these Handbooka. For thiii he was in a great measure in- 

his lamented friend, the late General Count de Coilegno, one of 
dietingnished members of the Piedraontesa senate, aud well known 
r the most eminent geologists on the Continent, who had then 
'visited in great detail that island. This descriptbn has been 
«Dded from information derived from General Alberto delin 
. both uenmnallv and from his lately published ' Itin^raire.' 



Vi PREFACE. 

inserted from the Editor's persohal examinations. A still more important 
addition has been also made to the present volumes, by completing the 
series of Plans of the principal Cities, upon which all the objects worthy 
of the tourist's notice have been inserted, so as to enable him, unattended 
by a guide, to discover everything described and most deserving of atten- 
tion. All the railways in operation, or projected, have been laid down 
upon the Map from the most trustworthy sources. 

It has been the Editor's endeavour to render the Handbooks of Northern 
and Central Italy as complete guides, to the countries they profess to 
describe, as exist in any language ; and it is his duty again to express his 
acknowledgments to the numerous friends both in Italy and at home, and 
to the several correspondents, who have aided him in his task by the 
information they have transmitted to him. It is in a great measure by 
such means that works of this nature can lay claim to that degreee of 
accuracy which the travelling public has a right to expect ; and he begs 
still to solicit of travellers, who may use these Handbooks of Travel, to 
transmit to him through the Publisher any alterations they may consider 
advisable to make hereafter, founded upon information of a practical and 
useful nature obtained on the spot. 

London, September, 1860. 



CONTENTS. 



ISTRODUCTtON, 

I. Plan of the Work— 2. PaBsporta and Custom^houfleB— 3. Houtcs — 
4. M(Mie«. and EipanseB of Travelling — 5. Couiiora— 76, Sigiit^Bedng 1 
Laqnais de Place and Ciceroni — 7. Money — 8. Inn* and Accom- 
modations — i). Books^lO. Maps of Italy — 11. Objects to be no- 
ticed —12. Music— 13, Skeletou Tonra 

Tablca of Foreigo Coiiia reduced into the diffcrcnf Curreiiries of Italy, at 
the par of eidlango -..-----.- x 

Table- 1. Englisli Money reduced to an. equivalent Value in the Mouej of 
aeseTiiralStiitea of North Italy - ■ i: 

Table 2. Currency of the different Italian States reduced into English 
Money, at the par of eiohange - - - - - - -m 

Table S. Slioniiig the Value of the difTcrent Mensumi of Distances em- 
ployed in Itnly, reduced to English statute Miles, FuriongB, and ViirdB n 

Abbreviations, 4c., employed in the Handbook ■ - ■ ■ - 11 

Sect. I.— piedmont AHD SARDINIAN LOMB.tRDy. 
Preliminorj Information — Tables of Money, Weights, and Measures - 



1 
Sect. U.— SAKDINIAN DOMISIONS ON TIEE MEDITERRA- 
NEAN—THE KIVIEKA DI PONENTE, AND KIVIEBA I 
DI LEVANTE — TEKEITOEIES OF NICE, MONACO, AND 
DUCHY OP GENOA. 
Preljniinary Information - ... .. , - -71 
Routes - 70 

Sect. Ill,— LOMBARDV. 
Preliminary Information .,....-.. YSV j 
Soutes - "i-WSd 



Viii CONTENTS, 



Sect. IV.— VENETIAN PEOVINCES. 

PA 

Frelimiiuirj Information • •-S 

Boutes .....J 

Sect. V,— DUCHIES OP PAEMA AND PIACENZA, 

Preliminary Information J 

Eoutes - 5 

Sect. VI.— DUCHY OP MODENA. 

Preliminary Information .----..-- ^ 
Boutes - •--... 



Sect. VH.— LA EOMAaNA. 



Preliminary Information 
Boutes - - - 

IlTDEX - . - 



LIST OF PLANS, &c. 



PAGE 

Plan of Turin to face 12 

„ Gtenoa .. .. „ 98 

„ Milan „ 157 

„ Brera Gallery at Milan 192 

Pavia 215 

„• Brescia 238 

„ Verona to /ace 263 

„ Mantua 289 

,y Ducal Palace in Mantua 293 

„ Vicenza 302 

„ Padua 312 

„ Venice.. .. fo /ace 329 

„ Pinacoteca at Venice 374 

„ Parma 408 

„ Galleria at Parma 416 

„ Modena 429 

„ Ferrara 439 

» Bologna toface 455 

n Pinacoteca at Bologna 459 

„ Bavenna 510 

„ Pinacoteca at Forli 536 

Map of North Italy .. ., at the end. 



INTRODUCTION. 



^ 



1, Fla^i of the Wori. — 3. Taasporfa aail Cut/am-hoiuei. — 3. Soutet. - 
4. Model asd Expeater of TravtlUng. — 5, Cavriert. — 6. Siglit-ieeittg ; 
Laqnaiide Place and CScefOMt. — 7. Money. — 8, Innt and AscrmimdaUoiu. 

— 9. Bookt.— 10. Mapt of Itajg. — H. Objecls to he noticed. — 12. livaie. 

— 13. Skeleton Towra. — Tables of Foreign Coiag redvmd Into tie different 
Ciirreneia of Italt/. 

1. — Plas of the Wobe, 
The new edition of this Handbook las been reviaod with a view of 
making it a gnide tti tlie most rematiiable places of Northein Italy, and 
ilrawing tte attention of the traveller to the objects best worthy of being 
noticed. HeflectionH not contributing to this end hare been eicluded; 
thoKO who deaire remaika upon Italy can find books containing Ibeni in 
plentyj from Forsyth down to the latest modem tourist. Of tto objecle 
here pointed out to the traTcllsr, moat have long been thought worthy of 
inaction and adtniiation ; sumc, however, have not, but hsvo risen into 
notice Qirough. a periodical fluctuation of taste and opinions. These latter 
are inserted, liei^use some travellers will wish to see them, and others 
on^t, in order that they may judge for themselves, and avoid being im- 
posed upon. 

The compiler of a Handbook is happily relieved, by the necessity of being 
useful, from the pursuit of that origmality of a tourist which consista in 
omitting to notice great works because they have been noticed by others, 
and in crying up some object which has hitherto been deservedly passed 
over. It wonid, moreover, be out of place for the edil-or of a Guidebook 
of Italy to be ambitions of composing an original work. Italy has been so 
long studied, that all its moat interesting sites and works have been re- 
peatedly and carefully duscribed ; and so much has been written, and by 
persons of ability and acixnirements, that the moat difQcnlt task ia that of 
compiling and of selecting materials. 

Although the Editor has had the benefit of repeated personal examina- 
tion, he has not scrupled to use freely the numerons works which treat 
upon the subject. As it is scarcely possible, in the compass of a Hand- 
book, where space is so valuable, to indicate where passages have been ex- 
tracted from, &B following works are laore mentioned as those which liave 
bean cbiedy used, in order to protect the Editor from the chaise of borrow- 
ing without acknowledgment, ani that the traveller may, if he wishes, seek 
in them further information. In architecture, Mr. Gaily Knight's work 
on the Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy has been referred to in all 
oases in which the buildings mentioned in this work have been described 
by him, and his descriptions and observations are frequently given. Pas- 
sages from Woods' 'Letters from an Architect' have been sometimes 
inserted, particularly those relating to the architecture of Palladio and Sca- 
mozzi at VicenEa and Venice, a subject he seems to have ipaittioviVatX^ iUiiiiiA. 
fiome of Mr. Owilt'a descriptions of celebrated buildinga WNe^iceli\»&.l;o. . 
from his Bnayclopedia of Arcbiteotnre. For mucih ot l\«j deacri^Vici 



X 



1. — Plan of the IVorJi. Intarod. 



Certosa of Pavia and tlic j'alaccs at Mantua, and of some other places, the 
Editor is indebted to the magnificent volume entitled *La Certosa de 
Pavia,' published at Milan, and to the work on * Fresco Decorations and 
Stuccoes of Churches and Palaces in Italy during the Fifteenth and Six- 
teenth Centuries,* by Mr. Lewis Gruner. 

As some travellei-s have a curiosity to be informed respecting the pro- 
duce and agriculture of Italy, and as such details usually lie in large un- 
readable books, a short sunmiary of information on these subjects, taken 
chiefly from the Papers presented to Parliament by the Board of Trade, 
is inserted. 

Considerable assistance has been derived from the Guides produced for 
the use of the Scienziati Italiani, at their annual meetings. Those of Genoa, 
Milan, Padua, and Venice are elaborate works, and full of useful and in- 
teresting matter : those of Florence, Pisa, and Lucca, being less detailed, 
are more convenient as guide-books. 

A few remarks are inserted on works of art, derived from persons whose 
opinions are of weight ; and, although the remarks may not be assented to 
by some travellers, at least they are worthy of consideration. Flaxman's 
Lectures have supplied some remarks on sculpture ; and for others the 
Editor is indebted to artists whose names will be found appended to their 
remarks. 

Although we have endeavoured to apportion the extent of our remarks to 
the importance of the subjects described, we have considered it useful to 
place in the hands of our readers more detailed catalogues of the dijBferent 
galleries than appeared in the former editions of the Handbook, in many 
cases there being no printed catalogue at all (as in those of the Galleries 
at Verona, Parma, &c.), and in others where these catalogues are hand- 
lists which the traveller cannot carry away ; whilst many may be glad to 
preserve in their own language a kind of record of the objects they have 
seen during their artistical peregrinations, without being put to the incon- 
venience of making unnecessary notes. Ground-plans of all the most re- 
markable galleries, made by the editor on the spot, have been also added 
in the present edition. 

We have extended our descriptions and explanations of some of the 
allegorical and Scriptural paintings of the middle ages, as in Giotto^s chajpel 
at Padua, the Capella degli SpagnuoU in Santa Maria Novella at Florence, 
and the Campo Santo at Pisa, in order to enable the traveller to understand 
the subjects of those interesting compositions. Many incidents are taken 
from the Apocryphal Gospels, others are allegorical : and the allegories, in 
many cases, would be quite unintelligible, had not the meaning been pre- 
served by tradition. Unless they are fully understood, the traveller will 
only obtain a vague and unsatisfactory impression of the forms, without 
appreciating the mind and genius of the artists. 

The historical and literary notices have been rendered as brief as possible. 
In a subsequent section (9) we have pointed out from what sources our 
deficiencies may be partly supplied. A few anecdotes and citations have 
been occasionally introduced, which, by creating an additional interest, may 
be useful in fixing the scene in the traveller's memory. 

2,^-Pas8ports and Custom-houses. 

Every English traveller proceeding to Italy, or indeed to any part of the 
Continent, before leaving London ought to procure a i^?iss\iot\. ItoTa. xjaa 



,1..] 



Fureigu Office, which cosfa 2s., it being the beat eertificaie of hie tialionallty.< 
and fti obtain ts Lostxm the viaas of the Miniaters of all the priucipsf' 
potoers (hrougli whose territories he mtende topoaa; a great deal of trouble -.I 
13 thus saved. A Poidgn Ofiioe [^ssport ia most essential for entering 
the Austrian territoriea, and ia admitted without visa info the kingdom ot 
Northern Italy. The diplomatic agents of AuBtria never issue an original 
passport escept to their own countrymen, nor can the visa be obtained iu 
England (which ouglit when possible to be jirocnred) excepting upon the 
passport of the Britieh Secretary of State. In France, whatever passport 
you carry, it may he taken from you at the port where you land, iu es- 
ehonge for a provisional one (poise provhoire), which coats 2 francs, nod ■ 
forwarded to your place of destination. But the JJritteh Secretary of < 
StafB'e passport is generally ro-de!iveied to you without a provisional ' 
one, on your stating that you do not intend remaining in Faris, and you \ 
have thus all jonr credentials in your own possession. At the same time 
it shonld be recollected that this is a matter of courtesy, and can only 
be solicited as such, and not as u right. If this }ilan be not adopted before 
leaving Kngland, a passport can bo obtained at Paris, at the British EmboMy, 
taldngcare to obtain the needful visas of the legations of those states through 
which you will have to pass; if you intend to embark at MarieilieB for ■ 
Italy, it may be necessary to have the visa of the French Poreign OfBcfl, 1 
which costs 10 francs, although of late years it has not been insisted upon. I 
l^ese regulations, which, however, are constantly varying, we have noticed ] 
under the heads of the principal towns which the traveller is likely to visit. ' 
Should the traveller embark at Marseilles, that of the Consul of the State 
lo which he ia proceeding will also he required, for which a foe is charged.* i 

It aaouLD db bobnb is mikb that the Bignatme of an Austrian miuister ; 
or diplomatic agent on the ]>assport is essential before entering thb ' 
AoSTRiAM BOMiNioHB. It Will also be advisable to have inserted in the 
passport the number of persona composing a family, with the names of the 
servants, stating whether British sulijects or foreigners. The Papal autho- 
rities require tho visa of their own agents, which may be obtained gra- 
tuitously at the mission in Paris, bat for which a tee i» charged by ttsil 
consuls at Marseilles and other ports. The Government of North Ilnly 
has aboliaheil the necessity of all visas to passports issued by the British 
Secretary of State. 

With respect to Ctistom-liouses .■—When travellers arrive by a public 
conveyance, it is in most places usual to have all the luggage opened, and, 
if any cause for suspicion arises, carefully searched. But, in tho case of 
persons travelling either by votturino or posting, the conduct of the officer* 
u usually different. They do make a distinction ; and if you give them 
an assurance that there is no prohibited urticle or book iu the ln^nge, 
— and a fee, — tho examinalion mil probably be dispensed with : you proffer J 
tho keys, and a few of the trunks are opened and closed again. Should any -. 
oliject appear out of the common way, it is possible that the officer may ask ^ 
an explanation, but merely out of curiosity. 



* Paasfiortd d: 



abovu illadcd W, (md lor » WfiVn^ iHtmmtw'iJiiiJ 



Xll 



3, — Eoutes, 



Intiod. 



As to admimsteriug fees, however, to custom-house officers, it is difficnlt 
to lay down any positive rules. The Austrian and Sardinian officers would 
consider it an insult to be offered money ; they are in general civil, hut 
sometimes rather troublesome in their search for books, newspapers, arms^ &c. 

3.— Routes. 

In the Handbooks of France, Switzerland, Savoy, and Southern Germany, 
most of the Routes leading into Italy have been described. Of late years 
the means of travelling over them have been materially facilitated, both as 
regards time and expence, by the extension of railways ; most can now be 
travelled by railroad and by steamers, so that, even for a family, that once 
indispensable comfort for an English party, a travelling carriage, will now 
prove an almost useless and expensive incumbrance. 

The following embrace all the Routes by which the traveller can now ap- 
proach Italy ; the principal Stations have been inserted, with the time em- 
ployed on the road, whether by rail, coach, posting, or steamer. From this 
list the traveller will be able to select his own Itinerary — the expense of 
each will of course depend on the number of miles gone over, and which 
will be in proportion nearly to the times stated opposite each of the principal 
stations. Our calculations are made on the supposition that the traveUer 
uses the quickest or express trains. On an average the expenditure for 
living at hotels may be estimated at 13 or 14 francs (10s. 6d. or lis. Sd,) 
per diem for one person. 



Route 1. — London, by Paris, Mont 
Cenis, to Turin. 

Hours. 

London to Paris, by Dover or 
Folkestone 11 

Paris to St. Jean de Maurienne 
(Rail) 17 

St. Jean de M. to Susa (Coach or 
Post) over the Mont Cenis pass 14 



Susa to Turin (Rail) 



1 A 



43^ 

Or, including detention at St. Jean 
de Maurienne and Susa 46 hrs. 

The most expeditious of all the 
highways into Italy. From Turin 
Genoa can be reached in 4 hrs., 
Milan in 3}, Venice in 15, Bologua 
in 9, and Florence in 25. 

Route 2. — By Paris, Geneva, the 
Simplon, and Lago Maggiore. 

London to Paris (Rail and Steam) 11 
Paris to Geneva (Rail) . . . . 15 
Bouveret&Martigny (Steam or Rail) 3 

Sion(Rail) 2J 

Arona (Coach or Post) .. .. 18 
Milan (Rail) 2J 



52 



Route 3. — London to Milan, by Ostend, 
Cologne, Basle, Lucerne-, the Si 
Gothardi, and Lago Maggiore. 

Hours. 
London to Cologne, by Ostend 

(Rail and Steam) 13 

Basle (Rail) 13J 

Lucerne (Rail) 3 

Fluellen (Steam) 3 

Locamo or Magadino (Coach or 

Post) 17 

Arona (Steam) 4| 

Milan(Rail) 2| 

561 



Route 4. — London to MUan, by Paris, 
Basle, Lucerne, the St.Gothard, &c. 



London to Paris 

Paris to Basle direct (Rail) 
Basle to Milan, as by Rte. 8 






11 

13^ 

30 

54 V 



KoCTE S.-^London (u Mr7an,bj Puris, 

Basle, Zuricb, flic Splugen, and From TncBtB to VDuioobyirtedra. 
Lake of Como. Or, by CoocU and Rail 

LonJon to BbbIp, ub in Bte. 4 

Zuricb (.Hail) 3i By Turia (Bte. I) .. " .. .. 131 

Kappeuachwyl (Stonm) .. .. IJ 

Ooirefltail) 3J 

SplugentoCoUco(CoaKii&Poat) 10 

Oomo (Steam) 3i 

JOInnCBail) IS 



Or, by BBlinzana, Lago Sloggiore, See. 

ToCoire, l^laatBoutc .. -.33 

Beliozona [Coach) H 

A roiia (DibgeQce and Blcam) 6 
Milan 2i 

EorTE G. — Zondon to Verona, by Os- 
teuJ, Cologne, Slunicb, Iiieprock. 
lUid tlie BrGnner Paaa. 
LoniloQ to Cologne, by Oateud 

(Rail and Sleam) 13 

Mnnicli (Bail) 15i 

Inspnlck (BaU) S} 

Bolzen (Coacli) 18 

Verona (Bail) H 

55i 

JitMlTE T.-~ London lo Verona, by Vacls, 

filonicli, tbroDgb Straaboorg, Stutt- 

pun!, Angabourg, Inflpcuol!, aud tlio 

Brenner, 

tiondon to Paris (Bail) .. .. 11 

Muiueb(Eail) 24? 

luspruck (BaQ) 3 J 

Bolien (Coacb and Poet) .. ..18 
Vcronu (Boil) 6 J 



BOUTE 8. — iondon io Trieale and 
Veahe, by Ostend, Cologne, Berlin, 
Dreeden, Viermn, Loib^h. 

Loudon to Cologne (Boil and 




HocTE 9. — London to Trhile and 
Venice, by Pnrie, Municli, Vienna, 
and Laibacb. 
London lo Municli, as in Bte. 7 33} 

Saltzburg 1^ 

Lini };3 15 

Vienna | *• 

Triesto 22i 

To Venico "f^ 

BoLTE W.— London to Nice, by Paris, 

MaraeilleH, and Toulon. 
Jjondon torftria(HailandStefttn) 11 

Marseiltes (Rail) lOi 

Toulon (Kail) 2 

Niee (Ooftoh or Post) 20 



521 
.0 Niceiiy Votturiiio 



KouTE 11. — Xoiiiion lo FlornHce, by 

Paris, llaraeillos, and Lcgbom. 
London to Maraeilles, hh in Bte. 



77J 

BouTE 12. — London lo Ftoraice, by 

Turin, Bologna, Pietiamala. 
London to Turin (Rail aud Coaoli) iO 

Bologna (Bail) 9 

Florence (Coaoli) IK 



RoiTE IS.^ London to Flore'.ce, 

Turin and Genoa. 
London to Turiu (Boil & Coatb) i 

Genoa (Bail) 

Legbom (Steam) 

Floreaoe 



^.^ 



XIV 



4. — diodes of Travelling — Vettunnu 



lutrod. 



Route 14. — London to Bome^ by Mar- 
seilles ond Civita Vecchia. 

Hours. 

London to Marseilles 30 i 

Marseilles to Oivita Vecchia . . 30 
Rome 2i 



63f 



Or, in 86 hrs., including stopping 
a day in Paris, and 6 hrs. at Mar- 
seilles. 



Shortest Routes to different towm 
in Italy — from Paris — in time ab- 
solutely employed in travelliDg. 

HonxK 

To Turin 35J 

Genoa 39J 

MUan. 38J 

Venice 

Bologna 

Florence 61' 

Rome. 62 



4. — Modes of Tba yelling — Expenses. 

The posting in Italy is inferior to that of France. The horses often look 
half starved, and are wretchedly used, but on the whole one gets on with 
reasonable expedition. The postmasters frequently attempt various petty 
acts of imposition, which they seldom practise in the North Italy States, 
where the custom of issuing the BoUetone (a printed bill, which contains 
your route, length of posts, and the posting regulations) prevents all dis- 
putes, and is, in fact, the Livre des Pastes, For the Austrian dominions 
there are official post-sheets, which will be delivered upon application at the 
offices at Verona and Venice. Although the extension of railways renders 
every day the study of these rules less necessary, we have given an ab- 
stract of them under the head of Venetia, Sect. IV., sufficient for the wants 
of the traveller, and in the introductory information at the head of each 
section of the Handbook. 

Vetturlni. — From the same cause fewer families find it now necesh 
sary to encumber themselves with their own carriages, and have recourse 
to those of vetturini, which, as to neatness and comfort, are improved, 
although their charges have risen in proportion. In making an agree- 
ment it is the custom for the vetturino to give his employer a deposit, 
caparra, or handsel, a small sum as a security for the due perform- 
ance of his contract; and, whether the journey be shorter or longer, 
this precaution should never be neglected. There are three varieties 
in this mode of travelling : — 1st, Taking a seat in a carriage jointly 
with other parties. These are usually people of the country ; and it is 
a mode of journeying which can only suit a single male traveller, and 
even he must be one who is not very particular as to comforts. You must 
of course take your meals entirely at the discretion of the driver, who 
contracts to furnish you with board and lodging: your companions are 
frequently disagreeable ; and none of the regulations which prevent annoy- 
ance in a diligence apply to these private vehicles. 2nd, Hiring a car- 
riage for a party, — a very convenient mode of travelling for those who 
are not much pressed for time. A party of six persons may be conveyed in 
a very decent carriage, with good horses, and an intelligent and civil driver, 
at an expense of about 50 francs per diem, going from 30 to 40 miles ; and 
if you get a return carriage (which at Nice, Turin, or Milan one sometimes 
can) for a little less. When a carriage is thus hired, the vetturino will, if 
required, contract to provide board and lodgjug. In Tuscany and the Roman 
states this answers very well. In other parts it is neither needful nor advis- 
able, and you should stipulate that you are to go to what houses you please. 
Also always sign an agreement in writing expressing the hire, the time 



4^^!^^ma^^ 



within which the vettiirino ia to perform the journey, the stay he is to jnnte 
at each place, and tlie ilaily indemnity fo which he wiU ht entitled in cnsu 
of detention on tts part of the trftveller, an<3 make the vetturino sign the 
duplicate. Two forma of such dooumente, with direotious for filling them 
up, will be found in Miirray'a ' Handbook of Travel Talk ' — one for a 
traveller who engages a aingle jilace, the other for a lerty contracting for 
the hire of a wliole carriage. If the driver gives you aatiafaction, he expeeta 
a iuona mano, abont 3 or 4 francs per diem. The iSrd mode is for cue or 
two individuals to hire a caiessa or Other small and Light carriage, eenemlly 
for short distances, and for not more than a day or two. This is olten very 

■ — • -u making out pieca of a journey, particularly for the purpose 

cea where the diligence does not stop, hut it ia liable to somo i 
iO. The vetturioi who do those joba are usually of an inferior 1 
class, and will often attempt to play tricks upon the traveller, sometimes { 
lefuaiag to go as far as the iuteuded point, sometimes transferring him to 
another vetturino, and genprally contriving, with much ingenuity, to find a 
pratei* for plardng some other companion in the vacant seat beside you. 

Diligences. — Q'he number of these conveyances has very much diminiahed 
in consequence of the extenjion of railways. The must important uow 
are ; — From St. Jean de Maurienne, where the Victor Kmnnuel Itaihvay i 
ends for the present, to Susa over the Mont Cenis ; between Turin and 1 
Nice, or rather from the railway at Cuneo, orOBsing the Col di Tends ; from j 
Toulon to Nice, and from thenoe to Genoa, along the Riviera di I'ouente j 4 
from Genoa to Lucco and Pisa, along the Riviera di Levante ; from Milan 
to Lodi and Cromoiia ; from Brescia to Cremona ; from Como to I^cco and \ 
Bergamo ; from I'arma to Snizaua aeros£ tho Cisa Tma ; from Ihilugna to 
Florence, by the iiasscs of the Collina, and Covigliajo ; and from Bologna J 
to Fenara, in correspondence wiUi another from Fci'rara to Bovigo and 
Padua. Tliere are regular conveyances from almost all the larger towns to 
the localities in tlia vicinity. Buch are the so-called diligences from Milan 
to I'avia, Bergamo to the Val Brambana, Brescia to the Vai Camonioa 
and Lake of Iseo, Viceuza to Scio and Eaasano, Treviso to BeUuno, Mantua 
to Este, liologoa to Ravenna, Forli to Florence, &C. 

ifatficays.^ Numerous raibvads have been opened of late years in 
Nortliem Italy ; indeed this country now is little behind other statea of 
the Continent as regards railway comraunication. A short line from 
Milan to Monza aud Como (28 English miles). The great line from 
lljlan to Venice, through Bergamo, Brescia, Verona, Vicenza, and Padua, 
to Venice, with branch-linea from Mestre to Trieste and Vienna, by 
Treviso, Pordenona, and Udinc ; from Verona to Mnntua ; and from 
Verona to Bolzano (Eotzen) m the Tyrol by Koveredo and Trento, The 
railway from Turin to Genoa (102 English niiles^ passes by Aati, 
Alessandria, and Novi, and, piercing the central ndge of the Apen- 
uiues by the great tunnel of Bosalla, performs the whole distance 
from Turin in 4 hours. The prolongation of the railway from Ales- 
sandria to Piacenza, Parma, Modena, and Bologna ia also open, and ere 
long will be extended to Rimini. The line from Alessandria to Arona, 
"M the Lago Maggioro, orosaing the Po at Valenza, from tho inain lunp 

d Genoa trunk, is in activity, and, when prolonged into SwitBor!atvdaa\» 
itooaed, will secure to Genoa a great part of the trade ot fca*- waArj,' 
■fdetriment oF Marseilles. The line from Turiu to C«fieo_w ^Cwa 015 



xvi 4,—^Railvcay8 — Expenses, 5. — Couriers. Introd. 

AS well as those from Turin to Susa and Pinerolo. The railway from 
Turin to Vercelli, Xovara, and Milan, with hranches to Ivrea and Biella 
on one side, and from Vercelli to Casale, Valenza, and Alessandria, afford, 
with the branch to Arona, the quickest means of reaching the Lago 
Majrgiore and the eastern parts of Switzerland, A short line has heai 
oixjnod between Genoa and Voltri along the Riviera di Ponente ; and lines 
are projected from Nice to Genoa, and from the latter to the Tuscan frontier; 
from Milan to Pavia ; from Pa via to Valenza ; from Monza to Bergamo ; 
from Treviglio to Cremona ; and from Facnza or Forli to Ravenna. 

In Tuscany the Leopolda railroad between Leghorn and Florence is com- 
pleted (3 hours), and from p]mix)li to Sienna : — ^by means of the latter the 
journey from Leghorn to Sienna may be jxirformed in 4, and to Rome in 30 
hours — and from Sienna to Asinalunga and the Val di Chiana. Another line 
(the Maria Antonia) from Florence to Lucca, passing by Prato and Pistoia, 
is also in operation. The branch of the Centro-Italian railway which ia 
to connect Bologna and the valley of the Po with Tuscany, is now in pro- 
gress, and will join the Maria Antonia line at Pistoia ; when completed 
there will be an unbroken railway communication between Turin, Milan, 
Venice, and Florence. Lines are in progress or projected from Florence to 
Arezzo ; from Asinahuiga to Arezzo and Chiusi ; and a gi*eat artery to 
extend parallel to the sea-coast from Leghorn to Civita Vecchia, with a 
branch to Yolterra. 

Expenses of Travelling in Italy, — No question is more frequently asked, 
and few so difficult to answer, as that relative to the expenditure to be 
incurred in a journey through, or an excursion into, Italy. Now that 
ixjople of all classes are obliged to adopt the same means of locomotion, 
railways, a nearer approximation can be reached. This will, however, 
depend on the length of ground gone over in a given time. For bachelors, who 
travel for the purpose of seeing the country, whose railway expenses each day 
will consequently be inconsiderable, we should say that 20 francs ought to 
cover all expenses. On this subject we cannot convey more practical in« 
formation than what has been transmitted to us by one of our correspon- 
dents, respecting the outlay for himself and party-during an autumnal tour 
last year. 

" Three gentlemen spent five weeks in Italy in the months of August and 
September. They started from Paris, went across the Mont Cenis through 
Turin and Genoa (staying at each place two nights) ; by Spezzia to Pisa, 
to Florence (stayed four nights) ; to Bologna (stayed two nights), Mantua, 
Venice (stayed five nights), Padua, Verona, Milan (two nights) ; crossed 
the St. Gothard, Lucerne (two nights), Basle, Vesone, and Paris ; and the 
total expenses averaged 23 francs per day foi* each person. They travelled 
by rail, first and second class, by vettura, and by diligence ; and went to 
the best inns, and generally had a bottle of wine, beside the vin ordinaire 
at dinner. The travelling expenses amoimted to 913 francs; the living 
expenses to 1225 francs ; and the sundries, sights, vis&s of passports to 95 
francs. The distance travelled exceeded 2000 miles." — (F. C.) 

5. — GOUBIERS. 

Couriers are almost an indispensable incumbrance to families, and to 
bachelors even, when ignorant of the language. Li another of these Hand- 
books (N. Germany) we have entered into some detail on the use? of such ser- 



Intiod. 6. — Sight-tan^ — Laqvait d« Piaet. xvii ' 

vnnts, nndonUieiruecessaryqunlificatioas. Asregardsllaly.tlie best are cer- 
tainly those bom in the country j and we should strongly insist on a courier, 
to nccom[i3iiy a family iuto Italy, being an Italian. The Italian courier is 
in general active, ready to do or attend to any and every diing, good- 
Lumonred, and devoted to hia employer i he will serve if required as a per- 
fional servant, and, understanding the kngut^e, will not refuse to net aa 
^lidc in the large towns — a thing rarely to be obtained of a German or a 
Swiss; besides, at the present moment there is such a prejudice against 
overytiiing German in Italy, that inconvenienceB might arise from being 
accompanied by a servant of that country. 

As to houeaty, they are all ready to take advantage of their masters. In 
addition to receiving very high wages, 10 guineas a month, they are I'ldged 
and fed at his expence in reality, i.e. the roastersofhcitekart'obliged to lodge 
and feed them, and, as a general rule, they are more dif&cult to latisfy in 
their requirements than their employers. 

6.— SiBHT-BBEiKo — Laquais ce Placb asd Cicbhoxi. 

TJiei'c are few thin«s more disagreeable than being led about by a laqtiais 
lie place : and as good plans of all the princilial towns of Northern Italy 
are given in the present volume, ijis help will he hy no meana indis- 
pensable ; although, for persons tgnormit of the language, his services may 
be useful, and in all cases lead to a saving of time, wliich to most tra- 
vellers will be a saving in money. 

If you do take a laqnais de place— 1st, Make him conduct jou to every 
place yoft wish to ace, not allowing yourself to he put off with, " turn c'c 
titettle da vedere ;" or the like ; for he has no notion of the value of any 
object ; and caprice, or some plan of his own, or mere laziness, will often 
make him try to put you off. 2nd, If you have plenty of time on your 
hands, it is m well to go and see every object which he recommends, unless 
it should be evidently something quite absurd. Tor though in so doing 
he may liave a job in view — some shop kept by a friend into which he 
wishes to seduce yon, some aliy of a custode, for whom he wanta to 
secure a biiona mono, and thiis usually occasions you a waste of time and 
money — yet he is sometimes the meana of conducting yoti to an object 
which you would have been sorry to have lost. A laqnais de place ahouli! 
never be allowed to make bargains for you, as the commission which 
the shopkeeper allows him will be of course added to what you pay. 

The churches, excepting some of the cathedrals, are, upon week-days, 
nsnally closed from twelve to three ; and during this interval, when the 
Moristan takes his dinner and his nap, it is hardly possible to obtain admit- 
tance ; and, when open, thore is frequently quite as much difficulty in find- 
ing any one who can or will conduct you. Your guide is usually one of 
tile lowest grade of attendants. The fact is, that the clei^ do not like to 
have the churches considered as shows, nor arc the congregations at all 
indifferent, as has been asserted, to the conduct of strangers, in walking 
about and talking during Divine service. It might perhaps too be sug- 
eestod to our Protestant countrymen, that they are not protesting against 
Soman Cathohc errors hy behaving indecorously in churohes : and to 
reflect how they would like to see their own places of worshiii made oWi^V^ 
of show during Divine service. 



xviii 7. — Monjey, 8. — Inns and Accommodations. Introd. 

In order to enable the tourist to dispense as much as possible with local 
guides, we have inserted in the description of every town of importance 
a list of the objects worth seeing, arranged in topographical order, by means 
of which, and the plans annexed, persons not pressed for time can visit| 
unaided by a laquais de place, the principal sights. 

It is always a most useful preliminary to the examination of any city 
to obtain a bird's-eye view from some tall steeple or tower. 

7. — Money. 

The traveller will find it to his advantage in Italy, even more than 
elsewhere, always to make his payments in the current coin of the country 
in which he is travelling. If he does otherwise, and pays in French francs 
for example, he will not only pay rather more, but he will be more liable 
to trouble and annoyance from attempts at imposition, because those with 
whom he has to deal, perceiving his ignorance of the money in which 
their transactions should be reckoned, will draw their conclusion that he 
is equally ignorant as to the amount to which they are fairly entitled. Of 
all foreign money, French gold Napoleons are the best to carry, as they 
pass current everywhere, and in many towns their value in the currency of 
the place is fixed by the authorities. ♦ The traveller going to Italy through 
France would do well to take as many with him as he conveniently can, 
for, when cashing his letters of credit, he will have to pay an increasingly 
high premium for gold the further he advances on his journey. He should 
get rid of his English sovereigns at Paris, Geneva, or Marseilles, where he 
will generally obtain 25 fr. for them. French money is current through 
all parts of the Sardinian territory, as the Austrian, the Zwanziger {hetvare 
of taking Austrian paper into Italy), is in Modena, the Papal States, and 
Tuscany. A very objectionable system has been adopted by several of the 
innkeepers in the larger towns, Padua, Venice, &c., of making out their bills 
in French money, as the difference between it and the current Austrian coin 
is nearly 12 per cent, to the loss of the traveller. 

The French Napoleon, and its fractional parts, is now the current 
coin throughout all Northern Italy, except Venetia, where it is almost 
equally so, although florins, zwanzigers, &c., are the official currency. 
In the ancient provinces of Sardinia francs and Naix)leons, with the 
old Savoy lire, equal to 40 centimes, are alone current. In Lom- 
bardy the Austrian currency still exists to a considerable degree, as it does 
in Parma and Modena. In the Romagna the Papal currency of pauls and 
scudi is also current, but in Venetia Austrian money is the most abundant. 

In proceeding to Northern Italy, if the traveller should not have taken 
bills of exchange, circular notes, or a letter of credit, the best money he can 
carry with him will be French gold Napoleons. 

8. — Inns and Accommodations. 

In the large towns of Italy the hotels are vastly superior to those in 
French provincial cities, being comfortable and well kept, as at Turin, 
Milan, Verona, Venice, Genoa, Pisa, the Bagni di Lucca, Leghorn, and 
Florence. In all these places the resort of foreigners has enabled the pro- 
prietors to meet the expenses required for such establishments ; but this. 



^^^^^^■^ 6. — Inns and Accommodations. xlx 

iree, CEHinot be the case in places wliicb are not equallj frequented, 
Bce the travelier vnl\ very frequently have to conlent himself with 
commodatiou of a Dational or Jlalian inn. 

miiat, firstly, when this contingency arrives, not expect s. choice 
Ell-fumiahed larder. The Stock of provlMons is on the average but 
■, and the choice in this scanty stock limited. Most of the oouulry 

are indifterent, poor, and bout, especially of late years, since the 
isease haa nearly destroyed the plant. Even in towns where Iho 
I are Tery decent, he may he compelled to submit to meagre fare, if 
ives after others have been served. It mnst always be recollected 
hat every chailco of inconvenience is exceedingly increased by coming 
: — " Ohi tardi arrioa maP aUoggia," as the proverb truly says. Even 

smaller towns, however, the hotels have Wen much improved of late 
and are fnlly on a par with those of France Bim.i!arly situsled. 
ither source of annoyance, namely, the demand made upon j'oiir 
at inns, is sometiijics more particularly vexatious in Italy, in conse- 
s of the exactions being so often accompanied either by such good 
ir or nioh appeals to your generosity, ahnoat to your charity, as to bo 
difficalt lo parry than downright radeuess or enlortion. The best 
, thOQ^ not cheap, are not (compared with an EngUsh standard) ex- 
■ant, and, if any ladies are of the party, no house except a first-rate 
oald be used ; but bachelor travellers may Erequently be quite com- 
:y accommodated, and at a lower charge, at houses of a second grade. 
reat secret of keeping down bills is to avoid having anything out of 
nmon way. The taUe-d'hote (tavdla rotoada), where it exists (for it 
common in Italy, except in large towns), should be preferred. 

the price of everythmg beforehand, and never scruple to bargain. 
a tui unpleasant operation to otir English tastes, but it is the 
1 of file country ; no offence is taien, or even suspected, and jou 
(ly considered an inexpericnred iraveller if you do not. Amongst 

raaaons, innkeepers always supjose that every EngUsbmen likes 
.vs the best of everything, especially at dinner : and therefore, 
ffbero no overcharge is practised, yon are often put to needless 
ae by having more, and greater variety, titan you desire or care 
ihus, by explaining the number of dishes you ivnct, you bring 
within bounds. In ordering wines, when you have chosen your 

order the cheapest quality, for in small towns the chance is ten 
J that they hnve no other, and you only pay for the name. If ex- 
Ot charges be made, the best plan, if you have nerve enough, is 
080 to pay them putting down a reasonable sum upon the table. 
3 espostnlations have proved inelfectual, travellers not unfrequently 
cautious against the offending party in the travellers' books at 
hma along the road, so as to warn others, and Bometimes commu- 

Iheir complaints to the Editor of these Handbooks, requesting him 
savour to redress the grievance by noting the offence in future edi- 
Where the complaint lua heen properly attested, and the case sJiou-B 
tUpable injustice on the part of the innkeeper, ihb have agreed, in some 
■ecs, lo pluce a ncle against the name of the house, or to omit it alto- 
. Travellers, however, who resort to this expedient, ought to con- 
boforohand whether they are quite in the right, aaA ^■^e ys&.eft^ 
! wrong ; wei<;hmt; ivelJ, thai a. bnsty accusation mav ^^'^'^^ 6eT-— '" 



XX 



9. — Books, lutroU. 



injury on an honest man and his family. The simple threat of making 
such a complaint may, in some cases, infuse a salutary terror, so as to 
produce the desired effect — a remedy of the abuse. 

The huona-mano to servants and waiters is a source of constant trouble; 
to those who travel with couriers advice is needless : to those who must 
decide for themselves what to give, the following suggestions are offered. 
The best plan is to give (in the presence of some other servant) a sum to the 
head- waiter to be distributed. In the principal towns, for a single day, for 
one person, a franc, a zwanziger, and 2 pauls are sufficient. If the tra- 
veller has to distribute his huona-mano among the servants, he can hardly 
give less than 1 franc, or 2 pauls, to the waiter, and about i franc to 
the facchinOy who brushes clothes, &c. Of course the rate of payment 
is proix)rtionally reduced when the traveller's stay is prolonged, or where 
several persons are travelling in the same party ; and in small country 
inns about' two-thirds of the above is quite enough. After a certain stay, 
the chambermaid, too, receives a gratuity. The excellent system of 
charging the gratuity to servants in the bill is become very general in 
Italy, and ought to he encouraged hy travellers. When dining at a 
Trattoria, 25 cts., or 3 crazie, are enough for the waiter. 

" Ladies should be aware that they may always be attended by a female 
in the Italian inns, by expressing a wish to this effect. At the best inns, 
in some of the great towns, a female attends regularly to the arrangements 
of the bedrooms." — Mrs, M, 

9. — Books. 

A traveller whose mind is not previously prepared for a visit to Italy is 
deprived of the greatest portion of the pleasure (to say nothing of the in- 
struction) which he would otherwise derive. This observation is true 
of every part of the world ; but the extent and variety of interest attach- 
ing to the scenery, the cities, the churches, the castles, the palaces, the 
works of art in Italy, renders the amount of loss much heavier than in any 
other country ; we shall therefore venture to give a short list of the works 
which we would recommend, for the purpose of affording a small portion 
of the information which may be required. 

History, — To those who are willing to devote the time we should 
strongly recommend the attentive perusal of Sismondi's great work, Histoire 
des BSpuhliques Itdliennes, As a narrator, Sismondi has peculiar clearness : 
without attempting effect, he is always interesting. The great difficulty 
in affording a general view of Italian history arises from the necessi^ 
which the historian is under of constantly shifting the scene, from Florence 
to Venice, from Naples to Milan, &c. &c. Sismondi, with singular ability, 
has interwoven the history of the several states without perplexing the 
narrative. There is hardly a place of any importance in Italy which is not 
more or less noticed in this work, which contains the very pith of Italian 
history in more modem times. 

For the history of particular states, the following may be noticed : — 

Venice. — Darn's history is very entertaining and clear, but must be read 
with caution, for it was written with the feeling of placing the extinct 
republic in an unfavourable light, and thus justifying the faithless conduct 
of Napoleon in subverting it, and delivering it over to Austria. 

Tuscany y — Pignotti, — No depth of thought, and by no means impartial, 



' Inttod. 9. — Sooh. xti 

ialjiei'hflps tliebeslas regards the Grand Ducal period. MuehUietUi 3\\a\i\i\ 
le lead, but he is rather a difBculC writer. ]ieppeUC$ geographical <lic- 
ttMiMy of Tuscany is a, model of such, wtirka, and contiuiis iUmoitt erory- 
AiiQ the traveller can wish to know on the different localities ; atiU tbo 
Qmmiart FioretiUjio is n very entertaining historical guide for Florence. 
1& Chitmolugical Tables of TuBCau History, by M. de Siumoiit (i<ub- 
Ittod at Ploroiice), will he found moat useful, at Ihcy are an iuvaitinble 
BUBnil t4 modei-n Italian Qhronolocy. 

iStai. — Fem'a history ia the bestof hia luitive city ; Ibe style is olegniit 
-Uto kugtmge, the remarks philosophical, and the narrative imiiartinl. 

I'iiK Jrts,— The work of Vaaari is both entertaining and full of valiinble 
infinDatian, not to be obtained elsenhere ; and the book, heretofore so 
mireadahlfl, has been reprinted in an economical and poitable form by 
Ifflnonnier of Florence, 1850-53. This edition is by far the most useful 
WQierto published, each Life being accompanied by copious notes, jiointing 
ont, smongat other things, where the different works of art mentioned by 
Twari sro now to bo fonu'l." 

"Tlieplan of the book was suggested in n familiar conversation which' 
l«k place at Naples, somewhile in the year 1644, at a supper in the housu 
of the Cardinal Fameso. Amongst the company was Paolo Giovio, who 
tad Iten eomiiosed his well-known work, the ' Vitio lilustrium Viroinim.' 
. Ttie book doea not appear to hare been published, but it had probably beau 
j ormlaied in waanscript, as was then much the custom in the literary 
I WirU. Giovio wished to append a bii^^phy of artists from the time of 
I Cunabue, upon whose produotious, as Vasari says, he began to diacoiirao 
nth jadgment and knowledge of art, making, however, terrible mistakes 
' "Mitesiject to the artists themselves, confounding names, surnames, birth- 
^iiees, and specimens. In reply to a question put by the Cardinal, Yasari 
"^ed that anch a Kography would be very instructive, if compilsd with 
"^CitiScy; and the company, amongst whom was Amiibal Caro, joined in 
"fKing him to imdertake the task of giving a better outline to Giovio. 
Tbia he did. And he perfonned his. task so patisfactorily, that, when the 
llffitch was presented to Giovio, the latter declined using it, and advised 
Vasari to oomplct« the book for himself. 

" Vasari, ever mace his youth, had been collecting mat^iiala for such a 
foti, yet the instinct of authorship was not strong ujion him. He hesi- 
tated — asked atlvice — a rare thing in authors — and what is still more rare, 
lie took it ; and his advisers were sound— Annibal Caro, Moka, Tolomei ; 
and he worked diligently, until, being lurged by Cosmo to bring it out, the 
first edition was printed at the gmnd-ducal press, and under the special 
aospicea of bis patron. In this first edition he inserted no Life of any con- 
temporary, excepting that of Michael Angelo, who received the presentation 

■ An Engllih (rMlslillon of Vaiari, by Mr. I. Foriler, in a chMp and potublo torm, 
ua twen pnbllabBd bj Bobo in IBBl, but 11 unly containa Oie originaT [eiL We any laae 
bo opponQnlly bcro of reeonunenLllnB lo our liellnn readers tbe collcclionof Clnaiidal Worits 
loMlabed bf Ltmoonlor at Florentet great miuii bave been taken Is edlling eorb "o^^— 
he most apnrqved loiia have been sdopltd. and the puhHcation niperintendMl'Sifti tnactw. 
llnmT chaiaoMM in Ihoir differenl dcp.irlfflenli; ill jdditior to wtlth 11* «oi\ii tie -eAowA 
n a cl(«r tn», nnd bi « jwrt»(r/e ("JBojo.) form : Ibe colletll™ cnftnaCBB Treale, YW.TWt'o., 
:^Ba,Atiatla,aiiartal amongst IbenoeU; MadiinTelli, Vorri, Amnrt, CitoUtt,'BB.t\n\,GnSi\.fcAa 
"""*".£? ^*'°'*™' ^"^•'™'''t Ba'boof thaliic^rapliera; aufl mort ot ttie TOeKis* 
S!-S°^S^j nSw'n^= ? ,f CMt»o niDoh Bplendont on the lCiUuiV\Vittti.m>:ol \itti «' 
amr— """On'. »n»i/, HB33lDi, Azeglio, Gaeram, io. *=. 



XX ii 9. — Books, Tntrod, 

copy witli great pleasure, testifying his gratitude by a sonnet, a thing, like 
most complimentary poems, a column of fine words, containing an iirfinite- 
simal quantity of meaning. Still the sonnet was a high token of approba- 
tion, and it increased the intimacy subsisting between them ; and this 
friendship enabled Vasari to profit the more by the verbal informatica 
received from Michael Angelo, as well as by his correspondence. Other 
valuable materials Vasari obtained from the manuscripts of Ghirlandajo, 
Ghiberti, Rafael d'Urbino, and many more who are not named. It wastiie 
custom in Florence for the heads of families to keep a book of remem* 
brances — * ricordi,' as they were termed — of the events happening to thein- 
selves, their children, and kindred ; and from these memorials he gleaned 
abundantly. Vasari was also well versed in the general and particulac 
history of Tuscany and the adjoining states ; but besides these sources, all 
the traditions of art were yet rife and lively, and much information of thfl 
greatest importance had been handed down from mouth to mouth. The 
chain of tradition, if once broken, can never be replaced. Interesting as 
such traditions of art may be in relation to the personal anecdotes they pre- 
serve, they were perhaps even more important with respect to the know- 
ledge which they imparted of the mechanical proceedings employed by the 
artists, the identification of the portraits introduced in historical subjects, 
and the meaning of allegorical compositions, without which many would 
have remained unintelligible mysteries— enigmas to be gazed at, and 
nothing more — like hieroglyphics of which the key is lost. For example, 
the great fresco of Simon Memmi in the ancient chapterhouse of Santa 
Maria Novella, representing the Church Militant, in which the portraits of 
Petrarch and Laura are introduced, would, without this aid, be completely 
inexplicable." — Quart, Review, vol. Ixvi. art. 1. 

Vasari is, however, unmethodical, and much prejudiced in favour of the 
Tuscan school ; dates are frequently wanting or given inc-orrectly, and 
his works need a continuation through subsequent periods. Those who re- 
quire a succinct compendium of the history of Italian painting will find 
what they need in Kugler's Handbook of Painting, edited by Sir Charles 
Eastlake, P.R.A., with numerous and well-executed illustrations of the 
most celebrated paintings refen-ed to in it. 

Ixinzi gives more ample particulars, and is especially useful in the man= 
ner in which the different schools are grouped together by him, and an 
edition has been published in small and portable volumes ; but his more 
methodical work does not possess the charm or interest of Vasari's bio- 
graphies. 

As a portable compendium on Italian painters the traveller will find no 
work in a small space so useful as the Biographical Catalogue of Italia/ti 
Painters, by Miss Farquhar (1 vol. 12mo., Mun*ay, 1855): indeed it may 
be considered as a necessary companion or supplement to the Handbooks 
of Italy ; except in rare cases the artist even will find in it all the bio- 
graphical details necessary for his purpose, with indications of the principal 
works of each painter, and a very clear view of the connexion of the 
different schools with each other. 

The publications of the Arundel Society ought to be in the possession of 
every lover of Italian art. The execution of the drawings, and coloured 
copies of paintings of the great masters, make them acceptable to all, and 
their marvellously low nrice places them within the means of most travellers. 



taly eacii grcitt Bcbool has liad its historiiin ; and there is Ectircely nn 
of nole who has not had his Bejiarate biogrnpher, wLo may be 
y constittcd by the traveller. The Italian tmaslation of Quatrt- 
ie Quina/'a Life of Eaphael, by Longbcna, is raloablc, from (he 
^dons of the translator. 

se who read Germaa will derive much information from Jiumohr't 
48eht Formlmngen, which contain a great deal of curions matter 
nng eariy Tuscan art j and Fasaayant's Life of Iiap}iael. Mnller's 
j!ogi« der Kunst is also a good guide for the works of art generally. 
iffnara is the principal authority oc Italian sculpture ; there \a no 
general one that can be recommended. It is bnlky, osi-'onsive, 
complete i we notice it merely as a hook to be consulted. 
TOtitre. — Qinguaie ia ao interesting, though not always a faithful 
; but perhaps, for the general reader, none better can be found. 

ropntation aoquirsd hy Roacos'a Ijtnnxo de' Mfdicivaa, in soroo 
. owing to the novelty of the subject. But lioscoe ia always 
I, and, so far as literary history is concerned, fairly ooircct. The 

edition of Koscoe's Leo X. is valuable from the notes appended 
y Tioozzi. 

uumi'i Novel, The Promessi Sposi, will add much interest to the 
y of KDlan and its vicinity. 

.t«'i Divimi Commedia, the small edition with notes by Costa and 
li, Florence, published by Lcmonnier at Florence, mil be found the 
mnvenient. 



10.— Maps of Italy. 

eral. — The best general Maps of Italy arc those of Cerri andOrgiazzi, 
ey are both incorrect in the topographical details. The same obser- 
applies to nearly all the Maps of Italy published in England, 



^ 



xxiv 11. — Objects to be Noticed. Intixxi. 

General Alberto de la Marmora has published a magnificent Map of 
the Island of Sardinia, in two large sheets, which reflects the highest 
credit on the talents, patriotism, and liberality of that nobleman, who has 
been for several years engaged on it, and completed the whole of the 
surveys, almost at his own expense. 

Venetian-Lombardy. — The Austrian Government has published a very 
detailed and beautiful Map of the Lombardo- Venetian Kingdom in 
80 sheets, on a scale of bs&sO) and a reduction of it in 4 on that of 
jwViro ; the latter contains everything necessary for the ordinary traveller, 
like all the Maps published by the Imperial Corps of Geographical 
Engineers at Vienna; they may be procured at Artaria's, Via di St. 
Margarita, Milan. 

Parma and Piacenza, Modena. — ^Very accurate Maps of these duchies, 
on a similar scale to that of the great Map of the Lombardo-Venetian king- 
dom, have been also published by the Austrian Government. 

Tuscany, — The Austrian Government has completed the publication, 
on a scale of ^^, of its surveys of Central Italy. The Map of Tuscany 
by the late Padre Inghirami, in 4 sheets, is very good, and, before the 
Austrian Survey, was by far the best : it is sometimes erroneous in its 
topographical details ; but when it is considered that it was the work of a 
single individual, who, almost unaided by his Government, not only 
made a trigonometrical survey of the country, but executed the topo- 
graphical drawing, the highest praise is to be given to its reverend author, 
one of a family whose members have been long known for their learning, 
and their services to Italian literature and science. A very useful reduc- 
tion in one sheet of Inghirami's Map has been published at Florence 
by Segato, 

Signer Zuccagni Orlandini published some years since an Atlas of Tus- 
cany, divided into valleys, a convenient arrangement enough, with very 
useful statistical details at the time respecting each valley ; the Map or 
topographical part is copied from Inghirami. 

As to Zuccagni's voluminous and expensive work on the Geography of 
Italy (^Corografia deW Italia), the Maps are compiled from more original 
works, often with little criticism or judgment, and have been rendered 
obsolete by the more recent Austrian surveys. 

The French D^pdt de la Marine has recently completed the survey of the 
coasts of Italy from the Var to the Bay of Naples, and has published 
the Charts of Liguria and Tuscany, with detailed plans of their harbours, 
&c. ; they embrace not only the coast-line of the continent, but the islands 
of the Tuscan Archipelago lying off it — Gorgona, Elba, Giglio, Monte 
Cristo, Fianosa, and Gianutri. 

The traveller will find at Artaria's shop in Milau, and in Turin at 
Maggi's, most of the Maps of Italy that have been published, save those 
of Tuscany and Naples, which can rarely be procured out of their respec- 
tive capitals. 



11. — Objects to be Noticed. 

Within the districts described in this volume, the supposed Phoenician 
edifices in Sardinia, and some few Celtic remains in Piedmont and the 



1 liiUa, are the only vestiges aaterinr to the Roman doiiiina- 

V To the era of tha Empire belong the nraplii theatre and gftl«s of Verona, 
the theatre at Vicenza, the villa of CntulluE ou the Lake of Garda, the 
' udi of Sosa, tlie ruins of Tetleja, tlie culumne of San Lorenzo al; Milan, 
tbe temple at Bresoia, and tha aiaphitheatre of Padua. Amongst the edi- 
' Sees of the Ilotnau period, the amphitheatre at Veronais themost roiuark- 
I Able ; the arch of Suaa is the oldest ; the other vestisea belong to tlie later 
I Bmparors ;. but none are In a very pure stjle of architecture. The only 
i»ea which we can aacribe to the Augustan age (the arch of SuMi, and the 
Trophica of Angiistuii at Turhia near Nice) are rude in taste. To the Im- 
perial times belong the buried city of Veileia — the I'ompeii of Northern 
Italy— and the ruins of Industria and of Lnni. 

Araongst the museums of antiquities, the OaSeria Seale of Florence 
stands pre-eminent. Turin, inferior in other departments, has one of , 
the rieheat collections in Europe of Egyptian antiquities. The raa- 
seums of I'srma, Bologna, and Yeroua, and particularly of Brescia, | 
are of considerable local importance. The Campo Santo of Pisa, though 
uot, strictly speaking, a museum, is a precious depository of ancient art. 
Of Christian antiquities during Roman times, or of the remoter period of tiie 
middle a^^e^ Ravenna stands pre-eminent for its early ecclesiastical edifices ; 
Milan, Verona, and Fisa offer also remarkable veBtiges. The Baptisteriee 
of Ravenna, Novara, and Farma, perhaps, also belong to this class, hnt 
"""' B is much difficulty about their date.— St. Mark's Church, at Venice, 
U9 a class of its own. 
Ulhough frequently much altered, northern Italy iibounds in magnifi- | 
But specimens of the Lombard style, so strangely called Mornunesijue, a 
kriety of which is familiarly known amongat us as Normau. The cathe- 
' drals of Verona, Famia, and Modena, and the conventual churches 
of San Zeno (Verona), San Miniato (Florence), San Michele (Favia), 
are peculiarly remarkable. Most of the larger Lombard cliurcben are 
interesting from the symbolical sculptures on the facades, as well bb 
from flieir impressive grandeur. This I*mbard style was never entirely 
superseded in Italy till the revival of classical architecture : and, generally 
spealung, so many schools and styles had a coeval axiatence in Italy, 
that the data by which we judge of the age of a building in French or 
Englnnd lose much of their certainty when applied here. 

Gothic or Pointed architecture in Italy ej^ibits itself in many marked 
varieties, and four diatinct schools may be observed : (J.) The 2'tf('cnn- 
Oolhu:, remarkable iu the earlier periods for ita simplicity, and in the latter 
for the extreme beauty of its forma. (2.) The Venetian- Oothie, of which 
the great type is the Palazzo Ducale at Venice, and which may be traced as 
farweatas lireacia. (3.) The (Jenwist^Gottic, more than any other diwioaing j 
an imitation of the Arabian or Saracenic models. (4.) The Lontbard- ' 
Gtdhie, au exuberant variety of the Freneh and German, and which, in the 
Suomu of Milan, sjid Certosa of Pavia, attained traiiBCondent excellence.* 

• FoTDOTedttiiledlnroniuIlangnllieiJinenntBliLeBol'aKhlmtiireiHlnlUiliiIUlI'nrdlla 

n»t refer onr miderB to Mr. FerpisBMi't Seantiftil 'lllurtrsleil H«iSbook gf 

ola. Bvo., IS6B)i to Mr. UnAin'n •SIbiim of VfniM,' and Slin>or BclvaliBi-« 
[or at eaamot Ihil cMt; Id Mr. Stni^t*! wutk rnilllcil' Brick ami M>cb\t hnUM<:U»K.| 
j-fl vd. Svo, 1BS611 aim for iheenvly Chrlalinn rfifices loMr. QaftsX.n\ei':»\«lJ 
rn die tfcelHlu Ileal Aicfailulure urilulf, and InCuDliui's'TeinDlChitelXmV 'V^^luVll 



u 



XX vi 11. — Objects to he Noticed. Introd. 

Connected with the Italian churches, the OampanUi, or bell-towers, 
often detached, constitute a remarkable feature. Those of Venice and of 
Florence are familiarly known ; the latter has no equal for beauty. The 
Campanili of Cremona and Modena deserve attention, and in all cases they 
form a characteristic and pleasing feature in the scenery of Italy. The 
Circular Bell-towers of Ravenna, probably the most ancient of all, are 
peculiar to that celebrated city. 

So much for the styles which we commonly, though not quite accurately, 
term mediaeval. During their prevalence in Italy an imitation of Roman 
or classical architecture had never ceased to exist. But it had not hem 
usefully reintroduced till the times of BruneUeschi and of L, B, AlbertL 
The churches of San Lorenzo and Santo Spirito at Florence are noble 
examples of the genius of the first of these great men. He also possessed 
great influence throughout Italy, though few direct imitations of his style 
appear out of his native city. Brunelleschi's tendency is to assimilate 
his Italian to the Lombard. But others united the Italian to somewhat 
of Gothic feeling, after the manner which in France has been termed the 
style of the Renaissance ; and this style in Italy has great elegance. 
The facade of the Certosa of Pa via may be mentioned as an example ; but 
it is more generally discernible in subsidiary portions, in chapels, and in 
tombs. Leon Battista Alberti, one of whose best works will be found at 
Mantua (Sant* Andrea), bestowed extraordinary thought upon church 
architecture : whilst Sanmicheli, Scammozziy and Polladio more peculiarly 
excelled in their civil buildings, which form the chief ornaments of Vi- 
cenza and Venice. The traveller should observe the edifices of Turin 
which belong to a much later period. 

Domestic architecture^ in Italy, affords a high interest. Its progress 
may be traced at least from the 15th century. The interiors of the period 
of the Renaissance^ which are frequently well preserved — ^and Mantua may 
be instanced as affording a remarkable example — should be well examined, 
and will well repay this study ; as also will some of the palaces of Genoa. 
In Venice, besides the great beauty of the buildings, the ingenuity of the 
architect in adapting his plans to their confined and untoward sites will 
often be found peculiarly interesting. At Verona buildings of this class 
have a character of their own, of strength and elegance imited in the 
details. Florence excels in the colossal grandeur of its palaces. 

The municipal buildings of Lombardy are of great and varied merit. 
In the Town-halls, or BrdettoSj of Oomo, Bergamo, Monzay and Brescia, the 
beauty of the structures is enhanced by their varied styles of decoration, • 

The ancient military architecture of Italy has been little attended to by 
travellers. Northern Italy abounds in noble mediaeval strongholds and forti- 
fications. The Scaligerian castles in and about Verona are peculiarly grand ; 
and the Modenese are not only curious in themselves, but interesting as 
being amongst the objects which first tinged the mind of Arioslo with his 
fondness for tales of chivalry. In Italy, also, will be found the earliest 
examples of regular fortification, by which all the ancient modes of de- 
fence were superseded. 

Sculpture in Italy offers a vast number of objects of the highest inte- 
rest. The names of Niccolo and Giovanni da Pisa, of Mino da Fiesole, of 
Bambaja, of Donatello, of Orgagna, of Ghiberti, and of Michel Angelo, are 
of world-wide celebrity; but the merits of many second-rate Italian sculp- 



r^ment of Lvm, deUa Itobbia out of Tuacany, or of liarabaja out 
Ian aud Pavia ; very few worka of Mino da Fieuile out of Florence 
icBole ; no work of BegartUi oat of Panna and Modena. They liavo 

been multiplied by casta, and, when engraved, the representations 
xea most inadequate. 

rking in the precious metals was a branch of the sculptor'a art, or, 
■uld be better said, trade, for, in the earlier periods at least, tbey 
ed it as a CT^t. Some mitgnificent specimens, in which ennmell^ 
and jei^la are introduced, exist as paU, or palliolti, altar-fronts or 
Dgi. I'hose of San Hajco at Yenioe, of Sont' Anibro^o at Milao, 

&ptistery at Florence, and the Cathedral of Piatoia, are amongst the 
remarkable. Many apecimena of the same description, together with 
: offerings, cups, veaaels, aad the like, arc Btill preserved in the 
dea of the churcheg. 

J early and fine apecimens of mtuak, formed of prisma of coloured 
led opaque giaas, or enamel, will be found at Milan ^an Ambrogto 
au Loronao), Lucca (San Prediaoo), Pisa (Duomo), Florence (Ban- 
■ and San Miniato), Venice (San Marco aad 'i'orcello), and cajiecially 
'enna, where the finest and oldest works of the kind exist, dating as 
3k as the 6th cent. The art continued to be practised at Venice till 
5th century, but not so late in Lombardy or in Tuacany. At 
B and Cremona, alao, are some curious Bpecimena of early Chriatian 
.ted pavements. In Tuscany, about the 13thceiitnry, a richer kind of 
:ig waa introduced, employing serpentine, porphyry, and varioua 
ed marbles, as at l^sa (Duomo and Baptistery), Plorence (Uaptistery 
an Miuialo), which mode of workmanship seems to have been iin- 
I into the present beautiful Florentine mosaic in pietra dura. This 
posed of rich natural mineral productions, and of the finest marbles, 
lay be seen in the greatest perfection in the Medicean Chapel of 
arenzo (Florence), and at the Certoaa of Pavia. 
^ataagga^w^X toly.ia emM idingly b Mntlfnj . In the cathed rals of _ 



J 



xxviii 12. — Music, fetrod. 

denial of all this would be as uofair to the genius of a country which has 
been always spontaneous, no less than elaborate, as the sweeping expecta- 
tion is ridiculous, a word or two may in some degree protect the tourist 
from disappointment. In the first place, he must prepare himself for a 
declamatory style of dramatic singing, in which the old French usages 
(reviled by the Bumeys^nd Walpoles) are more nearly approached than is 
agreeable to cultivated taste. Next he must recollect that, save in the 
winter and at Carnival times, he will fall upon the bad opera season at the 
great theatres of Milan and Venice (* La Fenice' indeed is not open in 
autumn). At the fairs a * star or two' are generally secured to add their 
attractions to the manager's bill of fare ; and at the second-class towns, 
such as Verona, Vicenza, Padua, there is a chance of tolerable average 
companies, but hardly singers of * ]irimo cartello.' The best assembk^e, 
I have been told, is generally at Trieste, early in September. In the 
churches, even the Duomo at Milan, and St. Mark's, Venice, the i)erform- 
ances on high days and holidays are nothing short of disastrous. All trace, 
moreover, of the fine unaccompanied church music of Italy, most of which 
was perpetuated by MS. copies, has vanished from the shops. Lastly, 
though Italy produces surpassing instrumentalists, the taste for instru- 
mental music hardly secures sufficient to maintain them at home. I never 
heard of an orchestral concert, or saw sign of a single new composition, 
save fantasias on the favourite opera themes. This does not sound very 
tempting : and yet the dilettante who troubles himself to seek, will, 1 
think, discern that the sense of tune among the people is still living ; and 
when he recollects that Bossini sprang up to amaze Europe, at a time 
little more promising than the present, will pause ere he echoes the com- 
mon growl, * There is no more music in Italy.' " — E, F, C, 



la.—Skdeton Toiirs. 



-A FEW SKELETON TOURS THUOITGII NORTH 
ITALY. 



Tlie figures aflcr each atBtiDa denote the number of dnvs finpluyed not 
onlj in arriving from the Jaat plai;e noted, hut ttie tiu^e lo he cmplojed 
in Eight-seeins. In th« descrlptrnn of alt the larger towns, n list of the 
objects mofit deserringof the traveller'i attention iagivaii in their topo- 
graphical order. 



ItaBT TouE — or ABOUT Tbbbe Months 

VIBITIKB EVEBYTHIK1 MOtfl 



Puris to Tnritt 1 

I Turin stay i 

Fineralo and Vandois Vallejs . . : 

Bxclmiom in the Ticinity at Tu. 
rin — to Hacoiiigi, CoriuugnolB, 
and Ctmeo : 

Turin to Aati and Alexandria . . '. 

Alexandria to Acqni 

Alexaiidria to Veroolll bj Cosala 

Battle-fields of Falcstro to No- 

Kovara to Maguuta, and return 
to Novara and Aroiia 

Excur^na on the Laga Mag- 
giore ; journey to Laveuo, 
Varese, and Como ! 

Sxcoiaions on the Lake of Como 
and Lugano, and jom^e; lo 
MilBn 

Milan stay 

Milan to Pavia 

Milan lo Monxa and Lecco 

Lecco to Bergamo 

Be^amo lo IwOTera, and Iiake of 
law ! 

Brescia 

Deseuzano, and excuraiona to Bal- 

ferino, and on the Luke of Qarda 

Peachiera and Verona.. .. stay 1 

Mantua .. 

Viconzn to Pudua 

Padua and Eugancati Hills 

Kxcuraions to Treviso. Cuoc- 
gliano, Udiui', and Tneete , . : 



Ketnm to Venice by Stoanipr or 

Bail 

Jiiuroey to FL>rrarn . . and stay 

Bologua stay 

Journey lo Ravenna .. and stay 

Ravunnu to Rimini 

Rimini lo CesenB, Forli, Faonza, 

and Imola. and return lo 

Bologna 

Bolofjna to Modentt and Pamui 
Parma (stay), with eicnrsion to 

Colomo, sic 

Parma, to Piaoeozo, slopping at 

Borgo 8, Donino, with cxcoi^ 

Blon to VcUetja 

Piacenza to Genoa, atopping at 

Tortona and Caateggio . . 

Genoa stay 

Genoa to Leghorn and Florence 

Piaa and Florence 

Florence and environs, including 

oxcuraion to Valonibrosa 
Florenco lo Lucca, stopping at 

Piatoia and Prato 

Lucca 

Pietraaanta, Maaaa Can'ara, and 

Spcazia 

S|)ezzia to Genoa 

Genoa to Nice 

Nioe 

Toulon, slopping at Frdjus and 

Toulon 

Toulon to Marseilles 

Marseillca to Poria 



XXX 



13. — Skeleton Tours, 



Introd. 



Second Toub — of about Seven Weeks in North Italy. 



Days. 

Paris to Turin . . - . . and stay 4 

Turin to Novara, by Vercelli . . 1 

Yercelli to Alexandria, by Casale 1 

Novara and Arona 1 

Excursion on Lago Maggiore . . 2 

Arona to Milan, by Magenta . . 1 
Milan (stay), with excursions to 

Gomo, Monza, and Pavia . . 6 

Milan to Bergamo and Brescia . . 1 
Brescia to Desenzano, with ex- 
cursion to Solferino, and on 

the Lago di Gkirda 3 

Verona and stay 1 

Mantua 1 

Verona to Padua Cand stay), by 

Vicenza, and to Venice , . . . 2 



Days. 

Venice 3 

Venice to Ferrara . . and stay 2 

Bologna 3 

Bologna to Kavenna 2 

Kavenna to Rimini 1 

Kimini to Bologna 2 

Bologna to Modena and Parma 2 

Parma to Piacenza 1 

Piacenza to Genoa, by Alexandria 1 

Genoa 2 

Genoa to Nice .. .. .. .. 2 

Nice to Toulon 2 

Nice to Paris, by Marseilles . . 2 



49 



Third Tour — op about Six Weeks, entering Italy by Venice. 



Venice 3 

Padua 1 

Ferrara 1 

Bologna 2 

Kavenna 2 

Forli and Faienza 1 

Bologna and Modena 1 

Modena, Parma, and Piacenza . . 3 
Piacenza to Alessandria and Mi- 
lan 1 

Milan (stay), and visits to Monza, 

Como, and Pavia 5 

Milan to Bergamo and Brescia . . 2 
Brescia to Lake of Gturda, Sol- 
ferino, and Verona 2 



Verona to Vicenza and back . . 1 

Verona to Mantua 1 

Mantua to Cremona 1 

Cremona to Milan, by Lodi . . 1 
Milan to Novara and Lago Mag- 
giore, Magenta, &c 2 

Novara to Turin, by Vercelli . . 1 

Turin 2 

Turin to Grenoa . . . . and stay 3 

Genoa to Nice 2 

Nice to Toulon and Marseilles . . 2 

Marseilles, by Lyons, to Paris . . 2 



42 



Tour of about Three Weeks through a part of Northern Italy, 
after visiting switzerland, and returning to england through 
Germany. 



Turin from Geneva . . and stay 3 
Milan (and stay), visiting Novara 

and Magenta 3 

Pavia 1 

Bergamo and Brescia 1^ 

Solferino and Verona . « . . . . 2 

Mantua . < ■ • < 1 

Vicenza, Padua, to Venice (and 

^^rJ 3 



Treviso, Udine, and Trieste 

Vienna 

To London or Paris, by Munich, 
Augsbourg, Frankfort, Heidel- 
berg, Mfiyence, Cologne, and 
Ostend 



2 
I 



21 



Talles of Currency. 



Tables of Foreign Coins reduced into the differat Carrenciee of Italy, 
at the par of exchange. 



English SoToroign . 
Cnlwn of 5 ShiUi 
ShiUing . . , 

Froncji Napoleon d'Or 



Auatriaa or Miianese Li 
Crown of 6 Lira 
GoldSovraaft . . 



Tuscan Scudo of 1 Psula . 

Dena of !o Pauls . . 

Panl 

Florin 

Romsii Doppia, gold . . 

Scudo, 10 I^ula . . 

Paul 

Neapolitan Onda of 3 
Ducitta 

Scudo of 12 Carlini , 

Cwlluo 



(iUSTBIAN) CURBEKCr. 



Engliih SoTBreign 
fcT" Crown . . 
^H Bliilling . 
^BtUicb Napoleon d <Ji 
^^H 5 franc piece 
^^P- - 1 ditto 

^K Scudo of lOPuuU 

Engliah Sovereign . , 

Shilling .... 
French Napoleon . . 
5 franc piece . . 
1 franc diUo . . 
D Doppia since 133: 
FSaudo of !U Pauls 



Tusii 



Florin 
Roman Dcppia 

Scudo of 10 Pauls 

Paul 
Neai ulitan Oncm 

Scudo of 12 Carhni 

Carlmo 



Roman Paul .... 
Neapolitan Oncia . . 

! Scudo of 12 Carlini 

Cai'Iino .... 
MilauoEo Sovran a, gold 
: Scudo of 6 Lira . 



xxxil 



TdfyUs of Currency* 



Introd. 



Table \, -^English Money reduced to an equivalent Value in the Money of 

the several States of North Italy, 



English 
Money, 


Lira Nova 
or Franc. 


Austrian 
Lira. 


Tuscan 

hk:udi, 

Pauls, and 

Grazie. 


English 
Money, 


Lira Nova 
or Franc. 


Austrian 
Lira. 


Tuscan 

Scudi, 

Pauls, and 

Grazie. 


£. s. 



d. 

I 


Lira cent. 

m 


Lira cent. 
12 


Sc. pi. gr. 
li 


£. 
5 


s. 




d, 



Lira cent. 
126 5 


Lira cent. 
145 00 


Sc. pl.gr. 
22 5 





2 


21 


24 


3 


6 








151 


26 


174 


00 


27 





4 


42 


48 


6 










176 


47 


203 


00 


31 5 





6 


63 


72 


1 1 


8 








201 


6i8 


232 


00 


36 


1 





1 26 


1 44 


2 2 


9 








226 


89 


261 


00 


40 5 


2 





2 52 


2 89 


4 4 


10 








252 


10 


290 


00 


45 


3 





3 78 


4 33 


6 6 


20 








504 


20 


580 


00 


90 


4 





5 04 


5 80 


9 


30 








756 


30 


870 


00 


135 


5 





6 30 


7 25 


1 1 2 


40 








1008 


40 


1160 


00 


180 


10 





12 60 


14 50 


2 2 4 


50 








1260 


50 


1455 


00 


225 


15 





18 90 


21 75 


3 3 6 


60 








1512 


60 


1740 


00 


270 


1 





25 21 


29 00 


4 5 


70 








1764 


70 


2030 


00 


315 


2 





60 42 


58- 00 


9 


80 








2016 


80 


2320 


00 


360 


3 





75 63 


87 00 


13 5 


90 








2268 


90 


2610 


00- 


405 


4 





100 84 


116 00 


18 


100 








2521 


00 


2900 


00 


450 



The Lira Nnova d' Italia, equivalent to the French Franc, is the current coin 
throughout the kingdom of North Italy. 

The Austrian Lira, equal to 84 centimes of the Lira Nova, and the Florin of 
3 Lire, are current in the Venetian provinces, and are taken, without deduc- 
tion, in Modena, Tuscany, and the adjoining parts of the Papal States. 

The above Table has been calculated at the par of exchange, i. e, at the com- 
parative intrinsic values of the precious metals contained in the English 
sovereign and the different foreign coins comprised in it. 



TaMfs of Carrencif. 



— CuTTency oftht different Italian Btatei reditced into Emjliah 
Money, at the par 0/ e3:<:ha}ige. 





g^ 


....... 


Ti-»OAHT.; Ekolibh, 


■«. : E..„... 


NiPiu. 


E,«™. 




i 

1 w 

I 00 

1 et 
1 00 

t » 

It .00 

11*00 

N iO 
M 00 

» 00 

» » 

H 00 

n o« 

M 00 

M 0« 
IW DO 
!» 00 

a» 00 

HO 00 

Wt M 

■an 00 

800 00 
MO 00 


.E. I. i. 


III 


£. ,. A 


iilh'' 


Ill 


..... , 




B 9 

H 
6 lot 

13 M 

1 m 

I U Si 

I 1 41 

» 8 SI 
SIS 2 

3 1 m 
s 9 01 

BIS 01 

13 18 1 
n 5 11 
SO U 14 

M 3 ii 

M 10 51 


40 
§00 
3U00 


0^ 

. iirt 
. . .4 

. .A 
11 2 1 

15 10 11 
17 IS 4 

ES < B 

88 IB « 
2M 1 8 


00 1 

030 

300 
500 

10 (1 

»oo 
so 


= «A 
2,^ 
ift 

lOll, 
1 3A 

1 9^= 
2 2A 

4 Si 

8 €1 

1 1 31 

3 3 in) 

4 6 2* 

7 91 

10 13 01 

IS la SI 

17 10 
19 3 il 

21 e 01 

41 12 1 
106 ID 2* 


EDOO 

soo 

MOO 

SOO 

400 

soo 00 


oA^ 
s 1 

■0 ! ' 

01a 

3 4i 

1 13 «1 j 
6 71 , 

10 1 3 *■ 
15 1 101 ' 

50 e 3 \ 



xKxir 



Measures of Distances, 



Introd^ 



Table 3. — Showing the Value of the different Measures of Distances employed 
in Italy y reduced to English statute Miles, Furlongs, and Yards, 



Fore^n Distances. 


Reduced to Kn<(li8h. 


Foreign Distances. 


English, 




Yardn. 


Milw.Furl.Yd». 




Miles. 


Furl. Tifa. 


Geographical mile . 


2,025i 


1 


1 45* 








French Myriametre . 


10,936 


6 


1 156 , 


Piedmontese Post , . . 


4 


4 168 


Piedmontese Mile . 


2,697 


1 


4 60 ; 


Milanese Post ..... 


8 


6 200 


Milanese Mile. . . 


1,952 


1 


192 1 


Tuscan Post of 8 Miles . . 


8 


1 184 


Venetian Mile . . 


2,114 


1 


1 134 ; 


Roman Post of 8 Miles 


7 


3 40 


Parma & IMacenza M. 


1,619 





7 ^9 ; 


Neapolitan Poet of 8 Miles. 


11 


112 


Tuscan Mile . • • 


1,808 


I 


48 ' 








Roman Mile . . . 


1,628 





7 88 . 








Neapolitan Mile . . 


2,435 


1 


3 15 








Anstrian Mile of 4003 














klafter .... 


8,297 


4 


5 155 


! 







ABBREVIATIONS, &c., EMPLOYED IN THE HANDBOOK. 



The points of the compass are marked by the letters N. S. E. W. 

(rt.) right, (/.) left, — applied to the banks of a river. The right bank is that 
which lies on the right hand of a person looking down the stream, or whose back is 
turned towards the quarter from which the current descends. 

Miles. — Distances are, as far as possible, reduced to English miles ; when miles 
ai*e mentioned without any other designation, they are understood to be English. 

The names of Inns precede Uie description of every place (often in a parenthesis), 
because the first information needed by a traveller is where to lodge. 

Instead of designating a town by the vague words "large" or "small," the 
amount of its population, according to the latest census, is almost invariably stated, 
as presenting a more exact scale of the importance and size of the place. 

In order to avoid repetition, the Routes are preceded by a chapter of preliminary 
information ; and to facilitate reference to it, each division or paragraph is separately 
numbered. 

Each Route is numbered with Arabic figures, corresponding with those attached 
to the Route on the Map, which thus serves as an Index to the Book. 



A HANDBOOK 



UVELLEIIS IN NORTHERN ITALY, 



SECTION I. 

PIEDMOSX AND SARDINIAN LOMBAEDY. 

PRELIJII^^ARY INFORMATION, 

wik. Territorg, Oonernmeni. — 3, A'o(iii-a of Ika Caaiilry, Extent, Fopu}alio».— 
3. Lait/jMage. — 4. Fine Aria, Litfraivre. — 5. I'oatins. — 6. Eailviays. — 
7, Money, Wfiahti, Meafttra, ^b. 



'11 to Titria — Rill. - 

2. TiiAnlo'Mi[iai,'bjrenem,Jfo- 

vara, and MageAla — Bail. - 

3. Turin to Milan, bj Caaale, 

Morlara, and ViffBnana 

4. Turin to Asti, by Ciifrl 

6. Turin to Oenon, bj Aiti, Ales- 

laadria., and JVbui — Rail. - 

m 6. jUasaBudriB to Miiriara, Ho- 

^^ vara, and Aroua on ttia Logo 

^H Uaggiore— Bail. 



7. AleaEandria to Pisnenis, hj 

Torlona, Voghera, and Ciu- 
teggio 

8. Turin to Nice, by CunOO and 
the Col di Tinda 



jnd MoHdoBi 
11. AleBsandria to SaTonn, b; 

Acqui and Dago - - - 
13. Turin to Savoim, bj Mills- 



' 5 1, TnBaiTOBY.— GoTmuntEST. 

Wbat Frederick said of Prussia, that it was raada up of piices fotpfwikn 
moBt particularly applicable to the continental dominiona of tlie Rvnft ot S».tSi 
On this si Jc oftlw Alps, the {aUowiog are the Component ^arta, -umIiiq^ \i 



2 § 1. Territory — Government. Sect. I. 

the authority of the present dynasty : — Piedmont proper , the nucleus of the 
present kingdom, gained from the Coimts of Provence, hy Peter Count of Savoy, 
in 1220, and inherited from the Marchioness Adelaide, and subsequently an Im- 
perial donation. The Marquisaie of Susa, which, at an earlier period, included 
the greater part of Piedmont, but which was afterwards restrained to narrower 
bounds. The Principality of Cctri^nano, a modem dismemberment of the Mar- 
quisate of Susa. The Marquisate of Ivrea^ ceded to Savoy by the Emperors Fre- 
derick II. in 1248, and Henry YII. in 1313. The small Marquisate of Ceva^ 
at the foot of the Apennines. The County of Nice in 1388. The Lordship of 
Vercelli, which, after several changes of masters, was ceded by Milan to Savoy in 
1427. The County ofAsti, ceded by Charles V. to Duke Charles IV. in 1531. 
The Marquisate of Saluzzo^ long contested by the French, and which, though 
cutting into the heart of Piedmont, was not fully acquired by the Dukes of Savoy 
till 1588. The Duchy of Montferrat, obtained by the Dukes of Savoy in 1630 ; 
Val Sesiafrom the Emperor Leopold in 1703 ; the County of Arona and the Pro- 
vince of Duomo d'Ossola in 1743 by the treaty of Worms. Several dismember- 
ments of the Duchy of Milan, namely, the Provinces of Alessandria, Tortona, 
and Novaraj with the Lomellinaj in 1736, ; the Oltro JPo JPavese in 1743, subse- 
quently confirmed by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 ; and, lastly, Oneglia^ 
and the Genoese territories, by the treaty of Vienna in 1814. 

Previously to the occupation of Italy by the French, these territories were all 
respectively governed by their local laws. Under Napoleon, Piedmont continued 
annexed to the French Empire ; and, since the restoration of the House of Savoy, 
much of the French administration has been retained, in connexion, however, with 
the original institutions, which have been partially restored. The government since 
1848 is a constitutional monarchy, consisting of a king, a senate, and a chamber 
of representatives. The Dukes of Savoy, as is well known, acquired the regal title 
at the beginning of the last century. The following is their succession from the 
time of Emanilele Filiberto (1553), by whom the fortimes of the House were re- 
stored, and who may be considered as the founder of the Monarchy : — 

1580. Carlo Emanuele I. 1773. Vittorio Amedeo III. 

1630. Vittorio Amedeo I. 1796. Carlo Emanuele IV. 

1637. Francesco G-iacinto. 1802. Vittorio Emanuele. 

1638. Carlo Emanuele 11. 1821. Carlo FeHce. 
1676. Vittorio Amedeo IL 1831. Cario Alberto. 

1730. Carlo Emanuele III. 1849. Vittorio Emanuele II. 

At the Congress of Vienna, the right of succession, in the event (which hap- 
pened) of the failure of male issue in the direct royal line of Vittorio Amedeo II., 
was secured to the collateral branch of Savoy Carignan. The founder of this 
branch waa Prince Tomaso Francesco (bom 1596, died 1656), the fourth son of 
Carlo Emanuele I. ; and upon the death of Carlo Felice, without male issue, 
the late king, as the descendant of Tomaso Francesco, obtained the crown accord- 
ingly. Defeated by the Austrians at Novara on the 23rd of March, 1849, he 
abdicated in favour of his son, the reigning Monarch, and retired to Opo»to, 
whel^e he "died 'soon afterwards. The royal family now consists of his Majesty 
Vittorio Emanuele, King of Sardinia, Cyprus, and Jerusalem ; Duke of Savoy, 
Genoa, &c. &c. ; bom March 14, 1820; ascended the throne March 23, 1849; 
married April 12, 1842 ; — and several children by the late Queen, Maria Adelaide 
Francesca, Archduchess of Austria, and daughter of the Archduke Kenier ; bom 
June 3, 1822 ; — the eldest, Humbert Carlo Emanuele, Prince of Piedmont and 
prinoe royal, bom March 14, 1844. 



" rTBlSSwW. 



'1*2. Jfiaariitf-tfKOrmmrff — Exfmt—PoptdaUm 



The conBtitut.ioQoJ govGFiiiticnt which liaa now eiUtcd eight jenn in Fiedil 
lanat has gone on vorkingaB favouniblj us the best frlendB of Ubcnd inBtitutions] 
could have cteiirMl, afibrding a grati^ing coDtrHdictiDn to thoe« who hsTe mp-l 
pDeed tbo Kaliana unfitted for nipreflentattTe inetitutionfl. In no country oa th^ 
ooDtinent of Europe has the repretentatire ayetemlAlien so firm a root aa in tbvl 
Sardinian doininiona, and, thanks to ifc, and the good feeling and prudence of it* ' 
inbafaitanta, whilst mauj- other states in tbeFenituula were groaning under politioal 1 
and ecclesioetica! oppression, Piednumt is prospciuus under its conatitutioml | 
monarchy. The supporters of the new order of thingfl have had many dilBcuJtiot i 
to overcome, sriaing out of the war of 1849, as they still hacD from the jealauty ' 
of powerful neighbours, from the openly avowed hostility of the Court of Bom<^ i 
and at home from the iatrignes of an ignorant uristoeracy and a bigoted clera^, { 
the enemies of prog;rese and of libera) government. U^kny of tluwe obatadet , 
most ere long disappear before the firmness of a popular sovereign who has hifl 
country's good nt heart, and from an administration like that of Count Cavour'^ J 
founded on public and eommeroial liberty. 'J 

§ 2. NiTITEE OF THE ConKTBT. — ElTEVT. — POPCLlTIOIf. I 

"What may be now called Piedmont is the country that eitends trOID the 
Alps proper to the Maritime Alps and Apennines, as far as the Ticino and 
Trebbia rirers on the E., and including the provinces of Turin, Coni, Alex- 
andria, Ivrea, Vercdli, and Novara, with a small stripe of the former Duohy of 
PiaoBnza, hating a population of about 3,100,000 inhabita.nts. Like Lombardy, 
it offers three well-marled regions; a higher one which eitflnds U> the snow- 
capped peaks of the Alps, where it blends with France (now) and Switzerland, 
mnd to the tops of the Maritime Alpa ajid Ligurian Apeoninea ] im intermediats 
one consisting of auhalpine and subapennine hills, and of the valleys through 
which descend the tributaries of the Po ; and of a lower region bordering on 
that great river, and on the lower oourae of the rivers that empty tliemselves into 
it — the Dora, the Sesia, the Ticioo, the Tanaru, the Bormida, and the Scrivia. 
The roost fertile region is the latter. In respect to cultivation, the principal 
products are, in the more elevated region, timber, barley, potatoes ; in the middle 
one, vines, wheat — And, in its lower part, maiie, mulberry -trees ; and in the Bat 
T^ion bordering on its great watercourses, com, lice, mulbeiry-tfees, maizo. 
The oentrnl region is the favoured one of the vine in Piedmont, nith the grain 
oropa, and the silkworms, the most important of the agricultural productions of 
the country. The guuitity of grain produced is not sufncient lor the sustenanw , 
of its population ; hence a good deal is imported &om Lombardy and the neigh- 
bouring districts of the Eroilian Provinces and KoniagnB. 

The nature of the agricultural produce consumed for food varies in diilerent 
parts of the country. In the towns wheat ia extensively used. The inhabitants 
of the plains and tow hills of Piedmont consume at least ea much Indian corn 
and rye aa wheat. In the Alpinevalleys whmi> is ui articleofluxury, and Indian 
corn, potatoes, rye, and buckwheat ore the food of the great naajority of the in- 
habitants. In the Apennines and the hills of Montferrat oheknuts form an 
important article of sustenance ; and lastly, rice, produced in large quantity in 
dhe provinces of Tercelli, Kovara, aud Lcmicllinn, is consumed in the country, 
and exported beyond the Alpa. 

Manvfantmrei, — Piedmont proper has few manufactures, and none on a largo 
seale^nonc of any importance as articles of export, tlie g,TftiA ■seaWtt "fi ft* 
country conaiiting in Jti wint-s, which are sent in \bx^^ q\\».uViV.ieB \^ Wc w«B 



_ ,^ 



4 § 3. LangvLoge, § 4. Fim Arts — Literature, Sect. 1. 

coast and into Lombardy; and its eilk, which is exported, abnost all in an 
unmanufactured state, to France, Switzerland, and especially to England. Of 
late years its mining industry has attracted more attention, some works of 
importance having been opened in the higher Alpine valleys of the Dora, the 
Sesia, and the Ticino. 

The Piedmontese peasantry are not handsome, but they are strong and well 
built, very active and industrious, and form excellent soldiers ; and, in the rural 
districts, are very simple and honest. The Boman Cathohc religion is the esta- 
blished and dominant creed. It may be noticed that, unlike in many parts of 
the Continent, the Sunday is very strictly observed in the Sardinian states. Since 
the accession of the present sovereign, the Protestants of the Alpine valleys are 
no longer persecuted as formerly ; they have been even permitted to erect a 
handsome church at Turin, towards which the Goyemment has very liberally 
contributed. 

The Piedmontese dialect has much more analogy with the Provencal than 
any other of the Northern dialects of the Italian. But this similarity is not 
the effect of mixture or corruption : it holds, in some degree, a middle place 
between the Provencal and Italian, with certain peculiar intonations and vowels, 
which, in addition to its vocabulary, render it perfectly unint«^gible to a 
stranger, however well versed he may be in the sister tongues. The Piedmontese 
is the universal speech of the coimtry, and employed by high and low ; though, 
of course, all persons of education speak Italian. French is in very common 
use at Turing first introduced by the court and followers of the Dukes of 
Savoy, and kept up by the firequent occupations of the country by its Gallic 
neighbours. 

§ 4. Fine Aets,* — Liteeatuee. 

The manner in which the dominions of the House of Savoy have been com- 
pacted renders it rather difficult in some cases to define who are the great men 
whom it can claim. The best painters that were naturalised here, such as 
Gaudenzio Ferrcvri^ a native of Vw Sesia (see Vercelli), Lcmini, and Solaris really 
belong to the Milanese school. The last, Solari (fi. 1530), was bom at 
Alessandria. He was an imitator of Kaphael, and not without success. 
Guglielmo Cacciaj otherwise called Moncalvo (1568-1625), worked much at 
Turin, Novara, and Vercelli. Some consider him as a follower of the Caracci. 
The eighteenth century produced a host of inferior artists. The Dukes of Savoy 
were liberal and splendid collectors of works of art, and th^ also invited many 
foreign artists, as Balthazar Matthew of Antwerp, Jan Miely a pupil of Vandyke, 
and Daniel Seyter of Vienna. Very recently the Academy, founded in 1678, 
has received much encouragement. A certain number of pupils are sent to 
Rome, and are there maintained at the expense of the government. It was 
re-organised by the King Carlo Felice in 1824, and was afterwards deuomi- 

• On this subject consult Kugler's* Handbook of Painting in Italy,' edited by Eastlake, 2 vols. 
1855 — a work designed for the information of travellers ; and the * Biographical Catalogue of the 
-Principal Italian Painters,' by a Lady, 1 vol. 12mo. 1855. 



PibdjAtt. 5 5. Posting, P 

nnted the Accadtmia Allerllna, after the then re[gning eovereign. No pnuita- ^ 
□f an; eminence has bevn produi<ed. One of the distmguiahed sculptors of (he 
present diij, Baron Marochetii, is a Piedmonl^se by birth. The PiedmontM* 
school of aruhitflctiire in the laat ccatuiy Bihiblts aome originality, if not 

Lileralure is HouriBhing i offering m good if not & bettor proBpoot than in any , 
otlier state of Italj. Freni;)! literature la losing much of its inSuenoe. QermaliLj 
Las been liitherto little cultivated from the anti-Teutonic feellngg of the Piedr^ 
montoBO. Printing ie carried on to a great eiteut, and forms a vary important^ 
branch of natiouHl industry, especially at Turin. It is in history, belles-lettres, , 
and soence, that the Piedaioiiteso have moat distinguiahed themsElvea. Botta, f 
Hanno, Bolbo, Cibrario, Bertolottl, Fellioo, Musaimo d'Azeglio, Nota, Qioberti, 
Sclopia, F^rou, Plana, Collegno, Alberto della Marmom, Lorenzo Pareto, Mon^ 
Oeti6, Sismouda, do great honour to the intellectual fame of their country. ' 

g B. POSTINO. 

The posting regulntiona in the kingdom of Sardinia generally have been re- 
centlj assimilated to those of France, the diatancen being reflkona3 iii tiloinitres, ' 
and tlie chergee being nearly the some, viz. 20 centimes for e«ch horee, and 13!J 
for poatUious, for every kilometre ; on the mountain -pasaee of Mt. Cenis, tho ' 
Siniplon, and Tenda, the charge for each horBi; is increased one-third, W^ 
to 30 0. ' 

The number of horses which the poatmaaterB can put on ia regulated aocord-t 
ing to the nature of the carriage, for which purpose all Teliiclca are arranged' 
under three clasaefl: — lit; cabrioleta on two wheels, light csiWies wilhour « 
Beat in front, broughams, &c., to wliich only 2 horses are reqiiiral, provided 
the number of porsons does not exceed 2; if 3 or 4^ tlien 3 horses, and for' 
each additional passenger 15 ceotimea per kilum^rc muat be paid. 2nd elan: 
limom^res, large cal^bes with a double seat inside, chariots or cimpit^\ 
clarences, Ac., 3 horses and one postiliou ; should the number of pwsonsl 
exceed 3, aii additional charge of 15c. for each j>cr kilometre. 3r(i o/ow, hcary i 
landaus, barouches, berlines, whether dosed or open, 4 horses and 2 postilions, 
if abOTO 4 paaaengers, 15 c. per kil. for the Btli; if 6 passengers, 6 horsea and 2 ■ 
postiliona (it ia usual to pay for the 2 additional horses without yokuig them 
to), and BTHry additional person 15 c. per kilomStre. 

One child under 10 years ia not reckoned, hut if two they are considered ai ' 
cquiratent to one full-grown person, in the above regulations. i 

Tlie postmaslers of Turin and Genoa ore allowed to charge for 4 kUom^trea I 
in addition to the real distaoce, and as posies da Jimeur^ on all carriages leaving i 
these cities. ' 

Each postmaster is obliged to he prorided with carriages for the use of ' 
IravellHrs (in general yeiy rickety concerns), for the liire of which they apB ! 
niithorised to oharge, for a cabriolet on two wheels 10 c, and a four-wheeled J 
vehicle 15 c. per kUom^tre. I 

At the posthouses on the passes of the Monts Cenis, Simplon, and Col di-i 
Tenda, the mast«ra must provide sledges during the winter aeaaon, for the | 
hire of which they are eiititled to charge 15 o. per kilomfetrei they are also^ 
authorised to demand 3 and 4 francs for diamounting and placing each carriaga i 
Jass to which it may be retera\j\o, • 






tlcdge, according tt 

rferefl/br/.— ixte/jtonlLcniouiitain paaseBjIorwliiohlVoreKi 



6 § 6. Rattvcays, § 7. Money, WeightSy Measvres. Sect I. 

regulations noted in our description of these routes, carriages of the first and 
htvond clasties, with one person, are not obliged to take a eheval de reitfori; 
but if more tlian one pussenger, carriages of the 1st daas, one additional horse ; 
of the 2iid and 3rd classes, two additional horses ; and camagea of the 3rd class 
and 6 horses, 3 additional ones and another postilion. 

Fur the other posting regulations the trayeller is refiDrred to the ' AbticieS 

]'K Kf:OLEMENT SUB LE SeBYICE DSS FoSTSS AVZ CH£TAIJX, APPBOUYES PAB 

LE D^cBET RoTAL DU 8 DfecEMBBE.* Turin, 1854. 

Tho stations for post-horses haye of late years been considerably reduced, 
and entirely done away with on the lines of communication where railways 
have been opened. 

§ 6. Railways. 

Considerable progress has been made in the construction of Railroads in 
Piedmont. More than 600 miles have been completed up to the present time. 
Lines already open : — From Turin to Genoa, 103} miles ; Turin to Susa, 
33 miles; Turin to Pinerolo, 21} miles; Alessandrm to Novara, 41 miles; 
^ovara to Arona, 22J miles ; Turin by Savigliano and Fossano to Cuneo, witha 
branch to Bra, 64i miles ; Turin to Novara and the Lombard firontier, throogli 
Vercelli, 68 miles, with branches to Ivrea, Biella, and to Yalenza by Casale ; 
from Mortara to Yigevano, 7 miles ; from Alessandria by Tortona to Piacenza, 
joining t)ie Centro-Italian line connecting Milan, Parma, and Bologna ; from 
Alessandria to Acqui ; and from Novi to Tortona ; whilst others are projected from 
Arona across the Alps by the Lukmanier into the Valley of the Rhine, and from 
Susa to Modane, traversing the central chain of the Alps by an immense tunnel. 

§ 7. Monet, Weights, Measubes, 

The coinage is exactly the same as in France — on the decimal systCTi; the 
old coinage of 40 and 20 centime pieces is, however, still current. 

SiLTEB Coins, 

1 franc = 100 centimes = Q\d. English, 
i „ = 50 „ = 4}rf. 
i „ = 25 „ = 2ici. 

5 „ = 500 „ = 3*. llirf. 



n 



Gold Coins. 
Pieces of 20 francs or Napoleons = 15*. XOd, 

TALUB OV SOME OP THE COINS OP THE NEIGHBOUBINa COUNTBIBS IS THE 

CTJBBENCT OP SABDINIA. 

A Zwanziger or Lira Austriaca is equal to 87 centimes ; 5} zwanzigers are 
^ui^^i^^ as equal to 5 francs.. An Austrian florin is equal to 2 francs 60 centimes. 

CK)LD AND SILVEE WEIGHT. VALUES IN ENGLISH TEOT-WEIGHT. 

M«rk. Oncie. Denari. Orani. Ouneea. Pennywts. Grains. 

1 = 8 = 192 = 4608 = 7 18 3 

1 = 24 = 576 = 19 18| 

1 == 24 = 19|| 



Jtmte 1. — Susa to IMn. T ■ 

The Kubbo, coramprcial weight, is 25 pounds. This pound or libra i^ODtatns J 
It Mark or 12 ounces of thu gold and silver wdght. Tberefora, 100 pounds of 
Turin = 81 '32 lb. Avoirdupois. 

"Wine MKABrBE. 

The Brenla is divided into 36 Peute nnd 72 Boccale. The Breut* =14'88 
GhJloiis English ; and tho Bocoale is rather moro than a pint and a half; but 
Uie Litre is noir generally used in all liquid measures. 



LOHQ KfEAStTBE. 



universnllj adopted throughout tba 
;3 of a mfetre. The raso or ell = 33-3 



The m6tre (with its divisions) is i 
Kingdom of North Italy ;— of the mea. 
The foot = 1273 English inches, or 
English inches, or 0'&91B of e, ra&tre. 
The Piednionl«8e mile is reckoned e.t 2466 mfitres ^ 2697 English yards 
£ It mile and 57 yards English, itf^ Fiedmuntase mileB are eqnol to 1 mean 
□f latitude. 



d|Qpe of latitud 



(SS* m. or 53 kilomMrea.)— The Kail- 
way was opened in April, 1 8S4. Trains 
to Turin at 3-30, 6-15, and ll'lO a.h., 
Bndat4-20and7'13P.M.,inlh. 40m.t 

(For the road from Pont da Boau- 
voisin to i^usa, see SandbookJ'or Sml- 
iBrfand,Rle.l37.) Luggage is i^iamSned, 
on arriving from France and Savoy, at 
the 9usa rly. station. 

iSwa (Hfltol de France ; the hotel 
near the bridge, reaaonnhle). 

This very anuient oity, the Sogusium 
of the Romans, is now reduced to a 
■mall extent, scarcely numbering 3300 



• Tbemilfa 



mnfhout tb 



m im UiQ sulhorily of 



Inhab. It is still the seat of a bishop- 
ric, Iho only token of its former iin- 
portanoe. It ia surrounded with lovely 
scenery. The Dora-Susina, ao called to 
distinguish it from the Dora-Baltea, in 
the valley of Aosta, runa by the aide of 

The Arch or dig Gale, erected by 
Julius Cottiua, the son of Kino Donnua, 
about B.o. 8 (a.u.c. 745), in honour 
of Augustus, is the most remarkable 
historical feature of the city ; it ia 
on a road loading from behind the 
Cathedral to the Old Castle outside the 
town, and is eupposed to have stood on 
the Roman road which crOBBod the Alps 
of Mont Geiioevre. This chioHain of 
the Alpine tribes, having aubniitted to 
tha Bom an authority, records Lie dif aitj 
under the humbler title of Prefect : 
the inscription, now nearly effaced, 
states the namea of bis 14 toomd.^'uw 
elftna; whilst ttobaaao-fCiCTQfttHOTBMnVi. 



8 



Boute 1. — Susa* 



Sect. I. 



ceremonies by which the treaty was rati- 
fied and concluded4 The order is Cor- 
inthian, in a good sirle for a provincial 
town, and worthy of the study of the 
architect. The bas-rehefs, of coarse 
execution, represent colossal rams and 
swine followed by horsemen armed with 
spears, and the sacrifice of bulls — sculp- 
tures which were perhaps the work of 
native artists; the bas-reliefs on the 
lesser sides have been destroyed. 

" The arch is a fine but simple 
building of white marble. The upper 
part is destroyed, but enough of the 
attic remains to exhibit the inscrip- 
tion. On the upper course, in a single 
line, are the following letters^ which re- 
main very perfect -.—IMP. CAESAET 
AUGUSTO DIVI F. PONTIFICI 
MAXVMO TRIBUNIC. POTES- 
TATE XV. IMP. XIII. The second 
course seems to have contained three 
lines of inscription, but the upper is so 
nearly destroyed as to suggest the idea 
that the line above it must have been 
restored ; the part most exposed could 
hardly have remained perfect while 
that below it suffered so much. Many 
letters of the third line (the middle 
line of the second course of stones) are 
distinguishable, but I could not make 
out the words reported by Millin. The 
general proportions are not unpleasing, 
but it is rather singular that the co- 
lunms are set on a pedestal which 
raises them considerably above the 
pilasters Of the arch. This diminishes 
their size and apparent importance. 
The details of the entablature are in 
bad taste, and the frieze is ornamented 
with a bas*'relief of men and monsters 
inidely executed." — Woods. 

Near this arch two fine torsos of 
figures in armour were discovered, 
which, without any authority, were 
supposed to have belonged to statues 
of Augustus and Cottius. They were 
sent to Paris for deposit in the Louvre, 
where they were repaired and com- 
pleted by the addition of heads, arms, 
and legs. After the peace these statues 
were restored to the Sardinian govern- 
ment, and are now in the cortile of the 
univerBity of Tunn. 



The Cathedral of St. Justus is of 
the 1 1th centy. The great bell-tower, 
in the Lombard style, is one of the 
loftiest of its kind. Li the cathedral 
the centre arches and massy piers of the 
Have belong to a more ancient fiEibric ; 
the rest is of a simple Gothic. In the 
Chapel of the Virgin is a gilded statue 
in wood of the 12th centy. of Adelaide 
Countess of Susa, the princess through 
whom the House of Savoy acquired the 
dominions which became the origin of 
its power in Italy. ITiis celebrated 
lady was thrice married j first to Her- 
man Duke of Suabia; secondly, to 
Henry Marquis of Montferrat; and 
thirdly, to Otho, son of Humbert I., 
Count of Maurienne. It is said that 
she is buried here j but others suppose 
that her body rests at Turin. In one of 
the chapels is a curious medifflval group 
in bronze of our Lady of Boccia Melone 
with S. George and Bonifacio Botari, a 
Crusader of the 12th centy. A magnifi- 
cent font, hollowed out of a single block 
of green Susa marble, stands in the 
baptistery. This font is a work of the 
11th century, with an ambiguous in- 
scription, leaving it doubtful whether 
" Guigo " was the workman or the 
donor (supposed, according to the latter 
interpretation, to be Guigo V., first 
Count of the Viennois) . In the sacristy 
is shown a large silver cross, said to 
have been given by Charlemagne. 

Ancient towers, gateways (one very 
noble near the cathedral, called the 
Capitol), and Gothic porticoes, add to 
the picturesque effect of the city, con- 
trasting with the modem edifices and 
improvements rapidly going on here. 

Above Susa are the extensive ruins 
of Za JBrunetia, once a very important 
fortress, and considered as the key of 
the valley. The road from the Mont 
Cenis passes near them. The defence 
which La Brunetta formerly afforded 
to Piedmont on the side of Savoy 
was effected by Fort Lesseillon, near 
Modane, on the other side of Mont 
Oenis, until its recent cession to 
France. The Brunetta^ which with 
the fortresses of Exiles and Fenestrelles 
formed the line of defence of Piedmont 



ftsbSHMT. 



llaule 1. — Mitrtte di Roeeia Mehne, 



Tl 



9 destrojeiJ 



OD the aiile of Fntcce, 

by the French in 1798, 

Btipulntiou in the traatj with Sardinia 

of that year, and (he dBmulitlon a eaid 

to have coat 600,000 franca. 

The Monte di Roccia MkIjmu (Mc 
i;i>Htu;ea),Bl80ahDTeSuBB, 19 11,139 feot 
in height. Upon the summit ia a cliapel, 
founded bj BoydfaJxio di Atti, n ara- 
BSder, who, haring heen taken prisoner 
by the MahometaoB, niftde a vo' 
if Bet free, ha would erect an ( 
here in houoni of the Virgin, 
fetters which bound him ore preserved 
in the ohapel. An annual prtKiession 
taliea pUee to this chopel on the 6tli of 
Augiut, the feast of the Assumption. 
It la not to be accomplished without 
much diiBuullj : td] the pilgrims are 
equipped with apikiid ataTCs and ahoee. 

It IB to the top of the Roocia Me- 
lone that 9aaie of the writers who 
erronooualy maintain that Hannibal 
croBBed the Alps by the pass of Mont 
Cenis, believe liim to have led his army, 
in order to encourage his eoldiers by 
the "view of Italv. 

8 in. from Subs is the edebrated 
Abbey of Nimaleia, 9ituBtod upon the 
nid and now almoat abandoned road 
to tbe HoBpice. Here are the remains 
of the monastery founded by Abbo, 
lord of SuBa, about the year 789. It 
was ruined by the SaraceuB not long 
after ita foundation, when the monke 
withdrew (o Turin, carrying yHh tliem 
thrir precious collection of MaS. w' " ' 
formed a part of the hbmry of S. 
vatore : it was again rebuilt in tlie 10th 
rantury. The convent b now inhabited 
by a few Benedictine monks, 

Jiut outside of Susa, the v 
itif! back upon the iawa, in which the 
Roman ari'h is oonspiuuouB, 
beautJfuL It is equaUy ao on looking 
down the bng yalley. The fiirtlioBt 
eltrcmitv of tma valley appears closed 
hy the lofty Monte Pirehiriano, iipnn 
the aunuuit of which may be dCBcrred 
Ihe lower of the Abbey of San Mi- 
eliett. The Roman road over the 
Al|», whioli was constructed when 
Caliua Bubmitted to Augustus, patised 
up tJiM mliej; aiid, tumiiig to the S.W. 



at Siisa, along Ihe vailoT of the Dora, 
crossed hy tlie pass of Mt. Qen&vre, 
Thia became the road moat frequented 

a the Romans between Italy and 
ul. The military road of Pouipej 
and Cmaar passed through Ouli, and 
over the Col d« Sestriere*. 

The Rly. and post-niada skirt to 

8 kil. B^soh«o Slat., a Bmali town 
surrounded hy walls and towerB. Bo- 
fore reaching this place, at Poresto on 
the L, are quarries of the greenBtons 
called marble of Susa, a kind of sei^ i 
pentine, very much like the verd' an- ' 
tiquB, but poBBeasing leas durability. 
Tlie road again akirta 

S kil. Borgone S/at, Between Bua- 
soleno and thia slat, on the rt, is 

San Oiario, dieplayiDg its array 
of walls and towers, and an ancient 
fortress ascending the bill which orownB 
it, standing out boldly, and riling stage 
abore atage with great beauty. 

The road next eroaseB the Dora Su- 
eina by a good bridge. 

3 kU. SanC AatoniiK Stal,, a aroall 
town, in which the principal feature ia 
a veiy ancient Lombard tower. 

3 kU. Condove Stal., on the i, bank 
of the Dora. The gorge here narrows, 
and becomcfl exceedingly picturesque. 
From the beginning of (he traTellur'a 
progresfl down the valley of Suaa, 
he wUl have seen before him, in 
the diBtanOD, a very lofly hill, upon tha 
summit of which a building, apparently 
a tower, can be faintly discerned, the 
whole maaa appearing to close tlio 
valley. Tliia mountain is the Mnnft 
PireAiriano, between which and t^ie 
Monte Capratio was the ancient for- 
tified line erected A.D. 774 by Desideriua 
King of the Lomharda, by which he 
vainly endearoured to defend hiB king- 
dom Hgainat Cliarlemagne ; but of these , 
' ifenoes no traces are now to be found, ' 
:cept in the name of the nnghbour- t 
g hamlet of CUkm. The wall waa ] 
^fended by bulwarku and towers ; but ] 
CharlinuHgne did not attack them — a 1 
ini<tre] from the Lombard cam^ bi^ J 
lyed the eiigteocB o^ & seor^ kci&J 
[fortified pa\^, ftivoti^ ViicV *C>J 
forces of ttie King oS t\\B "Siatfis v 



^1 ^4 



10 



Iloute 1 . — Monastery di San Mkhde, 



Sect.l. 



t rated. Dcsiderius fled to Pa via, and the 
Lombard monarcIiT was OTerthrown. 

On the mountain on the £. stands 
the monastery of the " Sa^ra di San 
Michele" one of the most remarkable 
religious monuments of Piedmont. It 
is supposed to have been originally 
an oratory, founded by Amisone Bishop 
of Turin, in the 10th century. Beams 
of fire descending from heaven marked, 
it was said, the spot, and lighted the 
tapers employed tor its consecration. 
As a monastery, it was rebuilt by 
Hugh de Montboissier, a nobleman of 
Auvergne (between the years 970 and 
998), who for some heinous crime 
had been enjoined the penance of found- 
ing a monastery in the Alps. In its 
flourishing age the Sagra contained 
300 monks of the order of St. Benedict, 
who kept up the " laus perennis," or 
perpetual service, in the choir; and 
its history is connected with several of 
the most important persont^es and 
events in that of Piedmont and Savoy. 

The mountain can be ascended most 
easily from S. Ambrogio, but only on 
foot or mule-back. Its summit is 2880 
foet above the level of the sea. The 
Idgher portion is covered with fine 
groves of chestnut-trees, through which 
you pursue a vdnding path. Still higher 
up are secluded and picturesque fSa.rms, 
which, with the woods, constitute almost 
all the property that this once opulent 
monastery retains. Like most of the 
monasteries dedicated to St. Michael, 
t]iis Sagra has the character at once of 
a castle and a church : great masses of 
ruins surround the habitable portion. 
A rock near it is called the Salto delta 
Sella Alda, The fair Alda leaped 
from the summit and reached the 
ground in safety, under the protection 
of the Yirgin. Vainglorious and rash, 
she attempted the leap a second time, 
and perished by the fall. Injudicious 
repairs have diminished the effects of 
the building ; but it is yet a complete 
castle of romance, — ^waUs growing out 
of rocks, and rocks built in and form- 
ing walls and foundations of the edifice. 

Passing by a ruined outwork, whose 
circular windows bespeak* its early date, 



we traverse a low vaulted gaUery, and 
reach a small terrace. Before us is a 
tower, rising out of^ and also abutting 
or leaning against the rock : the lower 
part contains the staircase by which 
we ascend to the monastery j the upper 
portion of the tower forms the extremity 
of the choir, and terminates in an 
open Lombard gallery of small circular 
arches supported by pillars : this is one 
of the oldest and most curious features 
of the building. The height, looking 
down from the outer g^ery, is great: 
an iron balustrade has been fitted into 
the interstices. This staircase is sup- 
ported by an enormous central pier: 
here and there the rocks against which 
the edifice is built jut out, and por- 
tions of sepulchres are dimly seen. At 
the summit is a great arch, filled with 
desiccated corpses. Until recently 
these corpses were placed sitting upon 
the steps of the stairs; and as you 
ascended to the church you had to 
pass between the ranks of these ghastly 
sentinels. Whence the corpses came, 
or why they were placed there, is not 
known : respected, if not venerated, the 
peasants used to dress them up imd 
adorn them vidth flowers, which must 
have rendered them still more hideous. 
The extremely beautiful circular arch, 
by which we pass from the staircase 
to the corridor leading to the church, 
is a vestige of the original building. It 
is composed of grey marble, Lombard 
in style, and sculptured with the 
signs of the zodiac and inscriptions in 
very early Longobardic characters. The 
church itself is in a plain Gothic style : 
the choir retains vestiges of an earlier age. 
A fine Gothic tomb, representing an ab- 
bot, has excited much controversy. 

The late king caused the remains 
of Carlo Emanuele II. (the father of 
Vittorio Amedeo, the first King of Sar- 
dinia, whose monument is in the ca- 
thedral at Turin), and of several other 
members of the royal family, to be re- 
moved hither firom Turin ; and it was 
supposed that he intended to render San 
Michele the future place of burial of the 
royal family. The remainder of the Sagra 
is composed of a wilderness of ruined 



'^Basntmrf^ 



RouU 1 . — SinC Ambrcfffo — jRhkA". 



halls and poiridors, and of llie i*U» and 
other gpartmenta inhabited bj the con- 
{ratemity to nliom the monaster; if 
now aeaigiied. The Benedictmea have 
disamwared ; ajid lang- before the Re- 
Tolution their poasenaions liad been 
much dilapidated It nas considered 
as one of thoBp good " pieeca of prefer- 
ment" which the crown might liinpoae 
of; and the celebrated Prims Eugene, 
all booted and epiirredj appears in the 
list of abbots. The monastery has 
been given over within the last three or 
foor years to the priests of the IiutUuto 
delta Carita, called Bosminiant, from 
the name of thdr fonnder — on order 
of recent origin, and beionginj; to a 
cLws of regulars now much encouraged 
bj the Church of Borne, as bettor suited 
to the exigencies of the age than the 
more ancient ascetic confraternities. 
They are principally employed in edois- 

The views from the summit of the 
mountain, and more particularly from 
the outer gallery of tlio choir, are of 
the greatest beanty, and would alone 
repay the traveller for the toil of the 

4 til. Sane Atabrogio Stat., a vU- 
Isge at the foot of tlie Monte Pirchm- 
ano- The bousea with their projecting 
calleries are pleaeing objects ; and there 
IB a decent small inn at the place. The 
church is rather remartable. A httle 
beyond, by the side of the road, is neeu 
Arigliana, with a fine feudal castle 
standing out boldly abore the tower, 
and foroiuig with it a beautiful group. 

3 kil. Arig^na Slat. 

AvigUaim is a rety unaltered town, 
and full of shattered fragments. The 
church of Saa Pietro ia of very high 
antiquity, and supposed, like many 
buildings of the same class, to have 
been a heathen temple. The Monte 
Sfutino in the neighbourhood fumiahea 
fome remarkable mineralB, amongst 
others the Bi/drophaae, which, opaque 
when dry, has Qie property of be- 
coming transparent when immersed 
in water. The neighbouring woods 
also (iiruish much game, both tor the 
sportsman and tbs onuthoiogiat. Near 



I 



Arigliana are two small pleasing and 
secluded lakes, tlie Logo della Madoiaa 
and the Layo di San Jiarloliimmro. 
The Dora adds greatly to the beauty of ] 
the scenery in this vicinity. i 

About this spot the Alpine valley of I 
Susa ends, and the traveller now onton 
the great valley of the Po. 

At some little distance from the 1 
rood is sesD tha church of Saat' An- 
tonio di Sinverso, anciently belonging 
' the Enights Hospitallers, m ' 



bririi ] tbe pinnacles and all other oiv 
naments being formed vrith much deli- 
cacy. This is a specimen of a strle 



at Milan, Piacenza, a 
roof is of brilliant painted tiles ; and ' 
both within and without are manv in- ' 
teresting frescoes. Tlie high altar is of ' 
the 15th century. The country is plm- 
santly wooded. 

5 Ml. Soila Stat, in the plain below 
thehUlofKivoIL 

JlieoH, a town of about 6200 InhabT i 
pleasantly situated, above which lowers 
the great onfiniabed palace begun by 
JuTura, and eihibitiug many of hia 
peculiarities. This palace was one 
of the places of conflneraent in which 
""'" rrio Amedeo II. was inoaroerated 



ade to re-ascend the throne and 
his death. He had abdicated (1730) 
favour of liis son Carlo Emanuele 
[,, and had retired to Chambery, 
taking the title of Conte di Tenda, 
" ivas a wise and good monarch ; and 
.is person the House of Savoy ob- 
:A the island of Sardisia and the 
1 title ; but a short time after his 
ement he grew weaty of a private 
Ufe, and formed a scheme for repossess- 
ig himself of the royal authority. 
Some say that his intellect was im- 
paired ; others, that he was instigated 
by the ambition of tlie Oount«ss of 
Sommariva, for whom \ie \isA tq- 
noanced the ero'tm, «n4. ^'^lani '^ 
married iimiiefla»,te\j b&b» ^sis »Mr "" 



12 



Haute 1. — Turin, 



Sect. I. 



tion. The royal revenani was speedily 
laid. The council of Carlo Emanuele 
j'eadily concurred in the opinion that 
Vittorio should be seized — a deter- 
mination which was probably not re- 
tarded by his boast that he would take 
good care to behead all his son's minis- 
ters. He was accordingly brought to 
Rivoli, Sept. 1731, and kept in what 
was equivjdent to solitary oonJEinement. 
His attendants and goarcb were strictly 
prohibited from speaking to him ; and, 
if he addressed them, they maintained 
the most inflexible silence, answering 
only by a yery low and submissive bow 
— a miserable mockery of respect. He 
was afterwards permitted to have the 
company of his wife, and remove to 
another prison; but, on the 31st of 
October, 1732, he died. Some of 
the rooms have recently been fitted 
up for the late king. There are many 
pictures in the palace — a collection of 
views in Piedmont hj the brothers Ci^f- 
naroli, landscapes by VanloOj and a 
series of historical scenes from the lives 
of Amedeo VII. and YIII., Counts of 
Savoy. 

The air of Rivoli is remarkably pure, 
and the place is vegry healthy. Hence 
the town and its vicinity abound in 
villas. Amongst othevs is the resi- 
dence of the Avvocato Cblla, to which 
is annexed a botanic garden, with hot- 
houses and conservatories. 

At Rivoli b^ins an avenue of pollard 
elms, leading to Turin, about six miles 
in length, the distant extremity o( the 
vista being terminated by the Superga. 

6 kil. Alpignano Stat, near the large 
village of Fianezza, on the opposite side 
of the river.. The railway has constantly 
on the rt. the long alley of elms leading 
from Rivoli to the capital. 

4 kU. Collegno Stat., a small town on 
the Dora, in the most fertile part of 
the plain: it gives a count's title to 
the Provana family. Here is a large 
Carthusian monastery; the fine Ionic 
fa9ade was added to it in 1727. The 
knights of the Order of the Annunciad 
(the Garter of Piedmont) are interred 
under the ch. annexed to this monas- 
^ejy^. The large chateau belongs to 



the Provana family. From Collegno 
to the capital the railway crosses the 
plain for lo kil., passing on the 1. the 
Citadel and the Place. d'Armes before 
reaching 

9 kil. Turin Terminus, at the S. ex- 
tremity of the town. Omnibuses con- 
vey travellers from the Rly. to tho 
different hotels. 

Turin. Inns : H6tel de I'Europe, 
kept by Trombetta, in the Piazza del 
CasteUo; very comfortable and well 
managed — excellent table-d'h6te at 4fr. ; 
and restaurant dinner in apartments 
5 fr.; breakfast with eggs 1-50 to 1-75 ; 
bed-rooms 2-0 to 3-0. H6tel de la 
Grande Bretagne, in the Contrada del 
Po, with a table-d'hote. H6tel Feder, 
in the Contrada di S. Francesco di 
Paola ; tables-d'h6te at half-past 1 and 
at 5, 4 francs. H dei Liguri, near 
the railway (to Genoa) station. H6tel 
de la YiUe, formerly the Pension Suisse. 
La Bonne Femme, tolerably good as a 
second-rate iim. 

Cfe^ and Hestav/rateurs : The Cafes 
of Turin are numerous and good ; the 
Fiorio, the San Carlo, and Caf^ Na- 
tionale in the Contrada del Po, are 
the best. The prices at the caf^s are 
not high : e. g. coffee, 20 cents j cho- 
colate, 25 cents ; ice, 25 cents ; good 
white wine, 60 cents the bottle ; red 50 
cents. There are restaurateurs on the 
French plan : rUniverso ; il Pastors j 
le Indie ; and la Vema. At these es- 
tablishments dinners may be had from 
2 to 5 francs. Thebest restaurants, how- 
ever, are at the H6tel de I'Europe and 
the Grande Bretagne. The chocolate 
of Turin is reckoned the best in Italy. 
The Piedmontese bread, in long thin 
wands, called "grissini," is remarkably 
good. It was introduced by a phy- 
sician, who found it in his own case 
more digestible than the ordinary bread. 
It takes its name from him. 

The Post-office is in the Via delle 
Finanze, behind the Palazzo Carignano. 
The letters for Genoa and Tuscany, 
Rome and Naples, leave at an early 
hour, BO that letters must be posted 
before 8 p.m^ on the preceding day, 
or before 5 a.'M.. at l\ie railway station. 







ts^&d 



secS &anc9 &□ hour; priiate eax- 
10 &alii» fur lialf a day, 15 for 
Hale; excureion to ttu> Super^ 
3ca with 4 horses, with 2 li 



For. 



■iolej 



a and about (he city, the Gacroii 
r quite ilb «c11 b« the more eipen- 
irriage* hired it t!ie hotels. The 
of the HAlel de rEuropo fiir- 
curiagEH it Ihe ebiuo rates as 

igSTicet, Malleapoiifs, ^c. — Most 
public coDTejancea out of Turin 
■w iu (joanection with Iho raU- 

the first in ijuportanpe to Ihe 
i traveller being those Ihat otobb 
ont Cenis into FniQca. A inalle- 
■jott every evening from the Post- 
it 91 ; and as its bres are very 

tho same (33 b.) OS by tlie 
>l^ diligenoes to St. Jean do Mbq- 
, it is Ui he preferred, eapectiaUy i>i 
nter eeason, as, from the etate of 
ibiIb, the litler overloaded vehi' 
jmelimes arrive too late for the 
« railivay train. The maUcposte 
3 passengers, 2 inside, and 1 iu 
Lbriolet. The adnunietrtition of 
idor Emanud BaQwair, whose 
are opposite tho Post-olBce, de- 

evBTj day by the 7 t.K. train 
DT diligences as are n 
> ita ttrngotsan ova; the 



betfart 



olDee for securing plauw in tlie ooauh it 
at the Albergoild Foazo. 

I'etl-rini ami Private Carriaget over 
lie Alanl Cenu. — Borgo, who ma; he 
ht-ani of at the Hfltol de I'Europe, will 
undertake lo convey travellera from tbe 
Rly. Btat. at Suaa to that of St. Jean 
de Maurieiiae, which can now be per- 
fbnned in a day, leaving Turin by the 
earlv mominfl train, and by eliang- 
ing horses at Hodane, in which case a 
small addilioiial charge of ZO fiwics is 
made ; or with the same horses to St. 
Michel, where there is a fair inn, and 
tho next morning to the rly. in time 
for the express traiu, which leaves at 
12'30 for Paris, Lyons, aud (Jenova : 
the charge for a comfortable carriage 
will vary fVom ISO fr. for 2 persons 
lo 300 and 220 for a aniall diliscoco 
lliat can accommodate a fiiniily of 
8 or 9 persons with a large quantity of 
luggage. The same arrangements can 
he made at Bt. Jean do Maiuienne for 
(he journey to Turin, by writing to 
Borgo beforehand ; his carnages am 
very good. The Mesiageries Impfriales 
in conoection with the rly, adnuuistrS' 
tion furnish carriages and post-horses 
under the denomination at extra potle, 
but their chargis are much higher, 
without oommensuratc advantage, and 



14 



Eoute 1. — Turin — Railways — History, 



Sect. I. 



to apply to the masters of the prin- 
cipal hotels to arrange the fares. It 
may be as well to add that there is 
now a very good hotel (I'Europe) close 
to the station at St. Jean de Maurienne. 

Railways are now open in every 
direction from Turin : — Between Turin 
and Genoa 4 times a day (5 35, 9*50 
A.M. ; 3*15, 5*55 P.M.), in 4 and 5^hrs., 
passing by Alexandria, Novi, and Asti : 
to Susa 5 times a day (6'10, 940 a.m.j 1, 
7*10, and 10 p.m. ; the latter in corre- 
spondance with the express train to 
Paris), in IJ and 2 hrs. : to IHne^'olo 
4 times a day, in 1 hr. 10 m. : to Cuiieo 
4i times a day, in 2 hrs. 30 m., with 
branches to Bra and Saluzzo : to Milan 
4 times a day (515, 8*37 a.m. ; 130, 
6*35 P.M.), in 3 hrs. 35 m. and 4 hrs. 
30 m. ; with branches to Ivrea and the 
Val d'Aosta : to Biella : to Arona on 
the Lago Maggiore : to Casale and 
Mortara : to Fiacenza, Parma, Mo- 
dena, and Bologna, 3 times a day (at 
5*35, 9*50 A.M., and 5*55 p.m.). 

There are 2 Rly. stats, at Turin : that 
for Alexandria, Genoa, Bologna, Pine- 
rolo, and Cuneo, at the extremity of the 
Contrada Nuova, S. of the town ; and 
that for Novarra, Arona, Milan, Casale, 
Ivrea, and Biella, on the W. side, at 
the extremity of the Via di Santa 
Teresa and beyond the Old Citadel. 
Omnibuses run to meet the trains from 
the hotels. For details respecting the 
times of starting and fares see the 
several routes. 

Physicians. Dr. J. Sapolini (Contrada 
di Gk)ito, No. 9) has studied in England 
the English modes of treatment. Br. 
Pacchiotti, who also speaks English. 

Homoeopathic Physician. Dr. Ajmini, 
Maison Natta, Piazza S. Carlo. 

Apothecary, Thomassini, Via di S. 
Filippo. 

The JEnglish Protestant Service is 
performed every Sunday, in an apart- 
ment in the rear of the Vaudois Ch. 
in the Stradale del B;^. 

There are now no suburbs to Turin : 
what were the suburbs are taken 
into the town, and continuously built 
upon. It may be said to be one of the 
most flourishing cities of Europe. 



Under the French, the population in 
1813 sank to 65,000: it is now 
150,000 exclusive of the military, and 
is increasing yearly. 

Turin is now unfortified ; the citadel, 
which is almost abandoned, and its out- 
works rased — to make room for the 
station of the Novara Kly. and the 
new portion of the town rapidly ex- 
tending in that direction — ^was a re- 
markable monument of military ar- 
chitecture. It was built by Emanuele 
Filiberto in 1565 ; and, preceding Ant- 
werp by two or three years, was the 
earliest specimen of regular fortification 
in Europe. 

In Italy, the land the most rich in 
recollections of the past, Turin is per- 
haps the poorest ci%^ in this respect. 
Its history, whether under the Empire 
or during the middle ages, is almost a 
blank. Some of its marquises are ob- 
scurely noticed; Claudius Bishop of 
Turin (died 840) was diBtinguished by 
his opposition to the use of images in 
Divine worship, as a breach of the 
second commandment, and to the 
veneration of relics. 

Turin has been repeatedly ruined: 
the last ravages it sustained were from 
Francis I., in 1536, who demolished the 
extensive suburbs, and reduced the 
limits of its ancient walls; destroying 
at the same time the amphitheatre and 
several other Boman remains. It is 
therefore almost denuded of any ves- 
tiges of classical or mediaval antiquity. 
A portion of the walls of the Pidazzo 
delle Torri, at the N. extremity of 
the city, and so called from the two 
mediaeval towers which were added, 
and some of the lower part of the 
Palazzo Madama, are perhaps the only 
exceptions. The reconstruction of the 
city, begun by Emanuele Filiberto and 
Carlo Emanuele I., is more due to 
Carlo Emanuele 11. and Vittorio Ame- 
deo II. Still further improvements have 
been more recently made, under the 
three lat^ kings and the reigning mo- 
narch. At least one fourth of the city has 
been erected since the restoration of the 
royal family, and of later years nesirly 
one third has been added to it on the 



PiEDMOST. lioiUe 1. — Turin — Climate — Catlmdi-al. 



15 



S. side, where ontiroatreaU and jquores 
ire rising as if by magic i a proof of 
the great prosperity of the fountw 
□irdoF its liberkl ia^bitutions, which 
bave niiLde Turin Uie refuge of the 
perseculed. and oppreaaed oil over 
Itoly. The streets, or coittrade, are 
all in straight lines, intersecting esoii 
iilher at right angles. The blocks, or 
massea, of buildings, formed by tlieee 
inlersecliotis, are called imle, an arclii- 
ketural Latinigm retained here and 
also in Provence. The houses ore of 
brick intended for stucco. Tliey are 
large, the windows and doors are orna- 
mented, and crowned with a cornice. 
Thnmgh the perapoctiTe of the streets, 
the lull! which surround the city, and 
the more distant Alps, are continually 

Turin ie situated in the plain which 
forma the angle between tho Dora 
Riparia and tho Fo, ju«t above the 
junction of these two nrers : tlie £rat 
is a fine luountain (orrent j tho latter 
u deep and rapid river. 



Mdh empii 



C3ie gufem poni. 



i'J.?r 



f^non'^'SSl^. 



It is Buppoaed to have been foiuided 
by a Ligurian tribe called the Tsurini ; 
the earhest mention we Gnd of it is for 
its resiatancs to Hannibal after his cele- 
brated passage of the Alps. At a later 
period it be^me a Eoman Oolony un- 
der tbe name of Augvsta Trntriaorvm. 
Sestroyed by Conatautine for having 
espoused the cause of Maxentiua, Backed 
and ruined auocessivdy by Stilioho, At- 
tila, and Odoacer, we find it in tho 
hands of its dukea at the invasion of the 
Lombards. In the 1 1th century it was 
the capital of a county, the chief of 
which and last of the male branch, 
Uui&ed m., manied his only daughter 
AdeUide to Otho of Savoy in 104&, the 
origin of ita poeseasion by the present 
roy&I famLly, Tlie most remarlEable 
events in tia more modern iisto»y of 



Turin ore the two memorable sieges it ' 
stood in lUlO and ITOS : the firBt dw ' 
ing the content betwoen the Frvnch and 
Spaniards, when the latter, headed by 
Prince Tomasso of Savoy, oapitulated 
lo marshal d'Harcuurt : the tevond 
during the war of the Suceeasion, 
when. Piedmont aiding ogninst Louis 
SIV., T. Amadeo wos besoiged in his 
capital, which he defended heroically I 
for 3 months before a very superior 
force, until the arrival of Prince £ugoiui ' 
and the imperialist army, which WU 
followed by the signal defeat of the 
Frencli (Sept, 7, 1706), and their being 
forced to raise the siege. 

Beyond the Po is the lovely nmge 
of Iiills called the ColUna di Tofinn, 
rising to tho height of nearly 1600 feet. 
They ore sparkling with vilUs ; their 
valleys are richly clothed with vegeta- 
tion; and advantage lias been taken of 
these varieties of surfaw in many of the 
beautiful gardeoa and grounds attached 
to the viUaa. 

Tlie climate of Turin is influenced by 
the vicinity of the Alps ; the winters 
are cold and foggy, the quantity of rain 
is considerable ; and hail-storms are 
frequent in summer, when the cron 
literally cut in pieces by 
n of inaup- 



Qvarini (16a4-1683),a Ihcatine monk, 
an able mathematician, and who well 
used his mathematical knowledge in his 
bold and daring constrtictions. Juvara, 
a BioiUan by birth (1685-1735), woa 
much patronised by Vittorio Amedeo 
II. There ia a great difl'orencB m the 
style of those two architocts, but both 
have in common a neglect of the rules 
of Yitruvius or Pallacuo i more mode- 
rated porhapa in Juvara, but esrriod to 
tbe utmost exteut in Quarini. Henoe 
both have been much criticised. 

The Cathedral, or JIboibo, is th« I 
oldest of the eocleiiaatinj edifices in j 
Turin, The original structure was found- j 
ed by Agilul^ King of t\w IJMoIoMift, , 
about 602. The ^TeaeiA >JviiSiti%,-w»» 
begun 1498, Mi4 conBBcra.\«'l.Sii VySi 



16 



Eoute 1. — Turin — Santo Sudario, 



Sect. I. 



The architect's name is unknown, Bac- 
cio Pintelli by some being supposed to 
haye designed it, whilst others attribute 
it to Meo del Caprino: it has been 
much altered, and some arabesques in 
the pilasters of the fa9ade are the only 
remarkable portions of the original 
structure. The interior has been yery 
recently decorated with frescoes. The 
vaulting contains the Scripture history, 
fr^m the expulsion of Adam and Eve 
from Paradise to the giving of the 
Law. Over the arches are the prin- 
cipal events in the life of St. John 
the Baptist ; at the west end is a copy 
of the Genacolo of Leonardo da Yinci, 
also in fresco. The older pictures are 
not very remarkable. The best are the 
following : Albert Dtwer, the Virgin 
and Saints, in the 2nd chapel. — F. 
ZuecherOy the Resurrection. — Casella, 
St. Cosmo and St. Damiano. — Two 
statues, by Pierre le GfroSy of Sta. Te- 
resa and Sta. Christina, have been 
much praised ; but except in their 
mechanical execution they have not 
great merit. 

There are few se{)ulchral monuments 
in this church. The most remarkable 
is that in the winter choir, of Claude 
S^ssell, who, after filling successively 
the places of professor in the university 
of Turin, and of Master of Requests in 
France, whwe he was employed by 
Louis XII. on several diplomatic mis- 
sions, became Bishop of Marseilles, and, 
subsequently, Archbishop of Turin, 
where he died in 1520. 

The high altar is ornamented by a most 
splendid display of church plate : by the 
side of it, in the 1. transept, is the tri- 
bime, or gallery for the royai family. 

The sacristy contains several magni- 
ficent crosses, vases, reliquiaries, and 
the like, of which the chief is a large 
statue of the Virgin, crowned, and 
standmg under a silver-gilt canopy. 
On the festival of the Nativity of the 
Virgin (8th Sept.) a procession takes 
plaee, equally in honour of the Virgin 
and in commemoration of the deh- 
very of the city from the French (see 
Superga^ p. 31) in 1706. Vittorio 
Amedeo, assisted by tho Imperial and 



Prussian troops, under Prince Eugene 
and Field Marshal Daun, who occupied 
Turin, and the PHnce of Anhalt, gained 
a complete and decisive victory. The 
French lost 153 pieces of cannon and 
60 mortars; this victory was the sal- 
vation of the house of Savoy, whose 
destruction was sought by Louis XIV. 
with the most inveterate antipathy. 
Of late years this procession has been 
so much reduced in splendour as to 
be now scarcely worth the traveller's 
putting himself out of the way to wit- 
ness it. Another procession takes place 
on the festival of Corpus Domini. 

Behind the cathedral, seen through 
the arch over the high altar, and en- 
tered by a flight of stairs on the rt., 
is the chapel of the Santo Sindone, or 
SttdariOy said to be the masterpiece 
of Guarini. Its cupola is formed of 
arched ribs, from the summits of which 
others spring in succession, thus form- 
ing a sort of dome. The capitals of 
the columns, and some other ornamen- 
tal portions, are of bronze. In these 
capitals the crown of thorns is in- 
troduced amidst the leaves of the 
acanthus. The pavement is inlaid with 
bronze stars. In the centre is the altar, 
of black marble, upon which is placed the 
shrine, brilliant with gold, silver, and 
precious stones. Four silver lamps, 
given by the late queen, are suspended 
on either side. The Santo Sudario^ ac- 
cording to the ecclesiastical legend, is 
one of the folds of the shroud in which 
our Lord was wrapped by Joseph of 
Arimathea, and on which an impression 
was left of his body ; other folds being 
preserved at Rome, at Besan9on, and 
at Cadouin in P^rigord. This one 
was brought from Cyprus, and pre- 
sented in 1452, by Margherite de 
Chami, the descendant of a nobleman 
of Champagne, who was said to have 
obtained it during the Crusades : but 
there is no mention of its existence 
until the fifteenth century, when, 
having been given by Margherite to 
Duke Louis II., it was first depos\ted at 
Chamb^ry, from which it was brought 
to Turin, in 1578, by Emanuel Phihbert, 
for the purpose of enabling St. Carlo 



' ^Bit'^rt. 



Jlwtte 1. — TSirin — Churches, 



17 



BoTTOmoo to Tenerate it without tlie 
fatigue of croasiiig the Alps. Wliile 
it wna at Ohamb&y it was iDTOied 
by Franois I. pnmouslj to the battle 
of Marignano, and On his rutum to 
FrajicB he went on foot from Lyon» to 
tnmhip it. A sitting statue of the lute 
Qu^en Maria Adelaide, by Sevetli, a 
Cleitoosc sculptor, has b^en recently 
creeled in tliis chapel. In the niehes 
roand the Banetunry have been placed 
by the late Sing Charles Albert monu- 

membcTB of the house of Savoy — yii. 
to Enumucl Fhilibert, whose remamg 
are beneath^a very fine work by Mar- 
eheii; to Prinue Thomas of SaToy, from 
whom descend the present Sovcroigna 
of Piedmont, of the branch of Carig- 
luno, by Qaggini, a Genoese and pupil 
otC^oTBi to Charlea Eroanupl II.,by 
FraaaraUi and to Amedeo Till., by 
Caeeiatori. The inaeriptions are from 
the pen of CaTnliore Cibntrio. 

Many of the other churches of Turin 
are splendidly decorated: amongst these 
may be noticed — 

Ck. of La Ctnuolata, which deriree 
it( name from a supposed miraculuuB 
painting of the Vimn, the object of 
much veneration. The picture Is, in 
the opinion of Lanzi, the ^roduetiOQ of 
a pupil of the school of Oiotto, though 
attributed by the legend to the age of 
St. EuaebiuB, Bishop of Vorcelli, in the 
fourth century. This ohmvh is a com- 
bination of three oburehea opening into 
each other; the most ancient founded 
in the 10th centy, by the monks of the 
abbey of Noralesa, after their expulsion 
by the Saracens, and dedicated to St. 
Andrew. Tbe present edifice dates front 
the end of the 17th ceuty. i the archi- 
(eoi waa O-uarini. JuTara subsequently 
erected the high altar. It ia ricbly deeo- 
mted with marbles, raany of which are 
Tery beaulifiiL The eorridor lending 
to one of the churches of the Congolata 
ia corered with ex voios, cliielly paint- 
ings of the rudest kind. On the Piazza 
opposite the cliurcli stands a hand- 
some column of Biella granite, erected 
jn 183^ Bonaoant-ed bf a statue of the 



Virgin of the Consolata, to record the 
cessation of the chohjra. 

C&. del CorjHU Domini (one of the 
finest in Turin), built 1« Vitozri in 
1607 ; but the whole of the interior is 
from the designs of Count Alfieri. It 
la very rich, and is a cbaraeteriatio , 
specimen of the architect and of his 1 
age. lu the centre is a railod-in mnrblo 
slab, with HQ inaoription, to coiranemo- 
rote the roiraouloue recovery of a piece 
of Sacramental plate containing the 
blesaed wafer, which, being stolen during 
the pillage of Enlles by a soldier, and' 
hidden in one of his panniers, this ass 
(nrryine it refiued to pass the church 
door ; the sacred vase fell to the ground, 
and the wafer, rising into the air, re- 
mained suspended there, euciroled with 
rays of light, until the biahop and his 
clergy came out to receive it. This 
singular miracle, said to have taken 
place in 1453, is represented in 3 paint- 
inga on tie vault of the church. 

Ch. of 3mi Soinenica contains a pie- , 
ture of the Virgin and Child presenting j 
the rosary to the patron saint, by < 
Ouerciao. ' i 

Ch. of San Filippo. This church was ' 
one of the trisla of skill of Gimrini, but 
here it failed him ; and the cupola, 
which was somewhat upon the plan of 
that of the Santo Sudano, with a great 
part of the church, fell in 1714. It . 
was rebuilt bv Jitvara. San Filippo ^ 
ia one of the finest churches in Turin, i 
Over the heavy high altar, supported J 
by 6 barbarous torse columns, is A' I 
painting of the Virgin and Child with i 
S. John and S. Euaebius, and 2 hoW 
persona of thoHonauofSavoy,by Carlo i 
MaTtttta, In other parts of the church ' 
are pictures of S. Philip before the 
Virgin, by SoUraena, and of S, Jolm 
Nepomucene, by Sei. Coitca. 

Ch. if San Moreaio, on the Fiaiza 
del Castello, an eitreme example of 
the fancy of Guarini, ia curious from 
its fantastical dome, formed on ribs, j 
each of which ia the chord of 3-8ths j 
of a circle ; in thia may readily bo \ 
traced the arcMtact ot \.\\o C\v4.-7Si tSN 
the Sudatio. W ■was wcwSw4.\s^ ^tag 
manueleSili'twrtiiW Wi»ws^«owi *S^ 



18 



JRoute 1. — Tunn — Eoi/dl Palace, 



Sect. I. 



TOW for his success at the battle of St. 
Q.uentin. 

« 

La gran Madre di Dio, opposite the 
bridge over the Po, was began 1818 
in commemoration of the restoration 
of the royal family, and finished about 
1840. The building is an imitation of 
the Pantheon at Rome, the architect 
Buonsignore. This edifice is said to 
haye cost 100,000Z. sterling, chiefly 
contributed by king Carlo Felice, and 
forms a fine close to the vista at the 
extremity of the Contrada del Po. 

Ch» of SanMaurizio^heioiigmg to the 
military order of St. Maurizio and S. 
Lazzaro, with an oyal cupola ] and a 
recent fa9ade by Mosca, 

There are nearly 40 other churches in 
Turin, none very remarkable for their 
architecture, their historical interest, or 
the objects of art which they contain. 

A handsome Protestant church was 
commenced in 1851, and consecrated 
2 years afterwards, in the fine Vzale 
del Platani of the Stradale del Be, 
chiefly for the use of the Vaudois, of 
whom there is a considerable number 
settled at Turin. The service is per- 
formed in French, according to the 
Vaudois rite. The building, by the 
architect Formento, is in a Lombardo- 
Norman style. The principal part of 
the expense was contributed by the 
government, which, for this, and for 
even having assented to the erection 
of such an edifice, has been visited 
with great animadversion by the bi- 
goted party, and by the ever illiberal 
councils of the Vatican. 

The Piazza Castello^ containing some 
of the principal public edifices, is sur- 
rounded by lofty palaces, which extend 
also along the Strada del Po, a noble 
perspective, terminating with the green 
slopes of la Collina ; in the same man- 
ner as the Contrada Dora Grossa, on 
the other side of the Piazza, terminates 
in the opposite direction with the pro- 
spect of the snowy peaks of the Alps 
about Mont Cenis. 



The JRoyal Palace^ on the N. side of 
the Piazza, was raised by Carlo Ema- 
nuele II., from the designs of tho 
Count di Castellamonte. ^e exterior 
has no pretension to magnificence, ex- 
cept from its size. The fine iron rail- 
ing and gates which separate it from 
the Piazza are from designs by Palagi ; 
the bronze statues of Castor and Pollux 
by Sangiorgio. The interior is well 
arranged, and, besides the usual apart- 
ments for the state and residence of 
a sovereign, contains within it many 
of the public offices. On the princi- 
pal staircase is an equestrian statue 
of Vittorio Amedeo I., commonly 
called "JZ CavaUo di Marmo" the 
animal being much more prominent 
than his rider. The figures of captives 
at the feet of the horse are by Adriano 
Frisio, a scholar of Griov. da Bologna. 
The great old-fashioned hall, formerly 
appropriated to the Swiss Guards, is 
open to the public. The large haU or 
anteroom of the Guards is covered 
with paintings of battle-scenes : open- 
ing out of it on the rt. is the suite of 
royal apartments. In the first room 
is a large picture of the Judgment of 
Solomon, by Podesti; in the second a 
large painting of the battle of St. Quen- 
tin, attribute to Palma Oiovane. The 
state apartments are splendidly furnish- 
ed J modem luxury being united to the 
heavy magnificence of the last century. 
They were restored and newly deco- 
rated during the reign of Charles Albert, 
under the durections of Cav. Palagi. The 
inlaid floors, in woods of diflerent co- 
lours, are remarkably beautiful. In the 
King's Salle de Travail are a series of 
modem paintings of members of the 
House oi Savoy remarkable for their 
piety, or who were members of religious 
orders. The Great Gallery, a splendid 
apartment overlooking the gardens, con- 
tains portraits of sovereigns of the 
reigning family, and of men of eminence 
in every department, natives of the coun- 
try. Beyond this is the a^partment 
of the Queen, with magnificent bou- 
doirs. In the room called the Guarda- 
roha delta Regina are some good Etrus- 
can vases, and a large picture of Taor- 



Piedmont. 

mina, "with JEtaa iu the dJBtancBf by 
Can, Maislmo if Axeglio; near tlik m 
the Ohapel, gaudy utid liBaTj. Tho 
State Hining-room rontaiiu aoreral in- 
different historical pictarea — one at a 
^ tOBmamant at the Court of France be- 
ll Amadeoa V III. of 9avo; and tha 
r Boglisli EariB of Hnirington, 
lei, and Pembroke. The Salle de 
iMtm de la Seine is richly decorated 
a profueion of Chinese and Japan 
pcmelaiu Tases. The last apartment ie 
the Skits Sail-room, which offers no- 
tMng rirmarkable. The Chapel of the 
Saalo Sudario, geDeraUy closed during 
the afternoon on the Bide of the Cathe- 
dral, can alwujB be entered from the 
palace, neur the anteroom of the State 
apartments. The King's Frioate I/i- 
lirary, on the ground Boor, is a very 
haDdBomehall, eontaining40,000 printed 
volB.Bnd2000MS9. Amongst thelstter 

reapondence : — the niateriala sent by 
pTHderick "the Great" to Count Alga- 
rotti a« the basis for the hiatorj of the 
tmea yeate' war ; letters of Emanuel 
Filibert, Prince Eugene, and Napoleon ; 
many Arabic and Syrian manusoripts. 
CavaUere Fronm is the KhrariBn. 
There is also a Taluable oolleotiou of 
drawings by old masters, formed by 
Volpato. In the passage leading into 
the library are soTeral early Christian 
iiucriptions from the Catacombs at 
Bome, a few in Graet eharact«a. 
The palaue communicates by a wing, 
called the Oalurie di Buaumont, with 
tlie offlcea of the Secretaries of State. " 
Under the roof of the palace, and 
a^oining the ata1« apartments, but en- 
tered from the side of tlie Piaxxn, ia the 
Armeria Segia. Thia collection was 
formed in 1834, partly from tlie ar- 
senals of Turin and G^oa, and partly 
fi™n private eolleetious purchased by 
the late king, especially that of the Mar- 
timmgo family of BrEsda, It eontaina 
several pieces of hist«rical interest, 
and is considered aa one of the pnn- 
oipal «Adici of Turin. It has been judi- 
iriniiiihr arranged by tbe late director, 
Seyssdl d'Aii. I'enaission to 
iiia obuiaableia the library below. 



Boute 1. — Tann — Armoury. 



^^nnt 



19 

from the concierge. Tlie following nre 
amongst the chief objeots ; — 

20, 33. Two euita which belonged 
to Antonio di Martiiiengo in the 16th 
century, both ornament^ with da- 
maaquino and other engrayinga of ex- 
cellent design : the latter (33) is the 
finest in the collection. 

35, The full suit of the Duke Ema- 
□uele FiUbert«, or TSle de Fer, and 
by him on the great d^ of tha 



sol B 






San Carlo.) Emanuele himself 
yery good armourer, not only in tha 
coarse smith's work, but iu the finer 
departments of inlaying with ailyar, or 
danmsquining, and it is said that the 
armour Which ho wore was his own 
manufacture. Pacific as he was in the 
later years of his life, he never went 
into public except in Ids panoply, and 
bearing his good sword mider his arm. 
Thia armour ia copied in Marochetti's 
fine statue in the Piazza 3. Carlo, 

37. A suit fit for a giant, respecting 
which there hare been manyconjecturea. 
Kothing is known of its history or 
oymer ; it bears a ducal coronet and 
the letter F. 

67. Theslaffof command of Alfonso 
di Ferrara (1B15). 

104. The hie of the celebrated bur- 
gomaster Tiepolo. 

239, A magnificent suit of damas-. 
qnincd steeL 

275. The cuirass of Prince Eugene, 
with three deep bullet indentations in 
front, worn by him at the battle of 
Turin, where, as before mentioned, the 
French were totally defeated ; and (990) 
his sword worn on the eame memorable 

288. CuiroBs worn by Carlo Ema- 
nuele III. at the battle of Guaatalla, 
10th Septcrober, 1734, 

292-294, Helnieta in the style of 
the Bcnaissanoo. Tlie laat belonged to 
the celebrated surgeon and anatomial 
Scarpa of Payia, who, towajda the close 
of his life, was ns fond of it as Dr. I 
Woodward was of his shield, and made J 
it the Bubjeot of a Bfecial dUaar^Al^o^t. j 
wluch he prmteA ptMiteX^ lot 'Vs*! 
Meads, illuBtratea -wifb. \)e«o!iSii. 0|j 



20 



Boute 1# — Turin — Armoury — Archives, 



Sect. I. 



grayings. It is covered with imagery, 
representing Jove thundering upon the 
Titans. 

381-385, 394, 395. Shields and 
targets in the same style. 380 is ex- 
Cvjedingly rich, embossed with subjects 
representing the contests between Ma- 
rius and Jugurtha. Amongst the orna- 
ments is introduced a crescent, supposed 
to be the device of Diana of Poitiers ; 
but more probably the armorial bear- 
ings of its owner. It is of the best 
period of modem art, and has been 
attributed to Benvenuto Cellini, the 
ireputed fother of all works of this de- 
scription. 394 is also very splendid, 
representing the labours of Hercules. 

819-821- Three very delicate tri- 
angular-bladed stilettoes, which, it is 
said, were carried by Italian ladies for 
the purpose of ridding themselves of 
husbands or lovers. 

943. Sword of Duke Emanuele FiH- 
berto, formerly preserved in the " Ca- 
mera de* Conti," arid upon which the 
officers of state were sworn. Amongst 
the other objects worthy of notice in the 
armoury may be mentioned an ancient 
Koman eagle, bearing the inscription 
Leg: VIII., found in Savoy, and the two 
Imperial eagles of Napoleon*s Italian 
Guard, presented by one of its 
commanders. General Lecchi. The 
sword worn by Napoleon at Ma- 
rengo ; several Russian flags taken by 
the Piedmontese during the siege of 
Sebastopol ; the sword of the leader of 
the Theban Legion, given to Duke 
Charles Emanuel by the Abbey of 
Agauno in 1571 ; and the rostrum of 
an ancient galley in bronze, in the 
form of a wild boar's head, found in the 
port of Genoa, have been lately added 
to the collection. 

The collection of Oriental arms is 
extensive, as also of S. American. 
Amongst the former is a sword of 
Tippoo Saib, given by him to Gen. de 
Boigne, a Savoyard officer, who had 
been much employed by the native 
princes of India. The series of fire- 
arms of different periods is also con- 
siderable, and very many interesting as 
works of manufacture and art; amongst 



which may be particularised — 1534, the 
arquebuse which belonged to Emma- 
nuel Philibert J 1547, another, incrusted 
with ivory, with designs of mythological 
subjects ; and, 1548, a third, having ex- 
ceedingly beautiful subjects sculptured 
on ivory, representing Meleager and 
Atalanta In the anteroom are busts 
of some Sardinian nuhtary celebrities, 
and models of warlike engines and 
apparatus. 

At the extremity of the armoury is a 
smaller apartment ; over the door is a 
marble bust of Xing Carlo Alberto, with 
his swords, and two Austrian standards, 
captured, at Somma Campagna, during 
the campaign of 1849. This cabinet 
contains the private collection of me- 
dals formed by the late king : it is 
particularly rich in those of the house 
of Savoy, and of the Italian States 
in modem times ; over the cases 
of the medals are several bronzes 
found in the Island of Sardinia, sup- 
posed to be of Phoenician origin, and a 
series of Roman bronzes discovered in 
the ruins of the Boman station of In- 
dustria, amongst which the statue of a 
youthful Cupid is very beautiftd. 

Adjoining the palace, and, in fact, 
forming part of it, for there is a con- 
tinued series of internal communica- 
tions, are the foUowing buildings and 
establishments : — 

The JReali Secretaries containing the 
offices of secretaries of state and the 
principal departments of government. 

The Archivi, in which is deposited 
a very rich collection of diplomas and 
charters ; a selection £rom these is in 
course of pubhcation. Annexed to 
these archives is a very select library of 
early printed books and manuscripts. 

The Accademia Militare forms also a 
part of the same pile. It encloses a large 
quadrangle, of handsome and scenic 
effect. The institution, which was re- 
organized in 1839, is said to be very 
complete and efficient. 



FiEDMONr. Houte I. — Turin — C'tistk — Galhi-y of Pictta-is. 



Lnallj, tlie Tealro Regio. It was 
buUt from the it^sigoa of the Count 
iMeri, and was tbe building wUeb 
made his fortune. Alfiori, bom nt 
Rome, was edmatBd as an adyOcat« -, 
bat his eiceeding love for arulitt^cture 
soon induced Jiim to aboudon tho bar. 
Hb nBTer nieutioned the name of Mi- 
chael AngtJo viitbout tnking uS hia hat 
or beretta. Earing boen eniplojud at 
Tort.ona, when Carlo Emnnuele II. 
happened to paaa through that town, 
the moimrch wae so pleased with his 
worli, that he took the yoimg ad- 
vocate int« his serrice, and at once 
intrusted the building of this theatre 
to him ; Bjtd so Bstisfactory was tho 
production, tliat Alfleri was forthwith 
appointed oourt arehitect, and became 
tlie object of every spooiee of favour. 
He obtained the reputation of the best 
architect of hia time. 



The Bogal Galleiy of FU-ltirel 
formed bjr Carlo Alberto with psiutinga 
formerly suultered through the RojbI 
PalacBs. The great entranoe hall re- 
maijis nearly aa it was wlien the build- 
ing was used as a palaoe ! it ia adorned 
with psintingB representing the deeds 
of the house of Savoy. 

The gallery is open daily; on Sundays 
Irom 9 till 2, and on other days frma tl 
till-l. The rooms are plainly but appro- 
priatoly fitted up. Some of these being 
need aa committee rooms by the Sennt^ 
the paintings ore seen with difficulty 
dming the session of the Parliament 
'" June) [ indeed many of them 



In the centre of the Plozxa del Cas- 
tello is the ancient casUe, now con- 
Tert«d into the Falazio Madama. Of 
the old castle, founded by Ludorico 
d'Acaja in tbe early part of the 14lh 
eentury, tho principal yestiges are 
the two towers, which hare been 
before mentioned. Two others exist, 
concealed by the nLDdem buddings. 
When restored by Amedeo VIII., 1416, 
this oastle was at the ostrmnity oC the 
city. Tlie principal front was added 
to the old structure in 1730, after the 
designs of Juvara. It is an etcellent 
piece of street architecture. The other 
three wore to have been completed after 
the same deaicn. It was fittitd up aa a 
palaoe for Madama Seale, mother of 
King Viotor Amodeus II., in 1718. It 
now uontaioa the Hall of AsBembly 
and Bureaus of the Senate, the Royal 
Qallery of Pictures, and the Aetrono- 
mical Obaerratory on the summit of 
oiie of its towerv. In &ont of the P. 
Madama, and fifing the wide Via di 
Dora QroBM, the entrance Irom Mont 
Cenis, stands a statue of s PiedmonteBO 
soldier, a good work by Vela, the 
Lugano sculptor, erected by the Lom- 
bard emigrauta to the Piedmontese 
■nuy, in aieaioij- </f its heroia deeds 



ntirely remored during this peril 
> prevent their being iojured by V. 



.the 
Ores necessary for heating the apart- 
ments. By a decree of the govem- 
mont a new building is to bo ortsetcd 
for a picture gallery, the direction 
of which has been confidod to the 
Cavaliere Massimo Azeglio, himself a 
most talented artist. la the mean 
time the principal paiDting;s are the 
fallowing ; but thpir arrangement has 
been so often altered that it is difficult 
to give a correct description of the ^ 
objects contained in each room. That 
whioh &>Uows is as it existed in 1859. 
There are two good printed catalogues. 
The three first apartments, occupied by 
the Senate, are entirely closed to the 
visitor ill the Parliamentary Session, 
and the best pictures in tliem rsmoved 
to others. During the sittings of tho 
Senate the gallery can only be seen 
before 12 o'cbck, 

Boon 1. Sala PientOHlaie. -» Gau- ' 
deaiio Ferrari, a Cruoifiiion in dia- . 
temper, on caovos, Ijeing the design for 
one of the frescoes at VerceUi (see ' 
Vercelli), — very rich, although only a 
sketch, and offering scarcely any varia- 
tion from the fresco, which is much 
damaged ; — an Entombment, on wood, 
vray fine ;~a subject ?alieA. tfoa tmv- 
verBionotSt.5ttui,Wt mo're-^to'inMq 
a legend of aotoe (A\utc iisaal -, %^.'%<^M9 



22 



Roitte 1. — Turin — Gallery of Pictures. 



Sect. I. 



and a devotee; a Besurrection, with 
Saints. Bernardino Lanini, a Holy 
Family and Saints on wood, 1564; 
Deposition from the Cross, 1545 ; De- 
position with Saints, 1558. Oiavenone, 
Besurrection ; a Yirgui and Saints. 
Olivieri, a Crucifixion. 

EooM 2. — ^Rapellel, La Madonna 
della Tenda^ on wood, — a very beau- 
tiful picture, whether it be really by 
Baphael or not ; for there are at least 
thi^ repetitions, all claiming to be ori- 
ginals : one is at Munich, another is or 
was in Spain, and this is the third. 
Its history is said to be as follows : — 
a certain Cardinal delle Lanze gave 
it as a present to a Countess Porpo- 
rate : upon her death it came to the 
Coimtess of Broglio, who sold it for 
800 francs, lb then passed, no one 
knows exactly how, to Professor Bou- 
cheron, who kindly " relinquished it," 
afi the phrase is, to the late king, when 
Prince of Carignano, for 75,000 francs 
(3000i^.). Passavant says that compe- 
tent judges consider it to be a good 
copy by Pierino del Yaga. — T1TII.N, 
the Supper at Emmaus, a noble pic- 
ture, bought by Cardinal Maurice of 
Savoy in 1660, and said to be the ori- 
ginal of that in the Louvre ; a portrait 
— PaJma Vecehio, Holy Family and 
Saints, the Virgin crowning a Figure 
in front. — Cfuercino, Virgin and Child ; 
a Figure, half naked, with a red Be- 
retta, and bearing a great Sword, called 
David; a Virgin and Child- — JPanini, 
Interiors of the Basilicas of San Paolo 
fuori le Mura, and of St. Peter's, at 
Rome. — BassanOy a Market. — Gh^ido, 
Sta. Caterina with a lamb. — Cignani^ 
Venus and Cupid. — Crespiy a Confes- 
sional. — Cesare da Sesto, Virgin and 
Child. 

Booh 3. — Mawtegna^ Holy Family 
and Saints. — Paul Vebonese, Pha- 
:rooh's Daughter finding Moses, a splen- 
did picture, in which the artist has 
introduced his own portrait; Magda- 
lene washing our Lord's Feet at the 
table of the Pharisee. This fine pic- 
■tiiire jfonned until recently one of the 



principal ornaments of the collection at 
the Palazzo Beale or Durazzo at Qte- 
noa; Queen of Sheba's Visit to Solo- 
mon. — Bassano, Bape of the Sabines ; 
a Fair. — TUian, Adoration of the Shep- 
herds; Fall of Troy; Judgment of 
Paris ; Bape of Helen ^ .^neas sacri- 
ficing : all in Titian's early style. — Sal- 
vator Rosa, a very fine Landscape, with 
the Baptism of our Lord. — Canaletti, 
Turin from the N.E.;' Old Bridge at Tu- 
rin ; fine. — Badile, Presentation in the 
Temple. — BeUr<ifflOy Angds singing. — 
Vanm, a Magdalene. — Bronzino, Por- 
trait of Cosimo I., very characteristic. 
— Cao'lo Dolee^ Mater Dolorosa. — C. 
Maraita, the Angel GrabrieL — Velat- 
quez. Portrait of Maria Colonna Spinola. 
— Cfuercino, Head of St. Elizabisth of 
Hungary. — Bompeo Battoni, ^neas 
carrying Auchifies. — SoUmena, four pic- 
tures. 

Booh 4. — Gfuercino, Sta. Francesca 
Bomana. — Jj. Spada, David. — Spag- 
noletto^ Homer. — Bassano, Venus and 
Cupid superintending thfi forging of 
the Armour of Mars. — Andrea del 
Sarto, Holy Family. — Semino, Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds, on wood, 1584. 
— Oignani, Adonis and his Dog. — Spag- 
noletto, St. Jerome. — MazzucheUi, 
Lucretia. — Procaccini, Virgin with 
Saints ; S. Carlo Borromeo and S. Fran- 
cis. — GhtidOy Combat between three 
Sons of Venus and three of Bacchus ; 
Samson, the same subject as in the 
Pinacotheca at Bologna. — P, Battoni, 
Betum of the Prodigal Son. — An- 
nib. Caraccif St. Peter. — Carlo Dolce, 
Head of Christ. — Sasso Ferrato, Virgin 
and Child. — Qiorgione, a Portrait. — 
Domenichino, Three Children, as em- 
blems of Architecture, Astronomy, and 
Agriculture. — ChiercinOy Betum of the 
Prodigal Son, very beautiful. — Vela*- 
quez, Portrait of Philip IV. — Carlo 
Dolce, Mater Dolorosa. — Bernardino 
I/uini, Herodias' Daught^ receiving 
the Head of St. John the Baptist. — 
Lomi, the Annunciation. — Moroni, 
Carlo III., Duke of Savoy, and his 
Wife. 



Booh 5. Circukr SkIb in the S.E. 
lower.— Ci^jiKKwi, MagdalLTio. — ISola, 
Bnccluuite. — Schvlctie, tvo subjeL'ta of 
Children' d Heiuls. — £apAae2(f), Vir^n 
and Child, in hie verj texU maimer. 
— Panmi, three picliues of Ruim, — 
Gtavino, Head of our JjoriL—Sdla; 
a dead Chnet. — Moroni, Fortraitg of a 
Doge of Tenioe und his Wife.— JSoj- 
fltno, the Deposition of our Saviour 
in the Sepulehre ; an Ecce Homo. — 
Qiiido, Lucretiai Fame do a Olobe. 
— Ruxif Magdalene waebin^ the Savi- 
our's Feet ; Ahraliain dismieung Ha- 
g« ; Solomon sacrificing to Idols. — 
Sernardiae Zuini, Holy Faroil^.^ 
Ceiare ^Aypino, Adam luid Ere driven 
from Pnradiso. — Semenii, Cleopatra. — 
I)aiatl da VoUerra a CruciSiioo, fine. 
— GarqptlOf Christ disputing with the 
Doctors, a beautiful picture. — Ciro 
Terri, ihe Agony in the Giardan. — C. 
AlUri, Jftoob'a Tiaion. — Betiriiffio, 
MarriagB of 8t. OotliBrinc. — Qiorgione, 
Hnodiss' Daughter reoeiTioE the Head 
of St, John, fine.— FoBHi, a CiuciEiion, 
witA Saints. 

Booit %.—Batio«i, sNtttivitj.— Iw- 
iMwHd, our Iiord on the Crosa received 
into Heaven by the Father. — Titia», 
aBnePortnut of Paul IIL—Pietra da 
Cart«im, Bebeoca at tho WelL— Z.. Cam- 
Uttii, the Wise Men's Offerine.— 0io- 
MWri Bellini, Virgin and Cluld, and 
Saints, a Bne picture. — 7%arini, St. 
pEt«r, — Morai%one, Tirginia stabbing 
ilE — Fordenone, Holy Family and 
' — Ovido, St. John Baptist ; 
flaying Marsyas, a veij diaagree- 
paintiug j St. Jerome. — - JVan- 
IvM, Ho^ Fajnily and Saints. — 
-«. da Volterra, Decollation of St. 
John.— Pio/o, St. Paul.— J". Frawia, 
- - ■ - the Wise 



mg the finest worlia of Albani. Tlioy 
were painh^d fur Cardinal Maurice of 
Savoy; and Albani in two of hi* 
letter*, written in 16S6, hu explained 
the meaning of his allegories vrith mueli 
olearnesa and originality. Venus repre- 
sents Jire. The Cardinal had dinvUnl 






ICen'a OOering, — Orechetto, Batyra in a 
Landscape. — Slitabetia Siram, Cain 
lilliDg Abel. — Carana^gio, Reading at 
Kiglit.— 5roMiBO,Portrait of Elleonora 
o( Toledo. 

HooM 7. — Albani, Earth, Air, Fire, 
Viia, Xheso allegorical pointings are 



B him 



quaKlitd di amerelli ;" and Albani 
:rTed him to his heart's content. The < 
noretti in tlii» and the other com- | 
panion jiicturea are eiquiaitely playful. 
Juno is the representative of Air ; 
and her nymphs are, with much odd i 
ingenuity, eonvcrt^ into the atmoa- 
phoria changes. Dew, rain, lightning, 
and thunder form one group. Water ' 
is Sgurod by the triumph of Galatea : 
at the bottom of the picture are 
njmplis and Cupid fishing for pearls 
and ooraL Earth is personified by 
Cybele, whose car is surroonded by 
tlireo seasons, winter being eicluded. 
Here the Cardinal's Cupids are occu- 
pied in various agricultural labours. 

Room 8. — Malonnd female portraits, . 
inoorreotly called Cromwell and his 
wife, in the catalogue, and attri- 
bnted to Sir P. Lelg — Vandj/ke, 
Holy Family, a rich painting, — fonloo, | 
Louis XY.^Luea da Leida, Crowning , 
of a 9overeign,^5H*ei«, 4 heads.- Jait 
Miel, a Market,— Fa/eniiit, our Lord ' 
bound.— Foarfyjie, Virgin and Child.— 
llyletis, Charles I. of England. — Subeni, 
an unknown portrait in armour. — An- I 
gelioa Kauffhiau, a portrait. — Jiuinu, a 
Magdalene., — Misnard, Louia XTV. — ■ 
TeHien, Peasants dancing. — Jan Miel, ^ 
aBoyalChaoo. — Sembrandl, the Wise 
Men's Offering.— fiiitens, Holy Family. , 

— Vandyke, tlirco Children of Charles , 
I. (fine) i sii Beads of Children of the 
House of Saroj. — Porbas, Portrait of 

a Lady of tie same Family. 

Boom 9. — Sothenhanitner, the Na- 
tivity. — Bernkardt, a Family at Supper. 

— Wovvemtam, a Battle-piece, la Bi- 
coqiie, eaod.—Suient, our Lord and the 
Magd^ene. — Holbein, Portrait of Cal- 
Tin. — Vandgte, Assumption of the, 



BtmU 1 . — Turin — GaSery ef Pktwnt. 



24 

Tirgin. — C. Moor, PyraniM and Thisbe. [ 
— Raoemte'iA, Portrait of Catherine of , 
SiToy. — Rubeju, a BurgomiuteT. — ' 
Poiunii, Peasanta. — Luca da Leida, 
Crucifidon, altarpiece in 3 compart- 
ments. — Mainae, an excellent Cruci- 
fixion.— 5i^«r(, Holj Bamilj,— Grf. 
dorp. Portrait of a Lady.— Jiiiiww, two 
Heads. — Fandgte, Holj FamUj. — 
Svbau, Boar and Dogs.— Vartder Wtrf, 
Adam and Ere lamenting tlie Death 
of &!be\.—Bembra»dt, Resurrection of 
lazanu. — C. Nelseher, a EniiB-grinder. 
— Oitade, old Man and Woman. — 
Lmtlemant, a Head. — Senihraadt, a 
Bobbin. 

KooH 10.— Sabm, three Heads.— 
Vandyke, Nymphs and Baochantea. — 

^ftl, two Fruit and Oame pieces. — 
^3fiff™,»ea„ three Heads.— O. Crayer, 
our Lord teaching tlie Doctors ; an En- 
tombment. — SoAein, Portrait of Eras- 
mus ; ditto of himself— !ZVni«"», two 
Interiora of Taveme. — P. Potter, 
four Oien, a well-studied and carefully 
executed work. — Q. Soaihiril, Sttmaon 
shorn. — Vander Werf, Shepherd and 
Shephndess.— <?. h Dae, a Head.— 
O.Tsr6urg,a Head. — G>. jow. Woman 
looking out at a Window ; Head of a 
Man ; Boy and Oirl at a Window.— 
Solbein, Portrait of a Man ; ditto of a 
Lady. — Wbavermatit, Battle-piece. — 
Hant HenUing, HiBtory of our Lord's 
Paaaion, a moat singular succession of 
scenes, in tbe aame atyle as the Nativity 
in the Boisser^ collection. 



s««.i. 



Arbour. — Temert, M*., a Countij- 
man and hia Wife talking with a 
Lawyer. — Bembramdt, a strilmig Por- 
trait of an old Man.— Pounii, St. Umr- 
garet. — Wouvermatu, Halt of Horae- 
men. — S»bent, Portrait of *''t"t<''f when 
fcry old. 

Room 13.— ly ihn SattUt. Sug- 
lemberg, 12 pictures of battles, between 
1697 and 1716, in which Prince Eu- 
gene of Savoy commanded ; amongst 
others the Battle of Turin, which is 
historically and locally tcij intereating. 
— Dt la Pegtta, i battle-piece*. — Fok- 
ienaeuUn, 4 battle-pieoea, in which 
princes of the house of SaToj played a 
RODspicuone part. 

Boou 14. — Brevgid dg Valour; 

Biyer scene i ditto, with Ruins.— IFU- 
fiairm. Interior of a Church. — JmtMiel, 
Modeller's Studio.— Pe(«- Neefi, Inte- 
rior of a Cathedral- IViHerj, a Han 



the ColiaBum. — J.. Durrr, Deposition 
from the Cross ; a fine Holy Family — 
Lhciu da Leida, Death of the Tii^n. — ' 
Jordaettf, Boar -hunting. — Oagnertam, 
Cupids and Lion. — Jan Miel, Roman 
Ruina. — Bubem, Siet<!h for one of the 
series of the life of Mu? de' Medici in ths 
Louvre. — Sc/iaiken, View near a Ruin, 



Boon 12.— ji. Durer, the Salut 
hy St. Elizabeth ; Man praying.— ffoi- 
biin, a Portrait called Luther and bis 
Wife, dated 1542.— Jordaau, Our Lord 
and An|els ; raising of Lftiarua, — Van- 
dyke, a Holy Family.. — Teuieri, a Lady 
and Music, m his beat manner ; Interior 
of a Tavern, with Music.— BiiiejM and I 
Breughel, Venus and Cupid in a Land- 
Breughel, ten.. Village Dance. 



Rook 15.—Camlanti», 13 modem 
copies of celebrated pictures in the gal- 
leries of Florence, upon poreeluu. 

Rook 16. — Luidscape<; by BmgM 
de Veiovrt; Claude Lorraine! Botkj 

Vanloo; Greffier i Vander Meulen; 

Oatpar Pmun»,- Tetnpeeta; Brill; 

Vrieti Manglard; Peter Seep, In- 
terior of a Cathedral \ Vriet ; and 6 
views of places about Turin by Viintoo. 



toHie. — Brevghe 
—k^nani, St. 









■ftaowftsT. 

Primie Eugene. — F. de Champoffnf, 
Prince Tomssa and his wife. — Argntta, 
Smmiuiuele Filibeno in his childhood. 
Koraet Fernet, porlrait of the late iing 
Carln Alberto. — Oopj of Oaido, Car- 
diiuJ Maurice of SBroj. — Vaadglee, 
PoRnut on horBcback of Prinf e Thonma 
ef Savoy. — -Jaa Miet, Portrait, of the 
wife of Carlo Enunannele II. ; Statooa 
of ftlars. Mercury, Ceres, and Flora, 
U)d Busta of Smmannple filiberto. 
Carlo Emmuiuele II., snd Csrdinftl 
Uaurice of Sstot, by Coilini. 

The Koyal Oallcry of Picturea at 
Toiin \iaA been well illustrated in 
the Morqitie Roberto AzegEo's work, 
entitled ' La R. Qalleria di Torino, 
1835,' a aeq. That nobleman was the 
first director of tho coUectioO} aitd liae 
been recently replaced by liis brolbor 
Utuuimo Az^lio, be an artist, a writer, 
a patriot, and a Btatesman, one of the 
bnfhtest oraamenta of Italy. 

Opoii the northern tower of the Pa- 
luzo is the Hoyal Ohaervntory, Dstflb- 
lished in 1822, and now nnder Ihe 
able direction of Jiaron Plana. 

AeeademiaAlberHiiadeUe Belie drti, 
in the Via della Posta, No. 10, formerly 
in the buitilingBof the University; it was 
remoTad here in 1838. Beaides the dif- 
ferent mhuoU connected witli the Fine 
Arts, the Academy containa a coileotion 
of pictures arranged in 5 rooms, the 
gjft of MonaigDOre Koase ; amongst 
which may be noticed a Madonna di 
Loreto, attribuled to Maphael ; tlie 
same aahjett,hj Andrea del Sartoi St. 
Aleijg. by OAiiiaadajo ; St. John, by 
fraaaia! the Communion of St. Fran- 
as, by MoHcalno ; a Holy Family, by 
Carm^gio j the Last J udgment, by 
Stemkertj the Youth of Bacchus, 
by StUieni ; an Scce Homo, by ElUa- 
betta Sira-ni ; and 12 views of Yenice 
by Caaaletii. Among the drawings ia a 
fljie collection of 24i cartoous by Qan- 
iJeiM"'" Ferrari, formed by Cardinal 
Maurice of Savoy ; and a Virgin, by 
Jjeoaardo da Vmei, 

the Palasso delV Acaa^eiHia Reals 
dtllt Si^^ate eonlaina the museums of 
JF. rea/y—lS&}. . 



iuitii|tdtioe and natural history, as iveU 
as the n(iartmonta where the Academy 
holds its siltiiigs, the library of tliie 
Academy, 4c 

The MaievtH of Aifiiquities (open 
from 10 to 4, except on holidays) has 
acquired much importance of late yenrf 
by the addition of the Mateo Egiisio, 
oomposed in groat part of tlw colleC' 
tions formed by Oavaliere Droretli, a 
Piedmontese by birth, whilst he wa* ' 
Conaul-OeDerBlofFranceiuEgypt,aud ' 
which waa purchased hj King Carlo ■ 
Felice in 1820, after negotiations had J 
failed for seouring it for the British 
Muaeimi. It is entered from the Fiazis 
di Carignano, and is open to the pubUa 
on Mondays and Xhuradays ; but the 
cudode wiU be found in attendance on 
the other days. The antiquities are ' 
arranged in two suites of apartments i j 
one on the ground floor, where the ] 
more massive objects, statues, sphinxes 
sarcophagi, and inaoriptiona, arc placedi 
tho other on the upper floor of tlie 
palvie, contaiBing tho amaller iCgyptiau 
objects, Roman Invnxes, iS[c, 

The division on the ground floor can- 
aista of three large halls: the two first 
are eiclusively occupied by the Egyp- 
tian mauumente, the greater part from 
DrovBtti's collection ; they are well 
arranged, and an oicoUont catalogus , 
of them by tho deputy ieopar, Simoi" . 
Occurti, may he purc)uised at the door, j 
in which their dBBoription is preceded 
by a notice on the present state of our 
hnowledgeonhieroglyphical interpreta- 
tion, Fgyptian chrondogy, Ita. 

It may be useful to state that thn 
greater part of Dravotti's apemmene, 
having been collected about Thebes^ 
Luxor, &c., belons, like the maseiva 
objects in our British Museum, to tha 
period of the 18th and IBth Dynaatiea,. I 
or from the I7th to the 13th cen- 
turies B.C. They are classed under 
the four heads of — A, Divinities and 
Rehgious Monnments ; B, Kings, Rojval 
Monuments, Sphinies, tiic. ; C, Civil 
Monuments ; D, owriu, Smcts^Je*^^ 
Steles or Votive TahMB, "Baa-ciSc^ 
&e. The foUowlnj ate IVe Q\iiW*.»\*j 



26 



Eoute 1. — Turin — Egyptian Museum, 



SectL 



worthr of the attention of the visitor, 
as he will pasH them in review, adopting 
Signor Occurti's classification : 

1st Ilall. — A 5, fragment of a marble 
statue of the goddess Neitli ; A 9, 10, 
11, 12, four lion-headed female statues 
of Paslit, or Biibastes ; A 4, grou]) of 
Ammon Rha and Horus; A 2, sitting 
statue of Phtali, the Vulcan of the 
G-reeks,«fthetime of the 18th Dvnastv 
(1500 years B.C.) ; A 20, p^nito statue 
of Paslit ; IJ 2, sitting statue of 
Thotlimcs III., in black granite (16th 
century B.C.) ; B 3, crouching colossal 
statue in granite of Amenophis II., the 
contemporary of Moses (IGth century 
B.C.) ; C 1, statue in basalt of Amenophis 
III., or Memnon (lt30 years B.C.), 
tlio most ]»oworful of Egj'pt's kings ; 
C 23, a group of two statues of the 
period of Amenophis I. ; D 1 and 3, 
a verj' beautiful sarcophagus with its 
cover in gnH?n basalt ; D 24', pe- 
destal of an altar in black granite 
(this is perhaps the most interesting 
relic in the whole collection, for its 
remote date: it bears the name of 
Mcri of the 12th dynasty, who lived 
3000 yours B.C.) ; D 37, a hollow marble 
plinth with a Greek inscription in 
lionour of Ptolemy Epiphanes, 200 
years B.C.) ; D 56, 57, two groups of the 
Greek jieriod witli inscriptions. On 
the floor of tliis hall have been let into 
tlie pavement several Mosaics of the 
Roman period, discovered at Stampace 
in Sardinia, offering good representa- 
tions of several animals, such as lions, 
bears, and antelopes, with a male figure 
playing on a lyre, who formed the centre 
of the group, supposed to be Orpheu. 

2nd Hall. — A 1, statue of Phtlia with 
a Nilometer ; A 3, group of three sit- 
ting statues in granite of Rhamses II. 
(Sesostris) between Ammon Rha and 
Mut (14th century B.C.) ; A 7, 13, 
female statues with a lion's head of the 
goddess Pasht (Bubastes) ; A 30, colos- 
sal head of a ram in sandstone ; B 4, 
group of Ilorus and his daughter 
Mutlunet (15th century B.C.) ; B 5, 6, 
statues in granite of Rliamses II., Meia- 
'^aoim, or Rhamses the Great, or Sesos- 
*'^> who reigned in the 14th centuiy 



B.C. ; B 7, foot of a coloflsal statue of 
Menepthn^ or Amenophis, son of 
Rhamses the Great; B 8, coloflsal statue, 
in red sandstone, of Seti or Se Ptah, 
son of Menepthah ; B 16, 17, two co- 
lossal sphinxes in sandstone from be* 
fore the palace at Kamac, erected in 
the 17th century B.C. ; D 4, lid of a 
sarcophagus in granite of Thothmes, 
son of Isis ; D 8, a curious bilingual 
inscription on a slab of granite, in 
demotic and Greek characten, contain- 
ing a decree of the priests in honour of 
Calhmachus during the reign of Cleo- 
patra, and of Ptolemy Osesarion, her 
son by Julius Ca;sar (B.C. 44) ; D 22, a 
circular altar, dedicated to several divi- 
nities — probably of the 28th dynasty, 
in the 5th centuiy B.C. In this room 
are several models of Egyptian ruins : 
D 40, of the temples of Ipsamboul; 
D 41, of Deny; D 43, of Essebuah; 
D 45, 46, of Dakke; D 47, of Ghirscieh; 
D 49, of Tahnis— of Tafah, Debodeh, 
Balagua, &c. 

Out of this Egyptian Hall opens 
that of the Greek and Roman steUues, 
a poor collection compared to those 
of most other Italian capitals ; it has 
been recently removed here firom the 
University. The following are most 
worthy of notice : a Sleeping Cupid or 
Genius is perhaps the finest object in 
the collection ; it has been supposed to be 
Greek j although there are persons who 
consider it a copy made in the 16th 
centy. of some ancient work ; a colossal 
Oracle Head of Juno, found at Alba in 
Piedmont, so arrsmged as to be fixed 
to a wall, and hollowed out, behind 
which the priest could remain con- 
cealed ; Busts of Vespasian entire, and 
of the Emperor Julian, the latter good, 
considering the period at which it was 
executed. 

The portion of the Museum of Anti- 
quities on the upper floor consists of a 
series of eight rooms, the three first of 
which are exclusively devoted to the 
smaller objects of the Egyptian collec- 
tion ; in the first, or long saloon, is a 
very interesting series of human mum- 
mies, with their chests or cases, some 
highly decorated, vrhilst on the walls 



f Piedmont. 



lioute 1. — Turin — Egyptian, Museum. 



27 



•re placed, in framM, numeroue papyri, 
and below several fnnaller Bgj^tiuD 
ilatues, Totive tabiota, 4c. 

In the Becond Lu-ge hall tlie most 
rtriting object ia tbe celebrated Inaa 
Table, a tablet in bronze covered with 
£gyptjaD figures and hierogljpliiea, en- 
graved or sunk, part of the outlines being 
fiQed with flilvering — forming a kind of 
Sieilo. Considerable uncertainty 



at Borne, near where a Temple of Its 
onoe stood, and giien bj Piaa III, ta a 
Km of Cardinal Sembo ; having disiro- 
peared during tlio pill^e of Heme % 
the Connetable de fiourbon, little ia 
knovn of what became of it uDtill709, 
trhen it vas discovered at Turin anionfiiB t 
(Dine lumber ; it waa carried off to Faria 
m 1797, and restored to Italy at the 
peace. The Isiac Table ia interesting 
aa being one of tlie first objects ot 
Bgyptian antiquity iu recent times 
that led to inquiry SiS regarded tbe 
inttRpretation of hieroglyphics, euccoe- 
sively eiplaiaed by Olaua Magnus as 
rqiresenting the mythology of Edda ; 
by Father Kireber aa containing the 
«niire cosmogony of Hermes Tnsmc- 
pstng : by Jablonaki, Montfaucon, and 
Winckelman, it ia now clearly aseer- 
Imsed that its hieroglyphics have no 
meaiuag at all, and that It is one of 
those pseudo-Egyptian productiouB so 
extensively fabricated during the reign 
of Hadrian. There are also doubtsnhe- 
ther any real signilication is conveyed by 
tlu imagery upon it. In this room are 
Beveral glass caaea containing Egyptian 
onuuneiitii of every kind ; a very eom- 
pldte collection of the amallcr divinities 
m terroRotta, enamel, and glass ; a very 
eitenuve seriea of nearly 2000 scarabisi 
with icscHptions, amulets, and some 
beautiful speeimcns of jewcUory mount- 
ed with preeiousstones; whilst inpresses 
around are several mummies of animals, 
such aa monkeya, eats, beads of calves 
and bulls (without doubt of Apis), of 
the ibis, fiileons, crocodiles, and of aeve- 
ral species of ilahes from the Nile. 
Ariielei of food ; bread, eom, eggs, 
oniony (iatfl^ ite. — even to dacka reodj' 



for the apit of some Egypt'*" "^ot 
3000 years ago. ClolMmffar tkt thaJ; 
masks to cover the Ituiea of mummies ; 
aandals, upon Iho aolsa of nbieh are 

Sainted captives — some negroes, olbers 
cWB — with their hands bound f a sin- 
gular mode of expressing a posthumous 
triumph. 

Amongst the numerous iliustralid 
Papyri liung on the walls, two are 
remarkable: the celebrated Book of the 
Kings, fiiat pnbliahed and ably illuB- 
trated by our oounttyraan, Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson, and the funerary roll, 40 
ft. in length, on which is represented 
the trial of n Soul before the tribuiial of 
Amentis, whore Oairia is seen acting 
aa Praaident, and the divinity Tot aa 
Secretary, with a court of 42 judges, 
before whom tbe goddess of Justice 
leads the accused SouL Thia curiona 
papjrua has been recently illustrated 
by Dr. Lepsius of Berlin. 

In the small room leading Irom the 
3nd Egyptian Saloon is an extensive 
series of ilelet or votive tablets, some 
of which are said to belong to as remote 
a period as the Stli dynaaty, at least 
thirty centuries B.O, 

Sooiaa of Soman Sromet. — Here 
have been lately placed several Boman 
bronzes, formerly iu the Kuniismatio 
collection, and belonging to the Academy 
of Scieneos. In the firat are worthy of 
remark, a collection of silver veasels dis- 
covered lately in Savoy ; a Itomnn in- 
Bcription on bronze found at Induetria i 
a Minerva with a handsome brazier on 
a tripod fhjm the mina at tlie same 
place; a good stntueof a Faunfound in 
the bed of the river HtafTora, near Tor- 
tona; a few engraved patera; a good 
head of Claudius ; and several small 
Roman bronzes and utendls from In- 
duetria. In the passage between the 
two rooms of the ancietii iromei are 
some largo specimens of ivory carvinga 
by Qerm an artists of the 18th oenty. i 
tfiey represent the Judgment of Solo- 
mon and the Sacrifice of Abraham, and 
are more remarkable for their size than 
for their sculpture. Finally, in V\ic\w!s. 
room ot tlie muawim la w 
collectioit qf Etmscon vasB« ttum. 



C^ 



2 



28 Horde 1* — Turin — Museum of Nat, Hist — University/'. Sect. I. 



South of Italy, and a series of earthen- 
ware of the Soman period from the 
ruins near Pollenzo (the ancient Pol- 
len tia: see p. 64). 

Numismatic collection. — ^Attached to 
the Section of Antiquities is the Cabinet 
of Medals, consisting of a collection 
bequeathed by Cavahere Lavy to the 
Academy of Sciences, of others added 
by the King, and modem acquisitions. 
It is said to contain 18,000 specimens, of 
which 5000 are Gh*eek,6000 Roman, and 
7000 modem and of the middle ages. 

The Museum of Natural History is 
also in the Palace of the Academy, but 
at the opposite extremity of the build- 
ing from that of the antiquities. The 
entrance is by the great portal in the 
Contrada deU' Accademia ; it contains a 
very complete mineralogical collection ; 
the specimens from Savoy and the val- 
leys descending from the Mont Blanc 
are perhaps unique, and particularly 
interesting to the foreign mineralogist. 
The geological and paleontological col- 
lections are very extensive as regards 
the Sardinian territory, having been 
formed by Professor Sismonda during 
his labours for the geological map of the 
continental portion of the kingdom, and 
by General Alberto de la Marmora for 
that of the island of Sardinia. The 
fossil organic remains of the tertiary 
formations of the Montferrat are per- 
haps unique ; amongst which deserves 
particular notice the skeleton of a Mas- 
todon found recently in a freshwater 
deposit near Baldichieri. But the most 
remarkable objects of this part of the 
collection are an almost entire skeleton 
of the Megatherium^ from Buenos 
Ayres, the most perfect hitherto dis- 
covered of this extraordinary gigantic 
species of Sloth — more so than that in 
the British Museum; and of the gigantic 
armadillo, called Glyptodon. The zoo- 
logical department has been greatly im- 
proved of late years under the care of 
Professor de Filippi; the series of birds 
of Piedmont is particularly good. 

Universita Iteale, Contrada del Po, a 

very extensive and magnificent building. 

Tlie cortile is an example of the effect 

produced h^ colmnnB encircled by 



bands, story above story ; and is a spe- 
cies of lapidary museum. Until recently, 
the greater part of the Boman and Greek 
remains now in the museum were in the 
university. Here are stiU the Torsos 
found at Susa, to which heads, legs, 
and arms were added by the French 
sculptor, Cartellier, on their removal to 
Paris in 1809. Many of the inscriptions 
and monuments are sepulchral. Upon 
the cippus of Quintus Minutius Faber, 
a wheelwright, he is represented, at 
bottom, working upon a wheel; and at 
the top, lying in bed. The inscription 
on an altar raised to an abnost hitherto 
imknown divinity by a certain Sem- 
pronia Eutychia does not speak well 
for the modesty of the devotee. There 
are also several mediaeval inscriptions : 
some of the times of the Lombard 
kings, Grimoald, Aripert, and Lothair. 
The lAhra/ry contains upwards of 
120,000 volumes of printed books, and 
a valuable •collection of MSS., many 
of which belonged to the Dukes of 
Savoy. It was placed here by Carlo 
Emanuele I. ; and many coUections 
have been successively added. The 
celebrated Calusio, the author of the 
Hebrew Concordance, bequeathed his 
Oriental manuscripts to it ; and it 
also contains a part of those from 
the Benedictine monastery of Bobbio. 
These latter are very ancient and au- 
thentic, and probably include palimp- 
sests; but they do not seem to have 
been examined. A very numerous col- 
lection of the Greek writers on alchemy, 
mostly inedited. A manuscript of the 
* De Imitatione Christi,' the celebrated 
work commonly attributed to Thomas 
^ Kempis, but with more probability 
to Gersen, abbot of the Benedictines of 
Vercelli, who lived a century before. 
This codex was found in a Benedic- 
tine convent at Arona in 1G04. Se- 
veral Bibles, from the 10th to the 
16th centy., some curiously and richly 
illunynated ; a Catena Patrum, pro- 
bably of the 9th centy., with portraits 
of the 12 minor prophets, interesting 
for the time when they were executed-, 
showing the long prevalence of Ro- 
man art. A Book oi 0^q«%, with 



liouCe 1. — Turin — Library— Tiazzns. 



2d 



minUtiirea of the Flemish acliooi, 
"Teat benuty ; four oc Btb scpm t< 
by TTnjiHng ('^ I know notbiitg so 
in this class of art— the Kiss of Juilna 
is a niBrvel of ita iind." — H. A. L.) 
SejBseH'e translation of Appian, illiiioJ- 
nAt«d, and in which ia hia portrait 
OTesenting the work to Luuia XII. 
Hebrew M99., aoreral inedited. The 
UniTersitj of Turin Li now verj flou- 
rishing, and forma with that of Genoa 
the two great edueatioimiii^tnblishiuent! 
ofthe monarch)- ; tliere oro npwarda of 
60 profBaforships. Tlie li-etupp-rooma, 
and other parts of Itie buiJding ap- 
propriated to the businesa of the uni- 
TSTsitj, oITer notliing remarkable. 

The Fiaxza di Sa» Carlo is the 
Saett fquare at Turin: one side ie 
(brmHd by the churchea of Sta. Chris- 
tins and of San Carlo Borromvo, from 
the Utt^r of whiuli it derivoa ita n 
It became necesBar)-, after the houses 
were first erei:ti!d, to strongthen 
colnnma of the I'ai^des hy a ripeii: 
pilaster; and tliia Ducideiitul ul 
tion has produced a heller eH\-i.t than 
the architect originally contemplated. 
In this piajaa ia the statue of Ema- 
nuole FiliberCo, pnsentcd to the city 
bj Eing Oario Alberto, and eiocnted 
bj Baron Marocfaetti, of whose works 
it is pcrhapB the flneat. The broaee 
basso-rolievoB on the pedestal represent 
the two great erenta in the life of 
Einanuele Filibcrto,— the battle of St, 
Qnenlin, and the treaty of Cateau 
Ctnnbreaia (15&7, 1559). 

Tike Piassa da Emaauele liliherto 
and the Fiaxxa di Milano, at the N. ci- 
tramity of the citry, form, the largest open 

rs in Turin ; here are held two of 
principal markets. 
The Fiaisa Stuina or Paesana ia 
remarkablo for the Gne granite ohehsk 
eiwted in its centre in 1853, to eon:- 
roetnorute the abolition of the ecclo- 
B!a«tioal juriadietion in civil aHaira in 
Piedmont, the Qrat cauoe of tlie un- 
worthy persecution exercised againat 
lh« Icingdom of Sardinia and its rulers 
~ ^ the Court of Bomo ; on the sides of 
p obelisk are en^rared the nsmea of 
vnbersafthg legkhture who tooii 



^^ the Co 
Jflflb obclis 






e TOte of tho Chomhers On 
important measure for Iha i 
liberties of Italy. i 

trho Piazza del Palazzo delta Citta \ 
is a small square surrounded by porti' '. 
coca on 3 aides, with the H6tel de Tills A 
on the 4th ; in the centre is a bronM 4 
group hy Peiagi, repreaenting Duko i 
AmaJleo VT. of Savoy, better luiown aa I 
the Conte Verde ; and on each aide of ' 
the gate marble statues of Prince Eu- 
gene of Savoy and of the late Duke of 
Ctcnoa. 

Tlie Piana VUtorio SmanveU, at the 
extremity of the £ne Contrada del Po 
rincipaUy remarkable for ita extent 
regularitj, and tlie Gne view which J 
immanda of the Po, and the Collins ! 
covered with villaa and churches, and ' 
the Superga towering over all. At ita 
eastern extremity is tlie bridge which 
conntsts this Piazza with the opposite 
bank of the river, in front of tho ' 
church of La gran Madre di Dio. The 
bridge was begun by the French in 
1810, under the direction of the engi- i 
necr Pertinchamp, and cranpletod by i 
KingVittorioEmanaclell. Ithaafivo ' 
elliptic arches, each of about 80 feet 
ipan- The granite uiod in its con- | 
itnietion is from the quarry of Cu- ' 
niana. The bridge OQ the road to Chi- | 
'aseo, a little beyond the Piazza Fmilio 
Fillberto, is much bolder and Gner. It j 
. creeled over the Dora Riparia, a rivet 
ordinarily shallow, but liable to heavy 
Goods, and during these estremely ra- j 
pid. It consists of a single arch of i 
granite, resting on solid abutments of j 

*' - material from the quarries of \ 

j,io, near Pinerolo. ITiis bridge 4 
itrueted nnder the direction of I 
the Cavallere Mosca, aud to thia day J 
not tho least aettUng has taken place, j 
■The cost of the bridge, with the ap- I 
proaohes, waa 56,000f- I 

There U also a suepensicm bridge a i 
little above tlie stone bridge over tho Po, 

-There are very many cxcel- 
3 in Turin, but none wliieh 
need to be paHiuiiia'fVj TBouv^ti ^ot 
outward KjipeaTance, al-ce^, ■^efti*.'^, 
the unfinished Palanio Coriguumo, aq 



30 



BotUe 1. — Turin^- Theatres — Charitable Institutions. Sect. I. 



of the specimens of the fancy of Guarini, 
and in which he has carried his powers 
of invention to the greatest extreme. 
Seyeral of its rooms contain allegorical 
frescoes of Ghlleari and Leguarineo, 
painters of the last century : this pa- 
lace has considerable historical interest 
of late years ; it was the residence of 
King Carlo Alberto before his accession 
to the throne. In the piazza in front 
of the palace has been lately placed a 
very fine statue of the celebrated writer 
Gioberti, by the Piedmontese sculptor 
Albertoni, erected in 1859 at the pub- 
lic expense. It was here that the 
Constitution was proclaimed in 1821, 
and it is in it that the Chamber of 
Deputies or Lower House of the North 
Italian monarchy holds its sittings. 
Beliind the P. Carignano, in the newly 
opened piazza of Carlo Alberto, is to be 
erected the colossal equestrian statue of 
the late king, hy Marochetti; forming 
one side of this square is the Institute 
Teanico, containing the industrial 
schools, and a collection of objects con- 
nected with arts and manufactures. 

Theatres. — In addition to the Royal 
Theatre already noticed, there are the 
Teatro CarignanOy which is open for 
operas and ballets during the autumn, 
and for the regular drama in the spring 
and summer ; it was built by the Count 
A 1 fieri ; and here the first tragedy of Yit- 
torio A 1 fieri was first represented. The 
Teatro d^AngenneSy remarkable for the 
good arrangement of the scenes and 
stage, is an elegant but not a large 
theatre. It is open for the regular 
drama during the Carnival, and for the 
opera bufia in spring and summer. 
French plays are generally represented 
here during several months in the year. 
The Teatro Sutera in the Contrada del 
Po is open for the opera bufia during 
the Carnival, and for comedy at other 
times. There are also two theatres of 
fantoccini. The Piedmontese claim the 
honour of being the inventors of puppet- 
shows, which are carried to high perfec- 
tion in the performances of thesewooden 
companies. The buffoon characters Cfi- 
■n?Axmoand Giatniuja are of Piedmontese 



origin, as Arlequino is Bergamasque. 
There are severul other theatres : the 
T. Nazionale, built in 1848, in the Con- 
trada La Marmora ; and two for diurnal 
representations, the Circo Salles and 
the T. Gerbino in the Via dei Tintori. 
The charitable institutions of Turin 
are numerous and opulent. As a detail 
of them would be foreign to the object 
of this work, we shall only notice a 
few of the most remarkable. 

The JRitiro delle JRosine was foujided 
by Bosa Govona, a poor girl of Mon- 
dovi, who, in 1740, collected a number 
of other girls of her own class for the 
purpose of living as a semi-religious 
community, maintaimng themselves by 
their own labour. In 1745 she re- 
moved her institution to Turin, and 
settled here, under the patronage of 
Carlo Emanuele III. She died in 
1776, euid is buried in the simple ora- 
tory, or chapel, of the Ritiro ; on her 
tomb being inscribed " JLe figUe grate 
alia Benedetta Madre ha/nno posto 
questo monumento.* ' The inmates of the 
Bitiro may quit if they think fit, but few 
avail themselves of this privilege. This 
interesting establishment, which now 
contains 350 inmates, was umder the 
special patronage of the late lamented 
Queen, who deputed one of the ladies of 
her court to look after it : the income, 
which arises entirely fromthework ofthe 
inmates, amounts to 80,000 francs, with 
which they are most comfortably main- 
tained. Over the principal entrance is 
engraved the very appropriate insmp- 
tion — " Tu vivrai del lavoro delle tue 
manV* There are several houses of the 
Mosine in other parts of the Sardinian 
states. 

The Meale Alhergo di Tlrti^ is what 
we should term an industrial schooL 
It was founded, in 1580, by Carlo 
Emanuele I. 

The Regie Manicomio, a lunatic 
asylum, arose out of the voluntary con- 
tributions of the frtitemity of the Santo 
Sudario, about the year 1728 \ and the 
1 Prior oi t\ie feateimty , VyV^cl ^i]tL^b w^-^gv^- 



Piedmont. HotOe 1. — Turin— Cliaritahle Titstitutions, 



btttion of tha Crown, names the dinwt- 
on. The number of inmatea la about 
SOO, wlio are reeeired trom (he diffai 
mt prorinrea, their momtenitnca being 
de&Hjed by tht sereral locsUtiw in the 
proportion of four-Eftha, the re^t paid 
Of the govenuDent. Its management 
is Tery mild and judicioua : the patiEnt», 
as far as poaaibie, dine at a common 
ttthle, and manj of Uie improremeata 
the treatment of theee imfortimate < 
JBctg recently adopted in England and 
f ranee have been long pniutised here. 



modem foiuidatioa (1828), which owes 
ita origin to a benevolent eeelesiaatie, 
the Cniion Cottolengo ; it receives the 
infirm poor inthout distinction of 
ooontij, religion, or malady, and is en- 
tirely supported bj voluntary contri- 
butions. The number of adroisaions 
annually ia nearly 1500. 

The OraHde Ospedale di S. 
taimi, founded in the 14th een 
may be called tbe Great Hospital of 
Turin. It is managed by a congre- 
gation composed of six canona of thu 
cathedral and six deourione of the 
atj : about 6000 patients are an- 
niiallj reveived in it. The revenaes 
before the French invasion were very 
large; and now, partly fromostatea, and 
]dM from Toluntaiy contributions, they 
amount to about 300,000 francs per 
annum : the contributions being nearly 
one half. Tn the centre of the wnrda is 
an altar, so placed that it can bo seen 
from every bed. The clinical school 
and Ihe anatomieal theatre attached to 
the nnivBrsity are in this hospital, now 
one of the most £uuris)iiug medioal 
aohoola of ItUy : forming a part of the 
egtablishment are warda for nearly 100 
incurable cases, and apartments for 
persons who ai'e admitted on paying a 
trUling retribution. 

The hospital of San Luiip Oomaga. 
founded in 1797, and wholly supported 
by YOluD/Brr contributions, ia also a 
diapeoaaij. Tisout-patieiits aremniu- 



iained at their own homee for n fort- - 
night after they are discharged it j 
ciu'cd, in order that they may fuUj ] 
recover their strength, and have an ] 
opportunitr of obtaining employment. ' 
The in-patienta (about 80) are thow i 
who are rehiaed admitfanoe into the j 
other hoapitals, from their maladieaj 
being incurable. Upwards oi 12,000 " 
out-patients are annually relieved, anil ' 
fed if they require it. This noble in- ' 
stitution owes its origin to the lata j 
Padre Barueehl, a parish priest of ' 
Turin, who began by ostabliahiug a fra- 1 
temity for Uie purpose of assiatmg tha 
poor at their own houaes ; and, in the 
course of twenty years, collected a suffi- 
cient sum to ereet the present edifice, 

Ija MaierttUdj at the same time a i 

lying-in and foundling hospital, well j 

managed under the direction of the 1 

Sistsra of (Charity ] it generally eon- , 
tains about 80 women and 40 children ; 

about 2000 foundlinga are deposited | 
ere annually, who, after being kept 

short timo in a ward for tlie purpose, ' 
FB aent out to nurse in the cuuptry. 

The Sifkpo di Sfadama Barol, a 

kind of Magdalen hospital, founded br 

benevolent lady, the Baroncas Barol, 

id aupported by her and contributing 

Irieitds; It admits all unfortunate te- 

a, either in sickness or who wish 

ihandon their evil course of life, 

are mamtained, and after aevend 

years of probation allowed to take the 

reil. They are employed in taking 

■are of tile aiek inmatea, and in othw 

worts for the benefit of tho eatablish- 

V/e would recommend any of 

ntrywomcn interested in chari- 

table inatitutions to visit this Rifugio, I 



In <CaB nicinitH of Twri«v v& ftssi B 
ja, with -vAmAi. tiie Vresdim "w 



32 



Boute 1. — Turin — LaSuperga. 



Sect. T. 



acquainted before lie enters the city. 
The easiest mode of reaching it will be, 
for the pedestrian, from the Madonna 
del Pilone, to which omnibuses run 
every half-hour from Turin ; and from 
which a very agreeable walk, although 
constantly ascending, leads to the ch. ; 
£Eimilies and ladies must proceed in car- 
riages, for the hire of which, as four 
horses are necessary, the hotel-keepers 
charge 25 and 30 francs. The Basilica 
of La Superga was erected by Vittorio 
Amadeo in the accomplishment of a vow 
made previously to the battle of Turin. 
On the 2nd Sept. 1706, he advanced 
with Prince Eugene from Chieri ; and 
taking their station upon the summit 
of the CoUina, they looked down upon 
his capital, blockaded by the army of 
Louis XIV. Vittorio vowed to erect 
a church here in honour of the Virgin, 
if it should please the Lord of Hosts to 
grant him and his people deliverance 
from the hands of the enemy. (These 
are the words of the vow.) The result 
of the battle of Turin has been before 
noticed. The name of Sv^perga is said 
to be derived from its situation, super 
tergd montium. 

The Basilica was begun by Juvara 
in 1717, and completed in 1731. The 
interior is circular : 8 pilasters, and an 
equal number of columns, support the 
cupola ; between the pilasters are 
chapels of an elliptical form. Through 
the interpilaster, opposite the principal 
entrance, is the access to a large octan- 
gular chapel, at the extremity of which 
is the high altar. The flight of steps 
on the outside is continued all round 
the building. The cupola, which is of 
good proportions, is ilanked by two 
elegant quadrangular bell-towers. The 
front of the ch. is formed by a fine 
portico of 8 Corinthian columns in 
front. The high altar is decorated 
with a profusion of statues and bas- 
reliefs, one representing the siege of 
Turin — ^Vittorio Amadeo, Prince Eu- 
gene, and the Duke of Anhalt pursuing 
the enemy. The subterranean ch. is 
in the form of a Latin cross, and con- 
tains the remains of most of the mem- 
^rs of the royal borne, King Carlo 



Felice alone having been interred at 
Haute Combe in Savoy. The monu- 
ments most worthy of being noticed are 
those of Vittorio Amadeo XL, decorated 
with allegorical figures in the taste of 
the last century, and of Carlo Emanuele 
III., having on it a bas-rehef of the 
battle of Guastalla by Collini. In the 
centre of the cross stands the tempo- 
rary monument of the late king, whose 
body was deposited here in 1850, when 
brought from Oporto, in the place 
always occupied by the last-departed 
sovereign. Adjoining the Basilica is the 
college upon a large scale. The halls and 
staircases are grand from their propor- 
tions and rich marbles, and the solid 
decorations of the architect, A series of 
portraits of the popes, the majority of 
course imaginary, is placed in the apart- 
ments appropriated to the sovereign, 
who visits the Superga annually, upon 
the 8th September, the feast of the 
Nativity of the Virgin. A congregation 
of secular priests, endowed by the 
state, has been estabUshed at the 
Superga, its members being chosen 
among the most meritorious of the 
parochial clergy, and those who have 
rendered the greatest services to the 
church and state. No traveller who 
visits the Superga should omit to ascend 
to the top of the building, from which 
opens perhaps the most magnificent 
panorama of the Alps, extending from 
Mont Viso at the extremity of the Cot- 
tian portion of the chain to the Simplon, 
including the whole of the Greek and 
Pennine Alps, with the beautiful hills 
of Montferrat below, the plains of Lom- 
bardy, of the Po, and the first portion 
of the Apennines b^ond. The top of 
the cupola is 2405 reet above the level 
of the sea. 

La Vigna della Hegina. This palace 
overlooks Turin, being on the side of 
the CoUina, immediately above the Po. 
It was built by Cardinal Maurice of 
Savoy, when he had ceased to be a 
cardinal for the purpose of marrying liis 
niece Ludovica, the daughter of Vittorio 
Amadeo I. The views of the city from 



hence are very beautiful. 

II Valentino^ at t\ie ^."E^. «5X,T«tca\.^ 



—Turin fo Mian hj Ftutara. 



jVarin, boilt by Christine of France, i 
Qie wife of Tittorio Aiitsdeo I., and 
dnughter of Henri TV. and Marie de | 
MecUoia. As far as tlie design of the 
original building boa be^n eiecutedf it IH 
B rtgnlar French clillteau ; the decora- 
tiong of the apartments ore in the 
beavy and extreme bad taste of Uie 
I71J1 centy. The gardenB are reiy agree- 
able J one part of them is eat apart as 
the Botanic Garden of the uniyeraitj. 
Ttm groiiuds are pleasantly situated on 
the banks of the To, to which you 
dBscand from the palace by a subter- 
ranean stitircase. Tlie palaoe is now 
uninluibitud ; the state apartmDnts are 
used periodically (or the eihibition of 
aria and mum&ctnres. 

Stftpmigi, about 5 m. from Turin. 
A. fine aTenae leads from tho city to tbie 
nnflniehed hunting lodge or palai», of 
which the object is announced hy the 
bronEB stag which crowns the root. It 
waa erected by Carlo Emanuele III. 
from the desigiiB of Jnvara. The e' 
Tation is findy varii^d by the maaa 
BBmi-CMtelliited in form, of which it 
oompoaed. Hapoleon lodged here 
his way to Milan, ' ' ' ' 






It < 



tolerable paintings : a good Vaaloo, 
represonting Diana bathing. 

Cattello di Aglis. The favourite 
country residence of King Carlo Felice, 
remarkable for the extreme purity of 
the air. It contains a anmll collection 
of Roman antiquities, ehicSy from the 
exeavations made at Veil and Tus- 
culmn by Maria Christina, the queen 
dowager of Victw EmanueL 

TimiB to Cormayeur and the Vol 
ffApata, {Smss Handbook. BCe. 107.) 
1 RoniBguono and Biella. 




Since the opening of the direct rail- 
way &om Turin to the Lombard fron- 
■ ier, by Vercelli and Novara, this is tbo 
ihortest atid most interesting routa be- 
;weBn Turin and Milan, as it will enable 
the traveller to visit Vercdli and Norsj^ 
ind to pass tlirongh a lovely country , 
it the foot of the Alps. Trains leave 
I timfS B-dfty for Mil an, employing 3^, 
4} and 5 hrs. ; travellers who wish lo 
visit Vercelli will be able to sleep at 
N^ars, where there are 2 good Inns. 

The Stat, is at the W. eitremity of 
the city, beyond the citadel, aod at 
tlie extremity of the Conlrada di Santa 
Terexa. 

The rly. mna parallel to the 1. bank . 
of the Po, alter croaaing tlic Dora , 
Kiparia, OS far as Chinatso, pasaing by 

IB kil. Setfimo Slat., a vilkge on 
rt., bearing in ita name the reminia- 
cence of its Soman origin, ad tepti- 

8 ki!. Sramlaie Slat., the viUa^ 
on the rt,, of great antiquity. It is 
noticed in the anoient itinerariea as 
one of the atations where the pilgrims, 
to Jerusalem were accuatomed to 
change horsea. On leaving Brniidizzo, 

Cross the Maloite and Oreo torrents, 
which, like the other streama already 
passed, flow into the Po, and, Uka 
that river, frei^uently inundate th* 
adjoining lands. 

3 kil. C^iraseo JuiKlion Stat,, a small 
city on the 1. bank of the Po. at one time 
of some military imiportanw. ^SJJ. 
7841 . It mu! \oQg eQnaioTci »& wwi 
icy of Piadmont, a\i4 va \T-S^ W a^ 
posed ft cOQHidErttb\e re'siB^.avvew \,si ^ 



34 



Eoute 2. — Chivasso — CigUano. 



Sect. I. 



shal Joubert When executing the decree 
of the Directory, by which he was 
ordered to dethrone the House of 
Savoy. The fortifications were de- 
stroyed by the French in 1804, when 
their possession of Lombardy placed 
Chivasso in the midst of their ter- 
ritory. Chivasso was the ordinary 
court residence • of the Marquises of 
Montferrat, who, as sovereigns, held 
so conspicuous a place in the me- 
dieval history of Italy, though Ca- 
sale was their capital. The Marquis 
Q-iovanni, sumamed the Just, who was 
much loved by his people, died here in 
1305. He had been attended dining 
his malady by Manuel di Vercelli, a 
physician of great reputation. Manuel 
followed as one of the mourners. 
There is an old jest in Joe Miller of an 
M.D. in a similar situation being told 
that he was " carrying his work home." 
The people of Chivasso believed it. Sus- 
picions had been spread that the good 
marquis had died in consequence of the 
want of skill, or that somehow or^n- 
other the doctor had despatched his 
employer ; they rushed upon him and 
literally tore mm in pieces. The Mar- 
quis Giovanni had no children ; and his 
dominions devolved to his sister Vio- 
lante" (Irene the Greeks called her), the 
Empress of the East, wife of Andronicus 
Comnenus Palseologus. Their second 
son, Teodoro, was selected to exercise 
liis mother's rights, and in his person 
began the dynasty of the Montferrat- 
Palseologi, which became extinct in 
1553. 

The town consists of two adjoining 
groups of streets and buildings, and 
which once, probably, formed two dis- 
tinct jurisdictions. The church of San 
Pietro dates as early as 1425. The 
front is decorated with ornaments and 
statues in terracotta, of great elegance, 
but much defaced. 

The remains of the ancient palace, or 
castle, of the Counts of Montferrat, con- 
sist of a high tower, upon the summit 
of which grow two mulberry- trees. 
Chiavasso is celebrated for its 1am- 

rrbeRly, to Jvrea branches off here, 



ascending the Valley of the Dora for 
33 kil. in an hour, the stations being — 
6 kil. Montanaro, 5 kil. Bodallo, 3 kil. 
Caluso, 4 kil. Candia, 2 kil. Mercenasco, 
and 4 kil. Strambino. 9 kil. to Ivrea.] 

7 kil. Torazza Stat. Soon after leav- 
ing, the Dora Baltea, descending from 
Ivrea, is crossed. 

5 kil. Saluggia Stat. The town is 
upon a rising ground in the midst 
of canals derived from the Dora Baltea. 

7 kil. lAvomo Siat.^ a good- sized 
village, not far from which, on the 1., is 

CigUano. This town, which is now 
dismantled, was once surroimded with 
walls and towers- The old church is 
rather an interesting object; but the 
main beauty of this vicinity is the view 
of Monte Ilosa, which is seen from here- 
abouts in great magnificence. 

4 kil. Bianze Stat. 

5 kil. Tronzano Stat. 

3 kil. Santhia Junction Stat.^ a 
town on the high road from Ivrea to 
YercelU. [The Rly. to Biella (18j m. or 
30 kil.) branches off here : trains go in 
60 min. : the stations are — 11 kil. Sa- ■ 
luzzola, 6 kil. Vergnasco, 3 kil. Sandi- 
gliari, and 4 kil. Candele.J Hencefor- 
ward our Bly. follows the direction of 
the old post-road. 

6 kil. San Oermano Stat., once for- 
tified, but now dismantled. In this 
neighbourhood the women wear a pecu- 
Uar ornament in the hair, which we 
shall meet, vdth more or less variation, 
throughout Lombardy. It consists of 
rows of large pins (spiloni) radiating 
round the back of the head. Here these 
pins terminate in balls, either gilt or of 
pohshed brass. The dialect of the 
people is Milanese ; and the style of all 
the ancient buildings shows that the 
traveller has entered, at least, historical 
Lombardy. Monte Bosa is seen in all 
its grandeur between S. Germano and 
Vercelli. 

13 kil. Vercelli Junction Stat. {Inns : 
Leone d'Oro, the best ; La Posta j but 
both indifferent and dirty. The less the 
traveller has to do with inns here the 
better; he wiU be able to see every- 
thing at Vercelli in the interval be- 
tween tide de^axVvxre oi. \.^o «vxsic««aiYe 



WEraro^r. 



Jioate 5.—VercBm~Camdna. 



Bi intoa 



riwj.-ti-aiiis, and get aa to 
NoTara, wIiei'B liB will fiud u 

fortable quarters.) A city 

L bank ik the Sosio, the Beat of a 
bishopric, of grest intportauce in l~ 
middle agea, and still coataiuing 
popolatioQ of 18.000 Inhab^ aud witli 
great appearance QfautiTitj. II 
a wide eitont of ground, and 
rounded b; boulevards, of whicli (hose 
on the N.W. commaQd the fltiest view 
of the Alps. At tliis eiitremitT of the 
city are the livomo or Cathedral, the 
church of San Andcea, and the Blj. 
Bl»t. The Duomo waa built by Pel- 
l^p;rino Tibaldi, towards the middle 
of the 16th century, and is L ' " 
Btjle of Italian arcbifeetore. During 
the Freneh occi^ation this building 
was exposed to ruin. They turned it 
into a etable, burned all the vood-worlc 
' the choir, and defiuxd the tomb of 
Amadeui of Savo^. All tbia da- 
,_ ge luu been repaired. The tomb 
of St. AmadeuB wag richly dacorated 
with Bilver, at the eipeune of King 
Carlo Felice, in 1823, from the de- 
»Kiu of SaveBi, an artist of Turin. 
ifae wood-woric of the ehoir was re- 
Stored in 1823, froma design of KaniB, 
an architect of VereelU ; it ia so con- 
triied that it holds together without 
nails, and can bo taken down in a irerj 
ahort time. The portico, by Count 
Alfjtri, is original imd bold. In this 
churcli are interred St. Eueebius, the 
first bishop of the eiie, and Bt. Ainadmis. 
The sepulchral i^hapola, in which their 
bodies are deposited, are aumptuously 
ornamented. 

The library of the cathedral Jiaa es- 
caped spoliation, and contuina a collfo- 
Goa of luauuBcripts of groat antiquity 
and value. The moat reinwltable is a 
eop^ of the Qoapele written bf St. Eu- 
aebiui, the founder of the see in the 
fourth century, aud whioli, being much 
decayed, even in the reign of Berenga- 
rius King of Italy (see Mtaaa), waa, 
by order of that monarch, bound in 
BilTer : and it yet remains in this cover, 
with the inscriptiou, testify big tlie name 
Ktbe donor, in ihefiiUowiug verses ; — - 









The silver cover is ornamented witlj 
mde chasingB: it represents our Lorf' 
seated upon a species uf throne comi^! 
posed of two lonea ornamented wift^ 
gems, and which have been eiplained;' 
Hs representing the earth and thiu 
heavens. Upon bis knees is on opea] 
book, the Gioapel, presented to mankind." 
Ohve-branchoa Burround the tablet, i^ 
the emblems of peace. On the OthW- 
Bide is St. Euaebiua in his robes, botij 
merely designated as " Ensebins EniiW 
eopuBj" the absence of the epiuiBt 
Sa1Kt^a being conformiblu to the usags^ 
of liigh antiquity. This manascript iu 
considered as of the greatest importantwj 
inbibliGalcriticism. JtisaLatinvenioSt 
and supposed to be the most authentlB- 
copy of that callod " Itsls. " by St. Augal'i 
tine, and employed in the earliest ages i;^ 
the Western Church, until its uso was sa- 
perseded by the Vulgate; and this being ' 
older than any Greek manuscript now i 

copy of the Gospels eiisting. The \ 
Ctoapels are Brranged in the following ' 
- ' ■:— St.Matthew,St.John,St.LukB 
called " Lucanus"), and St. Uarlc | 
vritten in capitals, in two coluniD^ , 
the writing is mueh faded, and the eva* ' 
nescent character can acat«ely be traced' I 
except by the iudentetion of the pen in j 
the mouldering vcUum. St. EusebiiU'g 
always carried this volume about with , 
'lim ; it is one of the earliest authentia ] 
.utographs in existence. Besides Qie J 
njuries which the manuscript has sua- 1 
tamed from time, it has been strangely ] 
mutilated to gratify the former devo- J 
tioii uf the people of Ijauaanne, who in ' 
the ISth century erected a church in ] 
honour of St. Eusebins, and in whoBo < 
favour Bonifario Ferreri, the then ] 
Bishop of Tercelli, detached a lea&J 
wliich he sent to them as a relic tdi 
the holy prelate whom they thus 1 
revered. Lnlande stated this manu- ] 
script to be an autograph of Bt. 1 
Luke, though it is * ttVai. "sctKniBAg 
Amongst tloe oVVei TtiMsoactv^ t 
AngloSaxim jocnw, i ■" '' - 



36 



Houte 2. — YerceUi — San Andrea — Cardinal Guala. Sect. I. 



honour of St. Andrew, and yery pos- 
sibly brought from England by Cardi- 
nal Guala, of whom we shall shortly 
have occasion to speak; the Recogni- 
tions of St. Clement, a very early manu- 
script, but whether the work be really 
the production of this apostolic father 
is a question upon which theological 
critics are much divided ; the Laws of 
■the Lombard Kings, written in the reign 
of King Liutprand, and therefore not 
later than the year 744. 

The church of Sanl^ Andrea, at a 
short distance from the Rly. stat., was 
erected by Cardinal Q-uala de' Bicchi- 
eri, who fiUed the office of papal legate 
in England in the reigns of John 
and Henry III., and whose name is 
connected with some very important 
transactions during that turbulent 
period of our history. He was born 
and educated at Vercelh, and was a 
canon of its cathedral. Over one 
of the lateral doors he is repre- 
sented as in the act of dedicating the 
church; and his merits are recorded 
in rhyming Leonines, in the first of 
which, bv a poetical figure, called 
Epenthesis, familiar to the students of 
the Westminster and Eton Latin gram- 
mars, one word is inserted in the cen- 
tre of another, that is to say, the word 

Car dinaUs is split into two, and 

the word Guala inserted in the gap be- 
tween, for the sake of the metre : — 

" Lux deri patriaeque decus Carguo/adinalis 
Quern canon atque artes, quern Sanctio ca- 

nonicalis, 
Quern lux dotavit, quern pagina spiritualis." 

The Cardinal left all his property to the 
Church, and amongst the relics which 
he deposited there was the oblationa- 
rium of Saint Thomas 4 Becket. Car- 
dinal Guala was a most strenuous ally 
of King John ; he excommunicated 
Stephen Langton and Prince Lewis, 
when the latter was called in by the 
barons of Rimnymede (1215) ; and on 
the accession of Henry III. he was 
one of the ministry by whose exertions 
the royal authority was in a great 
measure supported and restored. The 
gratitude of the new monarch bestowed 
upon CfiiaJa mueb prefifrment, and 



among others the rich benefice of 
Chesterton near Cambridge. He made 
heavy demands upon the clergy gene- 
rally, besides sequestrating (to. his own 
use) the benefices and preferments of 
those who were in opposition to him ; 
and he thus amassed the fortune, 
amounting, it is said, to 12,000 marks 
of silver, with which this fabric was 
raised and endowed. 

On his return to Italy through 
France, in 1218, he engaged in his ser- 
vice an ecclesiastic, a native of Paris, 
skilled in architecture, and in 1219 
began liis new church, which he dedi- 
cated to St. Andrew. The career of 
the founder accounts for the style of 
St. Andrea. Havuig passed many years 
in France and England, Cardinal G^uala 
imbibed a taste for the style of archi- 
tecture which had recently come into 
fashion in those countries. St. Andrea 
is far from pure. It is curious from the 
transition it offers between the Lom- 
bard and Pointed styles, greatly infe- 
rior as regards the latter to the ch. of S. 
Francesco at Assisi. In parts of the 
exterior, perhaps from compliance with 
the habits of the native masons, round 
forms are used. The h,q&de is Lom- 
bard; but the interior presents the 
exact appearance of a French or Eng- 
Hsh building, in the early Gothic 
style. The arches are pointed. Light 
pillars, with foliage capitals, run up to 
support the roo^ which is vaulted 
and groined. The windows in the chan- 
cel are lancet. The interior has been 
much injured by the recent injudi- 
cious restorations, and painting in the 
worst possible taste. The material of 
the walls is brick, with stone joints, 
windows, and doors. The campanile 
was added by Pietro del Verme in 
1399. 

The ancient tombs formerly here 
have been destroyed, with the exception 
of that of the first abbot, and architect 
of the church, Tomaso Gallo, a French 
ecclesiastic (ob. 1246), upon which is 
a curious fresco, where he is repre- 
sented as surrounded by his disciples ; 
amongst others, St. Anthony of Padua, 
I distinguished "b^ a \\2i\.o oi ^ot^ \ \i^- 



-Vtnxlli—Sati Cristn/erc 



low, in a contEinporarj 'bas-reliet GaUo 
U Been kneeliiig before ihoVirgiii, while 
St. DionjoiiiB tha Areopogite Ujb his 
bBiid on bis hi^arl. The cbarch has 
lately had the Bddition of painted glaae 
iuid Gothic oontesnioiialB, not in the 
best tnstc. 

The Sofpilal, founded by Cardinal 
Guala, KtHiiia its original endowment 
and distination. It contains a pic- 
lliresqua cloister, with the nrms of its 
beoefaclore ; aad a, Museum, not of 

The ch. of Suit CrUlofero oontaina 
some excellent freseoBB by Gaudenzio 
Forrskri, sn artist uiueli leaa known 
beyond the Alpa than many inferior 
ones, owing to his brat wDrka being in 
fresco, and not removable. He was 
bom in 1484, in Valdugia, about 40 m . 
from Veroelli t and not being able to 
find a teiK.'her of the art he loved in 
Ilia nstive pWe, he came to Vurcelli 
for the soke of instruction. GioTcnone 
was bis fint master ; and so proud nos 
he of Ins pupil, that in some of his 
paintinga he signs luniself " Qeronimo 
GioTenone, maestro di QaudenEiO-" He 
afterwards studied under Ferugino and 
Bsphoel. The magistrates of Vercelli 
conferred on him the municipal free- 
dom ; and the city where Gauden^ 
WBt thus instructed and adopted claims 
him as her own. 

This church was anciently atUclied 
to a convent of the Umiliati, and uft«r- 
wardd belonged to tiie Jesuits. The 
puntings by Gaudenzio were chieHy 
eieeutcd for two brothers of the former 
order, by name Corradi, aboat the year 
1532, and are so remarkahle as lo mer'- 
e than ordinarily detailed descri] 
Most of them were eiecul«d t 
md, in some he wt 

Ated by his pupil Lanitii. 

looking towards the altar, and a 

a L of the spectator, the principal 

Bubjcet, forming one composition from 
top to bottom, is— 1. the Assumpti 
V'*« '^rs'itt.Terjfineondgrand. Tlie 

rap of the apostles dirides " 



3^ 

.1 



on the wall forming the estretnity o; 
the transept, ore— 2. the liirth of tha 
Virgin ; 3. her JUarrwffe, or the 
Spofaiiiio. In the background the 
painter has introduced tlie Proeenta* 
tiou in the Teinple. 4. The Satiti^ 
of our Lord. The Virgin is kneeling 
before the infant Saviour, to whom sha 
is presented by nugels, perhaps the finest 
partofaUthefroseoeshere. ThoAnnuD- 
ciation, and the Visitation of St. £li«i< 
beth, are introduced in the backgrouodi 4 
5. Tho Adoraiioit of the Magi. Many . 
portraits are eTidently introduced intoi ] 
this composition, particnlarly a pro- ! 
minent figure with a cap and feathers,. J 
So also the bearded king kneeling.^ 
before the Virgin, This fresco con- ■ 
tains portraits of the painter, of his \ 
master Giovonone, and of Ida pupil j 
Lanini. Groups of pages, esquires, and 1 
attendants £11 the scene. Between the 
Nativity and the Adoration the painter i 
Inh^jdueed a group, rcpreBontinB J 






S. Catherine of Siena and S, ?iieholasi^'| 
Ban presenting to the Virgin and Chili i 
two norices ofthe Lignara Braiily. j 

Passing to the rt.-hand transept, tha j 
principal composition is — 1. tha Cmai- 1 
finon, perhaps too crowded and con- 1 
fused, but lull of eipressive figures oniL 1 
faces, wonderfully foreshortened ; the 1 
Bonrerted Centunon and thaMagdalen^fl 
are the most conspicuous ; tha former B> ' 
most singular figure, clsd nearly in th4 "J 
fashion M the court of Ilenry VIIL, 1 
in the second row. In the right- j 
hand comer is the portrait of Padre , 
Angelo Corradi, The angcis hovering . 
about the croas, one receiving the soid J 
ofthe good thief "Gastas" (according '^ 
to the legend), and another weeping tor ■( 
the loss ofthe soul of the impenitent j 
thief " Dysmaa." Upon the adjoining ) 
woli is ttie history of the Magdalene^ J 
consisting of the following subjects I 4 
3. The Cormeraion of iU MagAalai^\ 
who is represented seated, witlt hcr^J 
sister Martha, Ust^ming to the preaclk«4 
ing of our Lord, Tliia froseo is dti'l 
maged. 3. Osr Xord at the tab/e cf" 
Simon tie PJiariiee, Wo ■^B.^isIicoH- 
kissing liis feet. "Ver^ vorav^ t^oroii 
are introduced, Wt ■Q«wt\"j ilistea^w 



88 



Moute 2. — VerceUi. 



Sect. I. 



4. The Arrival and Preaching at Mar- 
geillegy a scene from the legendary 
l\fe of the Magdalene; according to 
which, St. Mary Magdalene, St. Mat- 
thew, St. Lazarus, with some other 
disciples of our Lord, after his ascen- 
sion, being expelled by the Jews, 
embarked from Judea, and landed at 
Marseilles, of which place St. Lazarus 
became the first bishop, and where 
they were received by St. Maximinus, 
afterwards Bishop of Aix, and St. Mar- 
cella. The city is seen in the distance. 
This and the following fresco, which 
are attributed entirely to Lanini, are 
yery fine, and the best preserved of the 
whole. 5. The Assumption of the 
Magdalene : she is carried up by angels 
to pray ; her death and burial are seen 
in the background. These two last 
frescoes have been much injured by 
shells and cannon-balls. 

Other works of Qtiudenzio Ferrari are 
— the Madonna enthroned, on panel, 
attended by saints, amongst whom St. 
Cristopher, as patron of the church, is 
conspicuous in front. The painter has 
followed the popular legend by repre- 
senting this saint larger than the other 
figures. St. John the Baptist is seen 
in the background. Two portraits of 
Umiliati monks, probably the donors, 
are introduced. 

In the sacristy is a good Laninif 
a Virgin enthroned, with St. Petw 
Martyr and another monk ; thorough 
monastic faces. 

The frescoes are all more or less 
injured. The first damage occurred 
during the siege in 1638, although the 
young Marquis de Leganez forbade his 
artillerymen to fire on the church of 
St. Christopher, lest the masterpiece of 
Ferrari shquld be injured. But they 
suffered more from the French, who 
converted the church into a place of 
custody for refractory conscripts. 

Ch. of Santa Caterina. Here is the 
Marriage of the patron saint, by G. 
Ferrari: in this painting St. Francis, 
St. Agapetus, and St. Anthonyare in- 
troduced. 

San Bernardino . has a fresco repre- 
sentwg Our Lord about to be nailed 



to the Cross. This church has some cu- 
rious remains of Lombard architecture. 

In the Casa Mariano is a fine fresco 
by Lanini — the Feast of the Gt>ds, and 
some other allegorical and mytholo- 
gical figures. The hall in which it is 
painted is now a granary. 

There is a handsome theatre at Yer- 
celli. A railway to Valenza branches 
off at Yercelli (26 m.) : the stations are 
— 8 kil. Asigliano; 4, Pertengo; 5, 
Balzola ; 6, Casale ; 7, Borgo S. Mar- 
tino ; 5, Giarole ; 7, Valenza. 

On leaving Vercelli we cross the 
Sesia. Monte Bosa appears again with 
great beauty, and hence to Novara, 
generally, the Alps are seen in great 
majesty. This mountain view is much 
enhanced in effect by the peculiar cha- 
racteristics of the great plain of Lom- 
bardy. The open fistce of Flanders is 
not more level; and the soil, much 
intersected by ditches and canab, is 
teeming with exuberant fertility. We 
have the contrast of the richest plain 
and grandest mountain scenery. 

[About 4 m. on the rt., after crossing 
the Sesia, a road by Torrione leads to 
Yinaglio and Palestra, scenes of very 
brilliant actions, especially the latter, 
between the Piedmontese and the Aus- 
trians, on the 30th and 31st May 1859, 
and in which the King of Sardinia 
showed himself most heroically at the 
head of his little army. The Austrians, 
who had invaded Piedmont in May of 
last year, pushing their advances as far 
as the Dora, and threatening the capital, 
had occupied very strongly Yercelli and 
the line of the Sesia, until the 28th of 
that month, when, in consequence of 
the great flank movement of the French 
Emperor from the S. bank of the Po, 
the Allied Army occupied YerceUi, 
with the intention of invading Lom- 
bardy on the side of the Mincio. No 
time was lost therefore in crossiog the 
Sesia: on the 30th the Piedmontese, 
who formed the advanced guard of the 
army, occupied the villages of VinzagliOf 
Conjienza^ and Palestro, after a very 
serious resistance on the part of the " 
Austrians. On the 31st the. latter 
made a strong effort to i«\.«k)L<& P«l86tro^ 



Htmie 2.— iffowzni— 7^ Duomo. 



but siutniiied s etgital tli^Fe&t from the 
FiedmonU^ on tilia ocoaaion, howerer, 
Bided bj 3000 French ZoUBtra, who 
ftntght with BMTHordiiiary brsTclj, 
leaving on the field of buttle 3100 
between killed and noundpd, ^50 
prisoneTB, and 6 pieces of cannon. 
On tbe same day Afarehal Canrobert 
riYKised the Seain at Prarota, a,nd 
Oenerol M'Mahon at Vercelli, with 
their two corps d'ormce ; the main 
bodj of the AnBtrians under Giulaj 
Tetrenting on Mortara, and Hubsa- 
^entl; croaaing the Tioino, a» we 
■li&ll «ee presently In Bpbuking of the 
gT«at battles whiclt decided the firat 
part of this eitraordinary eampaigti, 
at Buffalora and Magenta.] 

B kil. Sorgo Vercelli Siat,, andSm. 

7 kii. Pdmobo Stat. 

A mile bejond Torrion Saldveco, 
where mdadowB and mulherrj-tree plan- 
tations auuceed to naraliea and rice- 
fieldff, CFOaa the Agogua torrent, and 
■oon after reaoli 

10 kil. Sbvara JvikI. Siat. (Itmt: 
Albei^o de' tre Hi; a very toleraWe inn ; 
Albcn^o d'ltalia, formerly the Peace 
d'Oro, recently fitted up on an ei- 
tensire Bcxle, and good), a ftouriahing 
dtj of 16,000 Inhab. Noyara is situ- 
ated on a rising ground aboie the 
plain of the Terdoppio ; there are 
■omo good atreeta in it, well paved on 
tbe I^mbard ^atem. The town was 
formerly amrounded by fortifications, 
which had witnessed many an on- 
slaught ; but nearly all have now dis- 
appeared. There is no point from 
miioh Monte Bosq is seen to greater 
advantago than from here, oapceially 
froia the N. extremity of the street lead- 
ing to tbe tUy. Stat. Around eitenda 
the plain, cultivated like a rich garden; 
Imt the soil is marshy, and the neigh- 
bourhood rather unheallhy. 

The Dutmo is on early Lombard 
building, somewhat damaged on the 
Outflida by neglect and weather, and 
so within by recent repairs and 

IRUnents. The choir and tranaepts 
notked l>r the ttaceo, the paint- 
\)uidtb0giidiogimtrodaced within 






the last £0 years. The high altar, 
though quite out of place, is a 9|i]en- 
did structure. It has eome atigela 
executed by Thorwaldaen. The nave 
remaina nearly in its original atstei 
umny ancient eoliuoua are mae^tl^d. 

In the chapel of St. Joseph are sereral 
&escDe« by Luini. The Sibyls : portions 
of the history of the Virgin, partly aerip- 
lund and partly legendary. They are 
rather injured by damp ; but enough 
remains to show that they fully deserve 
the praises which have been bestowed 
upon them by those who saw them 
when they were more perfect. Of the 
sis suWeots on the walls, the Adoratioii ' 
of the Magi, and the Flight into Egypt, ' 
arc the best preserved. In the sacriaty | 
are a Marnage of St. CHtherine, by Gau- 
deuEio Ferrari; an Adoration of the ' 
Magi, by Lanini ; and a Lust Supper, I 
by Ccsare da Seeto, a pupE of L. da I 
Vinci or Moroaoni. | 

The pavement of the Duomo is a 
relic of the original structure. It is 
of Mosaic, worked and hud in the 
Roman manner, probably by Byzan- 
tine artists of the Sth or lOtb cen- 
tury : only two colours are employed, 
black and white. The compartments 
are divided by borders of frets and 
grotesques, such as are uaualW found 
m the tesselated pavemonta of Bomut 
baths. The figures in the modidliona 
are all birda : — the pelican, an emblem 
of the love of the Saviour ; the phis- 
nii, of the resurrection ; tJie st^rk, of 
fllialpiety. They are very remarkable as 
early specimens of Christian allegory. 

There ia a square atrium, or clois- 
tered court, in front of the cathedral, 
in the walla of which are inserted many 
Itoraen and mediieval inscriptioua, in- 
cluding one in what appears to be 
a barharoua Or colloquial corruption 
of Greei. From the side opposite to 
the great door ofthe cathedral opena the 
curious circular baptistciy, supported, I 
as ia tbe esse with almost ail Uie vei; J 
early edifices of the kind, by anoiBnt I 
columns i and hence the tradition, al- I 
moat invariahlj eimeveA \« \?tteirB>s^asi.- 
ings, of tbditfi,vmg\iB6n'Siuffai <eai.- 
ples. Theao oo\iHHRa qI -*\iA» -kikSAi 



40 



JRoute 2. — Novara — Churches. 



Sect. I. 



are fluted and of the Corinthian order, 
and have originally belonged to an edi- 
fice of a good Roman period; in the 
centre of the floor is a circular Roman 
urn, bearing an inscription to Umbrena 
Folia : it is now used as a font. 

In the recesses between the columns 
are representations of the events of the 
Passion. The figures, in plastic work, 
are as large as life, and painted in gaudy 
colours ; and in some cases the resem- 
blance to life is completed by the addi- 
tion of real hair. They have been attri- 
buted to Gaudenzio Ferrari, but, if so, 
they do little honour to him as compo- 
sitions, although many of the figures 
are of fair workmanship. The two 
finest groups are the Garden of Ohves 
and the Scourging of our Lord; one 
of the.executioners is sitting down, tired 
with his work ; the Roman soldier looks 
on with pity ; the other can no longer 
look, and turns away. 

The archives of the Duomo contain 
some curious specimens of the antiqui- 
ties of the Lower Empire and the 
middle ages, and some very old docu- 
ments. There are two remarkably fine 
ivory diptychs, both consular : on 
the first the consul is represented at 
full-length, under a species of cupola 
supported by columns, in the style of 
which we may see most evidently the 
transition which produced the Lom- 
bard or Norman style. This diptych 
contains a list of the bishops from 
Gaudentius to the year 1170; the 
second bears the bust of a consul, and 
contains another list of the bishops 
•from St. Gtiudentius to William of 
Cremona, in 1343. There is also a life 
of St. Gaudentius, and other saints of 
Novara, written in 700, and a petition 
to Bishop Grazioso, in 730, for the 
consecration of an altar erected to St. 
Michael. The library of the semi- 
nary, which is open to the public 3 
days a- week, contains about 12,000 
vols. 

The Duomo of Novara is known in 
Italy as a distinguished school of 
music ; and the office of Maestro di 
Capella has usually been given to emi- 
nent compoBers. In more recent times 



the place has been held by Generali 
and Mercadante. 

The Basilica of San Gaudenzio, the 
patron saint of Novara and its first 
bishop, was entirely rebuilt by Pelle- 
grini in the IGtlTcenty,, and is a noble 
structure ; the sepulchral chapel of the 
patron saint is very magnificent : thehigh 
altar was erected in 1725, and betrays the 
bad taste of that time. This church 
contains one of the finest works of 
Gaudenzio Ferrari. It was originally 
over the high altar ; but, upon the latter 
beiag re-constructed, it was placed in 
the 2nd chapel on 1. on entering the ch. 
It consists of six compartments, en- 
closed in a framework richly carved and 
gilt, also executed by the painter. The 
date of this work (1515) is exactly 
fixed by the contract between the artist 
and the chapter in the archives of the 
church. The principal compartments 
contain the Nativity above, with the Ma- 
donna and Child and four saints with 
attending angels below. Much gild- 
ing is introduced into the garments of 
the figures ; and this adornment is the 
subject of a special clause in the con- 
tract. This was his largest work before 
he went to Rome, and the last in his 
earher style. In the 4th chapel on the 
rt. is a crucifix modelled by Ferrari. 
The church also contains — the Depo- 
sition from the Cross, by Moncalvof 
Morazzone, the Last Judgment ; and 
some recent frescoes by Sabatelli, The 
archives of San Gaudenzio are valuable. 
A consular diptych of great beauty, on 
which are sculptured two Roman con- 
suls giving the signal for the public 
games, and some CM-Iy manuscripts, are 
worthy of notice. The bell-tower of S. 
Gaudenzio is fine, and so lofty a« to 
form a very conspicuous Object, being 
visible from a great distance. 

Ch. of San Pietro al JRosarioy for- 
merly annexed to a Dominican con- 
vent, now suppressed, was finished in 
1618. It contains some good wall- 
paintings in oil by a Novarese artist of 
the last century : and the Virgin, St. 
Peter Martyr, and St. Catherine, in 
the chapel of the Rosary, by Giulio 
Cesar e Procaccini. 'S.ete, vo. \3.<yi^ 



?IEDMOST. 



HouU a.—Mmra—Satlh. 



41 






sftitenee WHB paaeed on Frate Dolcino, 
»ao prenc^hed the tenets of Manes, and 
a community of goods and wonien. 
Umiii^ retreated to the niouiitainB 
nbtKe Venxlli, at the head of SUOO 
discijiles, lie WHa defented on Muundy 
ThursdnT, in a pitohcil bsttle, by the 
NoT«Tcse, and taken pr»oner. He and 
hia ODDCubine, the beautiful Margaret, 
a nun whom be bad abduoted from 
hep couveiit, were burnt alive (Moruh 
33, 1307), Thcj both behaved with 
ertraordinary fimmeBe at their eiecu- 
titm, w)iieh was a(n:ampBnied with cir- 
cnmstancea of most revolting cruelty. 
Dante introduces Mahomet requesting 
him to worn Dolcino of liis approach- 
ing &te :— 

"OrlU-iifMDokli 




. .mhtiuglf;lgit,>lialleii'iL b; tbeini 
KirlHiaph to Nmuii be alluw'il 

Hwro is rotliiT a good theatre at 
Novara, which h open for openis 
ballets during thi ' ' 



pnival and the 



Much building is now in progrC! 
HoTani, exhibiting tlie prosperous e 
of the country. The newSfernrfo, whii:h 
also contains the ofG(.*ea of the Tribunal 
of Commiirce, has been built from tho 
designs of Professor OreUi of Milan. 

Tno Oapednle Sfagjiiore, with 
Cortile supported by Wi oolumns 
granite, less ornamented than 
Mmaio, is also a great ornament to 
the city. The ancient atrcota of low 
cMstered arcbes are disappearing fast 
before lofty arcades like those of Turin. 

A statue of Carlo Emanuele 111., 
bv Marchcsi, has been lately eropted 
near the Falacso del/a Qivslixia. The 
eitenaion of the Bly. to Moyara has 
added greatly to itH prasperiCy uid 
commercial activity, I^aoed as it now 
is within a tew hoara' diataace of Tunn, 
llUaa, and Gemm, it forms tlie point 



where all tlie a 

Lago Maggiore, and, the most im- : 

portftilt now, ftcrosa the Alpa, conyerge. j 

The Kly. Stat, is in the plain of tits I 
Tordoppia, a few hundred yds. beyond ] 
the K.E. eitremity of Novara. j 

ItwaatothcS.ofthetownofNorara, I 
almoat in its suburbs, that tAOk place 1 
on the 23rd of March, 1849, tha | 
sanguinaiT action between the Aua- 
trians and the Piedmontese, wliich ter- 
minated in the defeat of the latter, 
and the nbdication of the brave and 
chivalrous Carlo Alberto, Tliat unfor- 
tunate sovereign, pressed by the demo- 
cratic party at Turin, denounced the ' 
armistice into which he hud entered I 
in August of the preceding year, after , 
hia unsuecDsafi]! campaign on the Adige \ 
and the Mincio, and pr«)ared to invada ■ 
the Austrian territory by urosalng the j 
Ticino on the 21at March. On the | 
same day the veteran liadetsky invaded I 
the Piedmonteae territory by cross- I 
ing the aame river at Pavia, with a i 
well-pquippod innj of 60,CXX) men, J 
in 4 divisions. Without losing a no- ] 
ment his advanced gnard whs put into 3 
motion in the direotion of the head- ' 
quarters of the Piedmonteee army, then 
lying between Novara and Trocato, 
After a hard-fought action at Mor- I 
tara, on the 21st, in which the ^ 
riechnontese were worsted, the Aua- 
trians advanced upon Novara, where 
both armies engaged on the 23rd, 
the Auetriana under Itadetsky, the 
Piedmonteae commanded by the Po- 
lish Gleneral Chemowaki, under the 
King in person. The site of the 
battle is a little S. of the tovm in 
the plain separating the Agogna and 
Terdopio atrenma. The heat of the 1 
action was between Olengo and tha 
chapel of La Bicocea, about 21 m. 8. j 
of Novara, on the road to Mortnra : the . 
Piedmoiitese performed prodigies of J 
valour, led on by Carlo Alberto and hie J 
sons the Dukes of Savoy (the preaent 1 
King Victor Emanuel) and Oenoa. I 
The conflict laated during the vhoU..!] 
day, and at iU Aow 'Cue Ywo^ 
montese retired flvcoxiigV file \cr»r^ 
eommittitie soma acta oS ^'ffla^'! WB 



42 



Eoute 2. — Naviglio Grands — Magenta. 



Sect. I. 



disorder. On the 26th of March an 
armistice was signed, in which Ra- 
detsky showed much generosity as a 
victor — the whole campaign, from the 
crossing of the Ticino at Pavia, having 
only lasted 5 days. 

Leaving Novara, the rly. crosses the 
plain to 

9 kil. Trecate Stat., a large village. 
2 m. farther is San Martino, situated 
"on the highest point of the escarpment 
on the W. side of the valley of the 
Ticino. From San Martino less than a 
mile brings us to the Ticino, crossing, 
before reaching it, 2 canals, which, de- 
rived about 2 m. higher up, irrigate the 
districts of Vigevano and S. Martino. 

5 kil. Ticino Stat.^ on the river. 

The Ticino^ imtil recently the boun- 
dary between the dominions of Sar- 
dinia and Austrian Lombardy, is here 
a fine river, with a wide gravelly 
bed which is frequently changing. 
The bridge or Ponte Nuovo, by which 
it is crossed, is of the granite of 
Montorfano, and has 11 arches all 
of the same size; its length is 997 
feet ; it cost 128,603/. 'It was begun by 
the French in 1810, afterwards stopped 
by political events, resumed in 1823, 
and completed in 1827 by the two 
sovereigns whose territories it joined. 
It is one of the finest works of the kind 
in Italy. The Austrians attempted, in 
their retreat from Piedmont, to ^ blow 
up the eastern arches on the 2nd of 
May, 1859, but not sufficiently so as 
to prevent the French crossing it on 
the day following. 1 m. farther, by a 
very gradual ascent, brings us to the 
Ganal or Naviglio Grande^ which is 
here rapid and clear, and which is 
crossed by the Ponte cU Magenta^ the 
former Austrian custom-house station. 

The Naviglio Grande, whicli derives 
its water fi^m the Ticino at the village 
of Tomavento about 8 m. higher up, 
after first reaching Milan, connects the 
Ticino and the Po, and is remarkable 
as being the earhest artificial canal 
in Europe, with the exception (not 
quite certain) of that between Ghent 
^nd Bruges. It waa begun in the 12th 

▼: The Brst portion ended at Abbia- 



tegrasso, and was intended principaQy 
for the purposes of irrigation. In 1259 
it was continued to Milan by Napoleone 
della Torre, and also deepened and bet- 
ter adapted for navigation. It is still 
mainiy useful for its original purpose. 
The country on either side is irrigated 
by the numerous watercourses which 
derive from it. The fiood-gates are 
locked and opened when required, under 
particular regulations, so as to secure 
to the adjoining landowners their due 
share of the fertilising waters. 3 m. 
higher up the Ticino is Turbigo, oppo- 
site which Marshal M'Mahon crossed 
the river on the 3rd of June, the first 
entrance of the allied army into Lom- 
bardy in the late memorable campaign. 

7 kil. Magenta Stat. It was fi>unded 
by the Emperor Maximilian, and de- 
stroyed by Barbarossa. It is in the 
midst of a most fertile district of mul- 
berry-trees and com. 

As Magenta and its environs were 
the scene of one of the greatest battles 
during the late war, it will not be out 
of place here to say a few words on the 
military operations of which it was 
the culminating event. 

Our readers need scarcely be in- 
formed that after the entrance of the 
Austrians into Piedmont, in the spring 
of 1859, advancing as far as the Dora, 
and to within a few miles of Turin, they 
continued to occupy the country be- 
tween the Dora, Sesia, and Ticino, 
covering Lombardy from invasion on 
the W., whilst the Sardo-French army 
occupied the country S. of the Po, 
and especially the line extending from 
Alexandria to the frontier of the 
duchy of Piacenza, receiving their 
supplies from Glenoa, and supported 
by Alexandria and Casale ; the Allies 
menacing thus the whole line of the Po 
from Videnza to La Stradella, where 
the Lombard frontier was strongly 
defended; the Austrians crossing at 
times the river. It was in one of these 
expeditions, a kind of gigantic recon- 
naissance that was fought the brilliant 
action of Montebello, near Casteg- 
gio, so honourable to the Pjedmontese 
army (p. 57). 



Route 2. — BattU of Magenta. 



43 



1 of Lombardy from 
3 attEnded with inau- 
peiable obstacks, 0,11 at once i^nged 
W plan of opurationa, and b; a rapid 
flank moYemant in a few days lmii«- 
&rred the givnter part of the Allied 
UTny into tho plains of tho Seaia, 
tfaoB turning almost unpercoiTod and 
nosuspedted tho right wing of the 
Austrian army; in tliis rapid transfer, 
fop it can Buircclj be calEtid a march, 
the railwBj from Aleiandria offered 
the greatest fBcilities. On the 2Sth uf 
Ha; this flanli movement commenced, 
crossing the Fo at Cnsale, whore was 
the only bridge, and on the 30th the 
great masB of the Allies was encamped 
en the W. side of the Sefia, haying 
their head-quarters st Vercellij the 
Aastriana under Qhilay holding the 
opporite bank, and all the comitry 
between it and the Ticino. On the 
30th the Fiedmonteaeoommenced their 
onward march, occupying Borgo Ver- 
oelli, and attacked witli aucu^ss the 
AustrioDB Bl Conflenza, Yinzaglio, and 
PaleatrOi but the latt«r returning to 
occupy their former positione on the 
fcrilowing day, the Piedmontese, aided 
by the French Zouaves, gainod a very 
fanportant victory at Palestro, tlie 
oonseqitenceof which was the AustrioDB 
rotrBating to Mortara, in the direction 
of BereguardoandPavio. The French 
army crossed the Sesia on the same 
day, and on the day following occupied 
■without opposition Novara. On the 
2nd of June General M'Mahon ad- 
Tanced from Novara, crossed the 
Ticino with scarcely any opposition 
at Tnrbigo, and established hiraaalf 
there antl in the adjoining Tillage of 
Hobechotto, the Sardinian army fol- 
loning on the 3rd. On the same 
day the Emperor of the French, with 
the Imperial guard, moved from ISo- 
varo, by the high road to Milan, 
through Trecate and S. Martino, at the 
W. eitremity of the fine bridge of 
BuHUora or Ponle Nuovo. 

On \he morning of the 4th of Mar 
toot pince tho combined — - ■ 



from Turbigo on Ihe N., and 8. 
Martino on the 8., which ended after ' 
B long day's contest in the total defeat I 
of the Austriana, — the battle which 1 
bears the name of Magenta, altliough I 
it might ifquallvbeor thaX of Duffiilora. 
Tho plan of Napoleon wns that 
General M'Mahon should advance 
from Turbigo by way of BulTalora, Ihe 
Emperor at the head of the Imperial 
guard by tho Ponte NuovO, parallel to 
the line of roilway, both armies to form 
a junction at Macents. This plan 
was punctually followed ; U'Mahon 
engaging the Austrians at Bufialoni, 
wliero they were strongly posted. I 
About 2 o'dook M'Mahon waa engaged | 
at Buffaloro, on hearing the oannoiL I 
from which the Emperor ordered the | 
bridge to be crossed, beyond which the i 
Imperial guard, under the orders of J 
Marshal Baraguay d'Hilliers, met with ,' 
an obstinaiti resistance, and were more 1 
than once obliged to fall back, in J 
which Ihe General commanding tho 
attaDl:ing foree, Clor, waa killed. Ths | 
contest Sere lasted sBveral hours, with | 
very doubtful -issue, until M'Mahon, 
hoving driven back the right wing of 
the AuatHans by his Sank movement 
on Bufl'alora, advanced on Magenta. 
About 6 o'clock the Aostrians occu- 
pied tho village, defending it most 
obstinately for % houra against the 
combined forcea of M'Mahon, of Can- 
robert, and of the Imperial guard, 
which, after a most sanguinary conHiet, 
had succeeded in making its way 
from the river ; each house being 
defended and stormed as a fortress. I 
Here more than 10,000 men were put , 
hora do combat, and General Espi- | 
nasse, commanding the Imperial guard, 
and one of the bravest officera in the j 
French army, was killed. It wb« i 
not unta 8J P.M. that the Bring I 
coBsed, by the arrival of the reserves ! 
of Niel'a and Canrobert's divisions, tlio 
Auaferlans retreating on Bebecco with 
the intention of recommencing the 
contest on the morrow. During tha 
long and ardaouB ccrni^t, »Vm% 'floa 
line, from. t\ie Ponte ^Movd \«"^»%mAWj 
Napoleoa iva,B coQBl&tvft^ m ^\» "^^^W 



44 



Eoute 3. — Turin to Milan by Casde, 



Sect. I. 



of the figlit; his prmcipal station 
being at the top of one of the large 
buildings at the hamlet of Ponte di 
Magenta, a bridge wliich crosses the 
canal or NavigUo about half-way be- 
tween the Ticino and Magenta. The 
losses in this sanguinary conflict were 
very great on both sides ; according to 
the French bulletins, theirs amounting 
to 3700 and 735 prisoners, and those 
of the Austrians to 13,000 killed and 
■wounded and 7000 prisoners, out of 
55,000 engaged on one side and 75,000 
on thfl other. The result was that 
the Austrians, being demoralized, and 
the corps of their r^ht wing so much 
cut up by M'Mahon's flank movement, 
instead of attacking on the morrow, 
retreated in a southerly direction 
towards Abbiategrasso and the Adda, 
leaving the road to Milan open, which 
the Emperor and his Royal Ally 
entered in triumph on the 

The result of this memorable cam- 
paign is well told in the closing para- 
graph of the Imperial bulletin, dated 
from S. Martino the day after the bat- 
tle of Magenta. 

" In 5 days after its departure from 
Alexandria the Allied army have 
fought 3 actions, gained a great battle, 
cleared Piedmont of the Austrians, 
and opened the gates of Milan. Since 
the combat of Montebello the Austrian 
army has lost 25,000 men in killed and 
wounded, 10,000 prisoners, and 17 
guns " — although there is a good deal 
of exaggeration in the number of the 
casualties. 

By military men Marshal Giiilay's 
tactics have been much blamed, for 
allowing the Alhes to cross the Ti- 
cino almost without firing a shot, and 
for giving battle on his own instead 
of on the enemy's ground ; but the 
fact appears to be that he was quite 
unprepared for Napoleon's sudden 
change from the bank of the Po 
to that of Ticino, and unable to bring 
up in time his reserves from the 
vicinity of Pavia and the Oltro Po 
Pavese -to oppose the French attack in 
this new position. G-iulay was soon 
relieved of his commandf alinost with 



disgrace, and M*Mahon, to whose able 
strategy this great victory was chiefly 
due, created almost on the battle-field 
Marshal .of France and Duke of Ma- 
genta. 

Leaving Magenta, the rlwy. and 
post-road diverge. 

4 m. Vettuone Stat., leaving which 
we pass on the rt. where Desiderius, 
the King of the Lombards, had a viUa. 

6 m. JRho Stat., before reaching 
which the river Olona is crossed, and 
afterwards the Lura, near where they 
join. Rho is a large village in a pro- 
ductive district ; it has a large church 
from the designs of Pellegrini. 

5 m. Musocco Stat. Here the rly. 
crosses the carriage-road from Varese, 
Saronno, and Bollate. 

5 m. Milan Stat. The station is 
the same as that of the Monza and 
Como Rlwy., near the Porta Nuova, 
where omnibuses fix)m the diflerent 
hotels, and flys, will be found waiting 
on the arrival of every train ; but as 
the former are generally cranuned with 
passengers, and take a circuitous route, 
the traveller will find it more conve- 
nient, and generally as economical, as 
a charge is made by the omnibus for 
every parcel of luggage, to take a car- 
riage, the fare for which to his hotel 
will be 1 fr. 35 c. 

Motels. Hdtel de la VUle, kept by 
Baur, and H6tel Royal, by Bruschetti, 
the best ; both excellent, with landlords 
and servants who speak English. 



ROUTE 3. 

TUEIN TO MILAN, BY CASALS, MOBTABA, 
AND VIGEVANO. 

This road follows the rt. bank of the 
Po in nearly the whole of its extent 
through a rich alluvial country, having 
on the rt. hand the hilly region of the 
Montferrat, and on the other the plain 
extending to the foot of the Alps. 
There are no post relays upon it. The 
Rly. from YerceUi to Casale causes this 
route to be no-w seldoisiCoUowcd by tra- 
I vellers. 



PlEriMOST. 



Moule 3.— 7>ww— Ca!a&.' 



4r 



11 kiL Seii:mo Slal. 

lakiJ. C»iu<««o S/«f. 

Vervlenfro, pootaming 5000 Tnhnb. 
Holf-WBy before reochiog licre tlie old 
post-rDttd to Vcnxlli brODcliea olT oil 
tiiel. 

Near tMs p1aa>, but on tUe opposite 
side of thePo, ia Maatev Po,oci:iipjing 
the site of the Bonuin station of Indm- 
Iria. Tbia citj, mentioned bj Plinj 
and otlier luicient writers, had been in a 
numner lost. Uuiv antiqiiaries Bup- 
posed tbut Casale had risen npon ita 
ruins ; but in 1744 the diBOOTery of re- 
muDS in thui neighbourhoad, and some 
fragments orin!criptiona,l©d to further 
«i(!»vation9. ThereiJiJl wob, ashasbceQ 
before men tiaoad^ thcdiacOTerTofmanj' 
of the finest objects iu the Museum of 
Turin. Thi' ctciivationo liaie not been 
recently proaeputed with niiieh Tigour. 

21 kiL CrejfceHtinB, beyond tbe jonc- 
tion of Uie Dotbi Baltea with the Po, 
4300 Inhab., in the midet of a manby 
territory. Its plan indicates a Romsn 
ttntion ; and some remains discovered 
in tbe lost centy. seem to eonflrm this 
aupporition. The prineipal ohumh, the 
AttKiUa, is ancient, but has been re- 
cently decorated and altered. It oon- 
taina some p^tings by MotKolto. 

Beyond the Po, opposite to Crescen- 
tino, but not in the mat], rises Veeraa, 
fermarly strongly fortifled, but now 
dismantled. Situated upon an abrupt 
and insulated bill, it is a most defen* 
able position : it upposc'd an obstinate 
resiBtanoB to the Emperor Frederick 
II. In more recent tmiea (1704.) the 
JixAe of VendAmo attacked it without 
anecess. Tlie defences were destroyed 
by the French during their first ocon- 
pation of Piedmont. 

The road continues atirtBd by the 
Po, passing through a rich hut un- 
Iiealthy eountnr, full of s-wampe, and 
constantly liable to inundations. The 
nundiy mendows &ed abunilance of 
oattle, and bence the cultivation of rice 
la not so much reaoried to hunt a« iar- 
tUer on. 

■18 kil. Tri-no, TOOO Tnhab. Thia place 
(ftinnerlTmueli beWerpeoplerf,- it* 



.he ooimtry. Great herds of swins 
reared in the marshes, and the hams i 
ofTrinottre^elohmtodlhroughoutPicd- . 
raont. TrinowBsthebirthpUceof Bor- | 
nardino Gioleto, a celebrated printer, • 
who established himself at Venice in | 
1187, and who became the father of m j 
long line of typographers, Trinoorigin- 
ally belonged to Vercelli ; and was th« | 
'ant object of eonttmtion between ' 
id its dangerous neighbours the 
marquises of Montferrnt. When Tic! or 
Emanuel asserted his claims to the mar- 
miisate, he laid siege to and took it, aa> 
-^ted by his two sons Victor Amedeoa 
id Francis Thomas. This aolueie- 
cut was pommemoratod by the foL* 1 
lowing jingling epigram i — 

Ttinn di™ Trinoni Irfno mhprincipe e»i^e. 4 

The road foEows the L bonk of the \ 
9, which it crosses by a auspcnaion ' 
■idgo boforH entering ■ 

20 kil. Caaale, an important city, 
21,0001nhab.,tbecapitaLoftheaneient , 
marquisateofMontferrat. Inlatertimei ^ 
it was a position exceedingly contastedi 
and the citadel, founded in 1590 by 
Duke Vicenzo, was one of the strongest 
places iu Italy. The castle or palacft 
IS yet standing : it was embellished by 
the Gonzagas. Many Roman remain* 
haro boon found here; amongst other^,, 
coins of the earliest ages of tharepuUiK . 
The fortifications of Casale bave beea > 
recently greatly increftsed and strength" i 
onod, and, with A-lessondria and Genoa, 
it is now one of the great jnilitftry 
strongholds of the kingdom of Sap- . 
dinia j it forms as it wore the frontier 
barrier on the side of Lombardy. 

The Cathedral or Zhiomo is said 
to have been founded by Liutpranc^ 
King of the Lombards, in 742 i 
and the archives of tlie chapter coa' 
tain a singular muniment, a chartet 
engraved upon a tablet of lead, snpr 
posed to confirm this opinion. Tha' 
eothedral, hy whomsoever founded, i* 
of high antiquity as a Lombard buScN < 
ing ; but in 17(fe tUe lepftw* mA ftw!)»i 
rstiona bestowed upoTv A ^oosi-oiKcg 
of ita original feftturee. l\i t^scAms 



46 



Eoitte 3. — Casak — Mortara, 



Sect. T. 



some good paintings : tlie best is the 
Baptism of our Lord by Qaudenzio 
Ferrari^ a portion of a larger pic- 
ture which, was destroyed by fire. 
The chapel of Sant' Evasio has been 
recently decorated with much splen- 
dour; the shrine is of silver. In 
the sacristy (though the French re- 
moTcd a large portion of its contents) 
are still some yery curious specimens 
of art. A cross taken from the in- 
habitants of Alessandria, covered with 
silver plates set with gems. Another 
of exceedingly rich workmanship in 
enamel, given by the Cardinal Theo- 
dore PalfiBologus. A statue by Bernini, 
forming part of a group of the Spasimo, 
from the suppressed convent of Santa 
Chiara. The altar, with alto-rilievos, 
was formerly in the chapel of Sant' 
Evasio. Amongst the archives, 'besides 
Liutprand's charter- tablet, are some 
valuable manuscripts of the 10th centy., 
and an ancient sacrificial vase in silver 
representing the Triumph of Bacchus. 
The church of San Domenico is 
one of the last bequests of the Palseo- 
logi, having been begun by them 
in 1469, and consecrated in 1513. 
The stags which form a part of their 
armorial bearings, and which orna- 
mented the fa9ade, have been re- 
moved; but the memory of this 
&mily is preserved by the tomb 
erected by the late king in 1835, and 
in which the remains of several of its 
princes have been deposited. The 
building is supposed to be after the 
designs of Bramantino, and from 
the elegance of its proportions and 
the richness of its ornaments, espe- 
cially of the facade, it may rank 
among the finest of the sacred edifices 
in this country. It contains paint- 
ings by Pompeo Battoni and Mon- 
calvo. Here is the fine Mausoleum of 
Benvenuto di San Giorgio, who died in 
1527. This individual wrote an excel- 
lent chronicle of Montferrat, of much 
importance also in the general history 
of Italy ; he was a knight of Malta, 
and he is represented upon his tomb in 
the habit ot his order. Quaint allego- 
n'caj baa-reUefs adorn other portions 



of it ; it is surmounted by a canopy ; 
and the style of the whole is interest- 
ing, as being the parent of that which 
prevailed in England in the days of 
Elizabeth. 

Scmt^ Uario enjoys the reputation of 
having been once a pagan temple. It 
is said to have been consecrated by St. 
Hilary in the 4th centy. It did contain 
many good paintings of early date : the 
best have been removed to Turin, but 
some curious specimens still remain. 

Many of the ancient civil edifices 
of Casale are remarkable. The old 
Torre del grandU Orologio was built 
before the year 1000. It was altered 
in 1510 by William lY., Marquis of 
Montferrat, whose arms are cast upon 
the great beU. The Palazzo della 
Citta was originally the property of 
the noble family of Blandrate. Having 
been confiscated in 1535, it was made 
over to the municipal body. It is 
attributed to Bramante ; and the por- 
tal and porticoes are not imworthy of 
his reputation. TJie paintings which 
it contained have been removed, but 
some frescoes yet ornament the roof 
and walls. Palazzo DelavaUe con- 
tains some frescoes by Giulio Romano. 
In the Palazzo Callori is a portrait of 
G-onzaga, abbot of Sant' Andrea, at 
Mantua, by Titian. 

The central position of Casale has 
always given it importance as a mili- 
tary position, and this has been turned 
to good accoimt by the present govern- 
ment in adding greatly to its defences. 
Blwys. branch from it to Vercelli, No- 
vara, Valenza, and Alessandria ; and 
a good road to Mortara and Vigevano 
by Candia, where there are some fres- 
coes in the ch. of Sta. Maria, by La- 
nini; and Cozzo, said to have been 
founded by king Cottius, across the 
rich country bordering on the Sesia 
and the Lomellina. 

18 kil. Mortara^ 4070 Inhab. ; the 
chief town of a district called the Lo- 
mellina. It is said to have derived its 
name from its imhealthiness — Mortis 
ara, the altar of death. According to 
another tradition, it derives its frmereal 
I appeUation from. \:\ie ^\3kvx!^\^ q€ the 



FlEDaONT. 



Jioute 4. — Turin toAiti—Chwri. 



47 



Xxaobsrdsj who vrete licre defeated hj 
Clurleaiagne, A.D. 774. The whole 
diitrict IB intersected hy mars, water- 
coursea, and canoU ; nnd tlie rice-ul"" 
(atione ad<l to the insalubritj at 
umrBh-laDd^ around. 

Thf K!v. is open from Mortara. ti 
7V'"'". 12 fcil,, 14.000 Inhab.; a 
pLii'i? iii loiisidereble trade, but 
"tlior-iiM- ivmartablB. The ane 
™a'lt' of tlie Sforias was altered in 1493 
bj BraTnante; and having been formed 
into a palace, it la now employed as a 
bamuik. The cathedral ia a good 
building ; it bas reoently been re- 
paired and dDcOFa(«d. Public aoxf^ej- 
ancea for Milan start on the amval 
of eacli Bly. train, emplojing SJ 

Croee the Tit^ino upon a lljiug bridge, 
and enter Linnbardj. 

AbbiategTatgo (first Lombard 

tion), a considerable borgo upon the 

I^att^lio Orande. It contains a large 



1 the 



ofai 



pit*l ci'lliifi 



endeut upon the great bos- 



Coraieo. Much of the cteoaa 
porte^i under the name of Parmoaan, 
but known in the conntrj by the i 
of Jbrmaggio di grana, is made in 
neighbourhood. 

Miuy. (Route £1.) 



ICBDJ TO iBM, BY CHrEET. 

Thja ia a good road of about 40 m. 
Chiari is about 17 m. from Turin. 

iiaJforfoTWa del Pilaae. From this 
point the road aeoends the Collina, 
S. of tlieSitperga, to 

Pino, on the higbest parf of the 
imgH whence it deseendu for 4 m. to 



Chier! (the anoitnt Cairea Poiefilia),, 
which contains about 12,000 Inbab. 
The eh. of Saula Maria delta Srala 
is one of the largest Qothic buildings 
in Piedmont. It was erected in 140S. 
Annexed to it ia a Terr andent bap- 
tiitery, which, as usual, iB said to have 
been a pagan temple. 

The Church of St. Damimm, built in 
1360, has Borne good paintings by 
Moncolco. This conrcnt has boen re- 
sCorod. It once contained a aingnlar 
inmate. In the mouth of October, , 
]6G4v the knights of Malta oantured ft | 
Turki)>h galle;, On board of which wa« 
one of the sultanas of Ibraliim, the then 
reigning Fadjsbab, with her son, the 
7unng Osman. The boj wae educated 
at Borne j but it was judged erpedient 
to eend him to France, when, chancing 
to stop at Turin, ho determined to be- 
come a friar, and he entered this con- j 
rent, nbaro be professed under tha j 
name of Padre Domenico Ottoman di 
San Tomaao. Some members of the 1 
Brogliu family, and amongst them r 
Francesco Brogiia, who serTed under ' 
Louis XrV., anoestor of tbe fanuly of I 
de Broglie in France, aro buried in 
this pJiurch. The de Brc^iies came j 
originally irom this neighbourhood. 

The cupola of the Cistercian monas- , 
tery is considered one of the best worts ■ 

Chieri is one of the most ancient 
manufacturing towns in Europe. The 
mnnufactories of fustians and cotton 
stnlTs date from 14S2, and upwards of 
100,000 pieces were annusllj made to- 
wards tbe middle of the 15lli eetitiuy. 
The manufbctories stitl oiist, and also ' 
some siik-works. 

Ska di Chieri, to the Stat, of Tat 
dfchieaa, on the railway to Asti, or b; 
the road to Ttllanova. 

Asli. (See Rte. S.) 



48 



Eaute 5. — Twin to Genoa. 



Sect. 1. 



ROUTE 6. 

TUBIN TO GENOA, BY ASTI, ALES- 
SANDEIA, AND NOti — BAIL. 

166 kil., 103} m. 



KIL. 

8 Moncalieri. 

13 Trofarello. 

17 Cambiano. 
. 22 PesSlone. 

30 Villanova. 

42 Vlllafranca. 
• 41 BaldichlerJ. 

RO Sail Damiano. 

57 AsTi. 

67 Annone. 

71 Cerro. 

77 Fellzzano. 

83 Solero. 



KIL. 

91 Alessandria. 
101 FruKarolo. 
113 Novl. 
121 Scrravalle. 
125 Arquata. 
134 IsoladiCantone. 
139 Ronco. 
144 Busalla. 
154 Pontedeclmo. 
158 Bolzanetto. 
161 Rlvarolo. 
163 San Pier d' Arena. 
166 Genoa. 



TDhe railway from Turin to Q-enoa was 
opened Dec. 1853. Trains start 4 times 
a day for Gtenoa, performing the journey 
in from 4h. 5 min. to 5h. 30 min. j the 
fores are moderate : 1st class 16f. 60c. 
(13*. Sd.) ; 2nd llf. 60c. (9*. 4d.) ; 
3rd 8f. 30c. (6s. 7d.) No allowance of 
free weight of luggage is made, so that 
every pound is charged for. The tra- 
veller may take a small pared or bag 
with him in the carriage. 

The station in Turin is at the extre- 
mity of the Strada Nuova. The Ely. 
runs parallel to the old post-road in 
a great portion of its extent from Turin 
to Gfenoa. 

Leaving Turin, the line follows the 1. 
bank of the Po and crosses it at 

8 kil. Moncalieri (the first station), 
pleasantly situated on the decUvity of 
the southern extremity of the range of 
the Collina. The palace, which crowns 
the hill above the town, was built by 
Vittorio Amedeo I., on the site of a far 
older building, dating from the days of 
Jolanda : it is fine and commanding from 
every point of view. This palace was the 
last prison ofVittorio Amedeo II.; here 
he died after his removal from Rivoli. 
The gallery contains a long succession 
of family portraits, and also a curious 
series representing the hunting parties 
of Carlo Emanuele II. The influence 
of French costume is singularly marked 
in the fashions of the court : with re- 
spect to the countenances, the descend- 
ants of Humbert aux blanches mains, 
tiefoander (or nearly so) of the family, 



may be said to be generally a handsome 
race. The little town has some vestiges 
of antiquity in its coUegiate church. 
The name of the place is said to be 
derived from Mont Caillier, the hill of 
quails, in the provincial language j but 
these birds are not more common here 
than in other parts of the range. 
Ariosto has made Moncalieri the se^t 
of one of the Paladins of Charlemagne, 
— slain, when sleeping, by Clorinda : — 

" Dopo essi Palidon da Moncalieri 
phe sicuro dormia fra due destrieri." 

The fair of Moncalieri is held on the 
29th of October, and lasts for a week. 
It is one of the greatest cattle-markets 
of Piedmont ; but it is also a pleasure 
fair, and a favourite holiday-time with 
both the country folks and the citizens. 
The road onwards is varied by beauti- 
ful undulations : mulberry- trees abound 
in the fields. On the W. the noble 
mass of the Monte Viso towers above 
the rest of the alpine range. On the 
S.E. the distant Apennines, or rather 
the mountains which, connecting Alps 
and Apennines, may be said to belong 
to both, are seen blue and clear in the 
extreme distance. 

5 kil. Troffarello Stat. Here the Ely. 
to Savigliano and Cuneo branches off on 
the rt. ; the road from here to the next 
stat. runs along the base of the CoUina, 
studded with villas and fann-houses. 

4 kil. Cambiano Stat. The village of 
Cambiano, on a gentle rise, about ^ m.' 
on the 1. Here the hne separates 
from the post-road, nmning througli 
the plain of Riva Chicri and Poirino, 
and crossing several streams to 

5 kil. Pessione Stat. 

Valdechiesa^ 2 miles from Villa- 
nova, and an equal distance from Riva 
di Chieri (Rte. 4). Yaldechiesa was 
founded in 1248 by the inhabitants of 
several townships which had been de- 
stroyed by the citizens of Asti and other 
more powerftil places. The road from 
Turin to Asti, by Chieri (Rte. 4), here 
crosses the railway. The view of the 
snowy Alps is very fine from this part 
of the route, extending from Monte Viso 
to Monte E>OBSk •, ttue declivities of the 



Soute 5. — Villaiioi'a—Aiti. 



i9 



hills in the (bregroimd am eovnred 
with Tillna sud QiriuB. Sejond.the 
Btat. tho coimtr; bpcomeu liill; to 

8kiL rillanoea Slat,, iitaaied 09 the 
highesl part of tbe pkin tliat Buporatea 
the wotera floiTing towards thePo on tlio 
one side, and the Taiuiro on the E. ; 
The country hitherto pnsaed through 
is chieU; laid out in com-fialda, with 
few mulbcTrj or vine plantationa j the 
liew of Monte Viso is very fine iroiQ 
Diisino. Tho Bly. descends mpidly 
thioDgh deep cuttmga to Villa Fcanoa, 
the (Merence of iarel heing 350 ft. 
The geologist will here find himself in 
the Tcidst of the tartiary subapeniiine 
formation, abounding in marine sUeEs ; 
■everal i^mains of large fossil mom- 
Diitlia have been found here, neur Bal- 
deehieri, in the Val d'Audunu, &b. In 
thi» neighbourhood is produced much of 
the nine commonly culled mno d!Aiitit 
the most drinkablB of Piedmont. The 



grown amongst the 

12kii. Tillafranea iicai. 

E kil. Saldic/iUn Stat. 

3fciL San Daaiano, near tlie con- 
fluence of the Triversa and Borbore 
torrenta, in the Gome yalley. Vines 
become more abundant here, on the 
declirities of the liills. 

7 kil. AHi Stat. 

Abti (Albei^o Kcale; indifferent). 
Population 24,500. An anoiBnt eity 
of eamu celebrity (HostA Fompeija), 
sitnaled ntur the coniluonro of the 
Borbore and Taaaro, surrounded by 
fertilQ and picturesque hills. The 
original Duomo fell down in 1323, 
the preBi>ut ample Oothia edifice 
b^un shortly afterwards, and c 
pleted about 1348. It is a fine 
Tenerable building, filled with much 
painting, which unfortunately begins 
to suffer by doeaj. The choir was 
painted by Carloni, — a Nativity is 
said to be bj Baiiana ; but its parent- 
age may be doubted. In a cbapel to 
the 1. of the high altar is an ancient 
painting, German or Flemish, repre- 
senting the Kativitf . Tbia picture was 
oiusi mhoirvd by Oaucienzio Feirari, 
jr. Iiaif—1860. 



■ho has made a careful copy of it. Ey 
MotKaho is a Eesurret'tion : the terror 
of the soldiers is oipnwsed with ability. 
Ck. of San Senondo. Also a flue 
Qothio building. It is a coUc^iale 
church ; and here also is a good ancient 
Flcmiah painting, reproaentjjig the Pu- 
-idcntion; and another, in the same 
(tjle, in the church of Sta. Mand 

AlfUWQ. I 

Ch. of San Piefro (■ Coacami, pro-"^ 
ibly en ancient baptistery ; it luis, us 
in^, the perplexing ajipearanee of 
classical antiquity. It is supponed, but 
without any reason, to have been a 
temple of Diana. 

In this town is a printing-ofBce in 
diiob the business has been carried on 
ince 1479 without interruption. 

The Seminar!/ is a fine building, by 
Count Alfieri, the cousin of tlie pout. 
'" is rich and picturesque in effect, end 
ntains a good library. 
In tlie Palaiso Alfieri, also built by 
the Count, is shown the room where 
Vittario Alfieri was bom, January 17th, 
1749 1 his portrait, and tho following 
autograph addressed to his sister, de- 
corate the apartment. 



The churches of the Certoia and San 
Martolommeo, outside the town, were 
ruined by the French. In both are some 
remains of good pointings ; about half 
the other churches in and about Asti 

The AHigiano, or territory about 
Asti, contains several roinoral and ther- 
mal springs. At Cailel Alfieri arft 
two wells, wliich, until the oarthquaks 
of Lisbon, weTB ot -ipina -«ii>*r. 
After tte earttiqaalte ttwrj \i6camB r ^ 
phurctiCd, and wkcStj wnfi-t ^w 



60 



Boute 5. — Anone — Alessandria, 



Sect. 1. 



meetic purposes, and continued so until 
1807, when, a sharp earthquake having 
been felt at Pinerolo, but which did not 
extend to this province, the waters be- 
came sweet again. This part of the 
country abounds with fossil organic 
Temains. They are most numerous in 
the Val d' Andona, and aU the way from 
"Dusino, about Rochetta and Castel 
Nuovo". 

Leaving Asti, the railway follows the 
valley of the Tanaro to 

10 kil. Anone {Stat.)^ i. e. ad Nonam ; 
the ninth mile station from Asti on the 
banks of the Tanaro ; it is unhealthy, 
and the inhabitants are a good deal 
affected with the disease called Fella- 
gra^ conunon throughout Lombardy. 
Poor and unwholesome food, and ex- 
clusive feeding on Indian com, is sup- 
posed to be the principal cause of it. 

4 kil. Cerro Stat. The village is on a 
gentle rising on the 1. ; here the Plain 
of the Tanaro opens, Felizzano being 
upon one of the laist spurs of the Astesan 
hills. 

6 kil. Felizzano (Stat.) ; burnt three 
times in the 17th centuiy, besides sus- 
taining many previous destructions. 
The country around is frequently in- 
undated by the Tanaro. 

6 kil. Solero Stat. In the plain of 
the Tanaro. 

8 kil. Alessandria Junction Stat. 
(The Albergo Nuovo, late Albergo 
Reale, is the best hoteb a good cha- 
racter is also given to tbe Albergo 
d' Italia : the Albergo dell' Universo.) 
Alessandria is* 58 m. from Turin. Its 
population is 19,000, and, with the su- 
burbs, about 40,000. This city stands 
between the Tanaro and the Bormida, 
near their junction, and is the most 
remarkable monument of the great 
Lombard league. This aUiance, so pow- 
erful, so memorable, and yet so ineffec- 
tual for the preservation of the national 
liberties, began in 1164 by the con- 
federacy of Verona, Vicenza, Padua, and 
Treviso, and included in 1167, besides 
these four cities, Ferrara, Brescia, Ber- 

famo, Cremona, Lodi, Parma, Piacenza, 
lodena, Bologna, Novara, Yercelli, 
Como, Venice^ &nd, lastly, Milan, ; —-all 



bound by solemn oath and covenant to 
defend their mutual rights und privi- 
leges. The most powerful allies and 
willing subjects of the Emperor Fre- 
derick were the citizens of Pavia and the 
Marquis of Montferrat ; and to keep 
these in check, the cities of the League 
determined to erect a new city, at onoe 
a fortress for their defence and a me- 
morial of their liberties. 

On the confines of the marquisate of 
Montferrat and the Pavezano, or coun- 
try of Pavia, was a small castle called 
Bobereto ; this was chosen as the site 
of the new city. The ground was 
careftdly surveyed by the engineers, 
for military architecture had already 
become a study among th^ Italians, 
and the expanse of the countiy and 
the course of the streams, not deep, 
but frequently inundating the adjoin- 
ing plains, appeared excellently adapt- 
ed lor defence against the German 
cavalry. The astrologer stood by with 
his astrolabe, and the first stone was 
laid at the fortunate moment. The 
blessing of the Pontiff was asked aud 
obtained ; and in a general congress of 
the League it was determined that the 
new city should be caUed Alessandria, 
in honour of Pope Alexander III., the 
protector of the Guelfe, and the head 
of Catholic Christendom. The build- 
ing of the city was more peculiarly in- 
trusted to the Milanese, the Cremonese, 
and the Placentines : Genoa sent large 
sums of money. So earnestly did they 
labour, that before the close of the year 
the ci^ was completed. The Ghibel- 
lines scornfully called it " Ales&andina 
della Pagha," either in allusion to the 
materials of the newly erected build- 
ings, earth mixed with chopped straw, 
or in prognostication oi its being 
speedily destroyed like stubble or chaff; 
but Alessandria rapidly rose to great 
power. The inhabitants of the sur- 
rounding villages and towns, Castel- 
lazzo, Marengo, Solerio, Bergoglio, 
Quargnento, ViUa del Foro, and Ovig- 
lio, removed into it. From Asti came 
3000, including some of the most noble 
families. Milan furnished a large con- 
tingent*, and tb.e aie^e laid to Ales- 



PlEDSlON- 



So^ 5, — ^essBTK&i*— JfW. 



51 



mndi-ia by tho incensed Emperor in 
1174 ended in a diagraccful rutreat 
bom before tiie newly erected walla, 
SttbsequGDtly, whun he msde peace 
with the city, be atipulated that it 
riionld assume tlie name of Cesarea, 
bat the Gaelfie appellotion preFailed 
over the Ohibelliue; and Alessoodria 
continued to retain its original deiiomi- 

Alessandria has been strongly for- 
tified by the sovereigns of the House 
of 8»T0y. The citadel, built in 1728, 
n nov the most interestinR and the 
most prominent fsature of the city. 
The road winds round it, posaing over 
a covered bridge, under which the Ta- 
naro seems to be loat. This fortress is 
larger than many towns, with a regular 
P&ce iu the centre, a parish church, 
sad very eiCensiie barracks and ar- 
mouries. The French added to the 
fortifications of the city ; and much 
more wae projected by Napoleon, by 
vhose orders extensive lines were be- 

C, but the unfinished works loft by 
ware afterwards destroyed. Mo- 
dem engineers have s^iliiilly availed 
themaeUes of the advantages all'orded 
by the position chosen by flioBn of the 
middle ages ; and, after Varona, Alea- 
BUidria is now the strongest pkcc 
in Italy; by mama of the sluices of 
the Tanaro the vrhoLj surrounding 
GOUntry can be iaundatod, and ren- 
do^ quite unapproachable by the 
enemy. 

The Daona is richly decorated i its 
prini^i|)ul workofartis a coloasal statue 
of fit . Joit'ph, by Farodi, 

The Cinrch of the Madonna di Lo- 
Ttlu, rct'ciilly completed, says little lor 
the talent of the architect. 

Patuzta GMUho, built by Count Al- 
fieri, and smongst the best examples of 
his atyle. It now belongs to the Mng. 
On the whole, Alessandria oSen Iraa 
than the arera^ interest of Itnlisn 
^ties, partly the rcault of its modem 
foundation. 

Two great business fiiirs 



har e-anni 



d for the puryme. The 



traveller who consults his purse and 
his comfort must not attempt to slop 
at Aleasandria during these fairs. 

The Ely. between Alesiandria and 
Arena, by Valenm, Mortam, and No- 
vara, is now open throughout the entire 
diatance. By it and by the line be- 
tween Genoa and Aleasandria, the jour- 
ney from Genoa to Milan is redurad to 
5^ lira. By these lines also the tn- 
vclicr is enabled U> reach the shorea 
of the Lago Maggiore in 5^ hra. &om 
Gietioa — a great convenience for persons 
going into Switzerland and down the , 
!Khine to EngLuid. From Alessandria 
a Ely. branchea off to Acqui, SI m., 
up the valley of the Itormida (Bte. II, 
p. 68), and to Piaeenza by Tortonu, 
Voghera, and Stradella (Ete. 7). 

iBelbre arrLTing at Uie Station of 
Aleeaandria the railway orosses tlie 
Tonaro, and, soon after leaving it, the 
Borraida : it then nuia along the west- 
em aide of the battle-field of Marengo 
(see Ete. 7), distant about two milrs 
from and parallel to the old poat- 

10 ka. Fnym-olo Slat., near the vil- 
lage of Bosco, in the extensive plain of 
Mamngo, riehly cultivated in com, mul- 
berry-trees, io. 

iakiLJfDBiSin(.{7nn».-rEuropa,ver7 
tolerable ; the Aqidla Nera is also good 
and clean.) Nori is the beet sleeping- 
place between Milan and Oenoo. It is 
a town of 10,800 Inhab., with a con- 
siderable trade, but ofi^ring nothing 
remarkable, except aome picturesque 
old houaoa. The ailk produoed about 
Novi is amongst the most celebrated in 
Italy- The old poat-road from M*1i^t> 
to Genoa, by Favia and Tortona, joins 
at Novi, and the Ely. from Tortona 
(12 m.), forming the most direct 
communication with Favia, Fiacehzs, 
Farmo, Modeiia, and Bologna. 

Beyond Novi wo approadi the Apen- 
ninoB, and the country becomes very 
beautiful Kne tiilln m the distance, 
curiously stratified rooks nearer the 
road, and beautiful groves of ohestuuA- 
treea, cheer andt1ilwen.ftiBNiB.-3, 

8 kil. Seirauulle Stttt. "Sera'CQBBD* 
trarxce to the Tcm TiT^tim\ m^I^^e^ c^'Q 



52 



Eoute 6. — Busdlla — Tunnd, 



Sect. I. 



Scrivia, which flows close to the village, 
and which is crossed by a bridge : the 
hills rise picturesquely on either side, 
and the geologist will here observe an 
interesting section of the tertiary marine 
strata dipping away from the central 
range. The Ely. follows the sinuosities 
of the valley, passing through a long 
tunnel after leaving Serravalle. A 
tunnel is traversed before — 

4 kil. Arquata Stat. A fine ruined 
castle surmounts the hill, and the road 
continues increasing in beauty. 

9 kil. Isola del Cantone Stat.^ near 
a small village of that name, on a 
promontory at the junction of the 
Scrivia and another stream. A fine 
new bridge has been thrown over the 
former river at this point. 

5 kil. Monco Stat. A romantic vil- 
lage, from which, before the completion 
of the Ely., commenced the ascent of the 
Apennines by the post-road. 

5 kil. JBusallaStat.j on the Scrivia, the 
last station on the northern declivity 
of the Apennines, and the summit level 
of the entire line of Ely. between Turin 
and Genoa. The carriage-road, which 
runs through the village, ascends to the 
Pass or Col di G-iove, the culminating 
point from which the traveller will 
descry the Mediterranean, a considera- 
ble portion of the valley of the Polcevera, 
leading to G^enoa, and the peaks behind 
that city crowned with their detached 
forts. 

The great Jktnnel which traverses the 
central ridge of the Apennines com- 
mences at Busalla ; it is 3470 yards, or 
very little short of 2 English miles, in 
length J the whole of this distance is 
not however excavated in the moun- 
tain; the first part being a great artificial 
tube or archway parallel to the Scri- 
via, it having, from the friable nature 
of the rock, been found impossible to 
form a cutting that would exclude tlie 
river, and prevent infiltrations from 
torrents descending from the hills 
above to empty themselves into the 
Scrivia : the rest of the tunnel (about 
3000 yards) is excavated in the rock, a 
friable calcareous schistus; the whole 
ifi walled, and 14 Bhafta descend from 



the surface to convey air. A portion 
of the stream of the Scrivia has been 
diverted through the tunnel to supply 
G-enoa with water. Notwithstanding 
the very steep incline, the passage 
through the tunnel, as well as that 
along the rest of the line leading to 
Genoa, is very safely efiected by en- 
gines of a peculiar construction, made 
by Messrs Stephenson of Newcastle. 
Emerging from the tunnel we enter the 
valley of the Polcevera, which the Ely. 
follows, to near the gates of Genoa. 
The works of the railroad in aU this 
extent have been admirably constructed, 
the greater portion of the line being on 
terraces of sohd masonry, or on gigan- 
tic embankments ; the following being 
the stations beyond Susalla : — 
10 kil. Pontedecimo Stat. 

4 kil. Bolzanetto Stat. 

3 kil. Mivarolo Stat. 

2 kil. San Pier d* Arena Stat. 

3 kil. G-ENOA. 

Once on the S. declivity of the chain, 
the entire appearance of the country 
and the people changes : vines grow 
luxuriantly at Ponte Decimo near the 
S. opening of the tunnel, and are soon 
succeeded by olive-trees; and before 
reaching Genoa, the traveller arriving 
from beyond the Alps will, for the first 
time, see oranges growing in the open 
air; the viUages he passes through 
have also quite a southern appearance, 
and the Iwiguage spoken is difierent, 
being the Genoese dialect. As Q«- 
noa is approached, the villas of the 
Genoese aristocracy succeed ; the Ely. 
runs along the base of a ridge crown^ 
by fortifications on the 1., and after 
passing through San Pier d' Arena it 
enters the tunnel of the Lantema to 
emerge from it a few hundred yards 
before reaching the station in Gfenoa, 
situated near the Palazzo Doria and 
the Piazza di Aqua Verde. 
Genoa Tebminus. (Ete. 13.) 
Hotels : H6tel d'ltalie, kept by Tea;. 
H. Eoyal, by Perosio. The H6tels dei 
la Ville, Croix de Malte, Feder, aU 
good. Omnibuses are in attendance to 
take travellers to these different hotels. 



Rmtfa 6, — Alessani^^ fo Nmara and Anma. 



The Ely. IB now open from AJessandria 
to Arona, 63.J m. (4 trains daQ; iu Sj- 
hrs.), thus furnishing the esaiest mode 
ot re«cliing Switierlnnd from the shores 
of the Meditcrrancai], nnd Mllnn, h; 
means of the line from NoTara bj 

The first part of tho Rlj., ns far 
aa the Po, ia tliroiij{b an iri'egiilar liillj 
oonntrj-, the E. angle of the group of 
terCiar^r liills of the Astigiano, between 
the Po and tho Tanaro -. a graduaJ 
ascent of 75 It. brings us to 

9 Ml. Val Madonna StaC, nearly at 
the BDiomit level, from which an eqnallv 
grndunl descent, after paasing througo. 
a long tunnel, leads to 

5 Ml. VaUittaJaaclion Stal., a short 
way on the 1. of the town, which con- 
tiMiM a population of 4000. A Rlj. 
braaches off to Caside (14 ni.) and 
Vereelli (26 m.). Soon after leaFJng 
Yalonia (he Po ia crossed bv a Sne 
bridge of 20 arches. 

7 kil. ToirebsretH Slat. A Kly. is 
prrojected froin here to Pavia. 



3 kil. : 
aidomblB f 



( Slai., 



, Sue agrictdtnral 
n the I. is 



disti 

2 til. Valle Stal. 
the town of Oaadia, on tlie carriage- 
road &am Casale to Mortara. 

After Vatle the B]jr. cnwsBB nu- 
mBrooB aljvams and canal^ tho DounCry 



being MgUy irrigated, and laid out in 
pasturage and rice-flelds, to 

8 kil. OleffaM Slat., near the I. bank 
of the .i^^o^iKi, descending from Novara. 

4 kil. MoHara (4070 lubab.), the 
chief town of the LomcUino, tho district 
between the rivern Ticino and Sesia ; 
its name is snpposed by come to he 
derived from MorlU Ara, tbe altar of 
death, by others from the slaughter of 
tbe Lombards by Charleraagiie, whom 
ho deleated here in A.s. 774 ; the , 
comitry around being mdiBalthj, from t 
its lunuiiatit vegetation and irrigation. ] 

Saala Maria, the prinoipal ohorch, ' 
haa lieen a good specimen of Italian 
Gothic, it is now much dilapidated. ; 
In this neighbourhood took plaeo ■ \ 
severe action between the Picdniontesa 
and tho Aaatriansonthe2l3t of March, ' 
1849, when tho former, overpowered 
by numbers, were obliged to fall back on 
Novara. 

A Bly. ia open from Mortara to 
rigevnuo, about 8 m. distant, and 
from which eonveynncea are ready on ' 
the arrival of each train to take pas- 
sengers to Milan in 3^ hrs. (See 
Rte. 3.) From Mortara tbe Ely. fol- 
lows the course of the Arboroso stream 
nearly to Novara. 

8 kil. SoTffo Lavetzaro Stat. 3 m. 
the town of BraEeilona, in 
the Turdoppio. 
Veapolate Stal. From here thB , 
Riy. has a ateeper incline than lii- , 
therto, running parallel to the post- i 
road passing from 

Qarbagna to Olegao. It was about 
here, and over the flelds reaching to the 
hamlet of la Bicoeea, i m. on tbe 1., 
that the battle raged most violently on 
Che aerd of March, 1849. (See p. 41.) 

12 kiL Novara Stal. (See Bte. 2.) 
Between Novara and Arona the St^. 
runs close to the post-road, and jai- 
rallel to tho Ticino and tho W, shoro ■ 

"cslfew I 
(see Etc. 2). " ( 

13 til. Belliazago Stai. \ 
3 kil. Oleggio Stat., a \B,T%e t{\o.».| 

about 3 m. W. oJ fheTvcmo, ^i 

8 kil. Varallo Pombia Stat, ktgi 



54 



BoiUe 7. — Alessandria to Piacenza — Marengo. Sect. I. 



from here strikes off on the rt. to Somma, 
crossing the Ticino by a ferry-boat. 

3 kil. Borgo Ticino Stat, Following 
the shores of the lake, 

9 kil. Arona Stat, The Ely. Stat, 
is at the S. extremity of the town, close 
to the lake and to the quay where the 
steamers start from. 

Inns: Albergo d' Italia, near the har- 
bour; A. della Posta; both good, the 
latter nearer to the Bly. station and 
landing-place from the steamers. H6tel 
KoyaL 

Steamers leave Arona on the arrival 
of the Rly. trains, ascending the lake 
at 7 a.m., 12*30 and 3*15 p.m., cor- 
responding with the trains that leave 
G^enoa at 5*40 and 10 a.m., and Turin 
by the Vercelli and Novara line at 8*37 
a.m., and by the Alessandria and Mort- 
ara line at 8*45 and 12*15. These 
steamers stop, in going and returning, 
at Belgirate, Stresa, the Borromean 
Islands, Baveno (for the road by the 
Simplon), FaKanza, and Intra ; and one 
daily at Laveno. 

Steamers arrive from the head and 
more northern parts of the lake at 
8*25 and 11*50 a.m., and 5*30 p.m., in 
correspondence with the Rly. trains 
which reach Alessandria at 11*22 a.m., 
5 and 7*40 p.m., Genoa at 1*57, 
8*55, and 10*15 p.m., Turin at 1210 
and 6*29 p.m., and Milan at 12 12, 
6*29, and 11*26 p.m. 



ROUTE 7. 

ALESSANDEIA TO PIACENZA, BY TOE- 
TONA, TOGHEBA, CASTEGGIO, AND 
THE TBEBBIA. 

60 m. 



KIL. 

8 La Spinetta. 
14 S. Giullano. 
22 Tortona. 
31 Ponte Curone. 
39 Voghera. 
48 Castegglo. 
53 San GiuUetta. 
60 Broni. 



KTL. 

64 Stradella. 

68 Arena Po. 

75 Castel S. Giovanni. 

79 Sarmato. 

84 Rottofreno. 

88 S. Nicolo. 

97 Piacenza. 



For the journey by Rly. between 

Tunn and AleBaandiia, see Rte. 5. The 

railwajr to Piacenza, Parma, and Bo- 



logna—at 4*30, 8*45 a.m., 1210, 820 
p.m.— proceeds in a direct line, passing 
by Tortona, Casteggio, and La Stra- 
della. Soon after leaving Alessandria 
the Bormida is crossed, the line to 
G«noa branching off' on the rt. 

The village of Marengo is passed on 
the 1. soon after crossing the Bormida, 
and the road continues through the 
plain of the battle-field. " On tlie 
evening of the 13th of June, 1800, the 
whole Austrian army mustered in front 
of Alessandria, having only the river 
Bormida between them and the plain 
of Marengo ; and early in the following 
morning they passed the stream at three 
several points, and advanced towards 
the French position in as many 
columns. 

" Tlie Austrians were full forty 
thousand strong ; while, in the absence 
of Dessaix and the reserve, Napoleon 
could at most oppose to them twenty 
thousand, of whom only two thousand 
five hundred were cavalry. He had, 
however, no hesitation about accepting 
the battle. His advance, under Gar- 
danne, occupied the small hamlet of 
Padre Bona, a little in front of Ma- 
rengo. At that village, which over- 
looks a narrow ravine, the channel of a 
rivulet. Napoleon stationed Victor with 
the main body of his first line, the ex- 
treme right of it resting on Castel 
Ceriolo, another hamlet almost parallel 
with Marengo. Kellerraan, with a bri- 
gade of cavalry, was posted immediately 
behind Victor for the protection of his 
flanks. A thousand yards in the rear 
of Victor was the second line, under 
Lannes, protected in like fashion by the 
cavalry of Champeaux. At about an 
equal distance, again, behind Lannes, 
was the third line, consisting of the 
division of St, Cyr, and the consular 
guard under Napoleon in person. The 
Austrian heavy infantry, on reaching 
the open field, formed into two lines, 
the £G*st, under G-eneral Haddick, con- 
siderably in advance before the other, 
which Melas himself commanded, with 
General Zach for his second. These 
moved steadily towards Marengo, while 
I the light iniaiilrj arid, ^iwj^ii-^, under 



PiEDMO.v; 



Eoule 7. — Baltle of Marengo. 



General EUnitz, rasdo a dftour round 
Ctatel CEiialo, with the purpose of 
dtmkiug the Fiencli right. 

" Buai xnu the posture of the 
arnam when this great battle began. 
QardAnnH was unable to withstand the 
idioek, uid, abandoning Padre Bono, 
Ml baolc lo Etreogtben Victor. A fu- 
rious cannonade dong the whole front 
of that position ensued, Xbe tiraiUeura 
of cither anDT posted themaekes along 
the mai^in of the rarine, and fired in- 
eeaaantlj at each other, tlieir pieoe« al- 
mcnt touching. Cannon and musketry 
qiread devoitation ererjwhere, for the 
•rmies were but a few toise« apart. !For 
mure than two hours Victor withstood 
•11)^7 the rigorous sesaults of a far 
nnterior force; Marengo had been 
lafmi and retaken several times ere 
Laniiw received orders to reinforce 
}aio. The lecond line at length ad- 
nuetd ; but the; found the tirst in re- 
treat) and the two corps took up a 
noond line of defenee conaiderablj 
to the rear of Marengo. Here thej 
W(ve Ngain charged furiouslj, and 
again, after obstinate j^isiatance, gave 
way. Oeiieral Elenitz, meantime, 
haTing effected his purpaso, and lairlj 
nurched round Castel Ceriolo, ap- 
pe4i«d on the right Qank with bis 
splendid eavalry, and began to pour 
luB aqundrona upon the retreating 
rolumnaofLsnnee, That gnllant chief 
formed his troops en lehel<m, and re- 
tired in admirable order : but the re- 
tfeat was now general i and, had Melos 
pm'sned t.ho udvantoge with nil hi» 
ivserve, the battle was won. But that 
ued general (lie was 81 years old) 
d«ubtro not that ho hod won it olreaiiy ; 
and at this critical moment, being quite 
worn out with fatigue, withdrew to the 
rear, Icaring Zach to continue what he 
considered as now a mere pursuit. 

" Al the moment when the Austrian 
horse were about to rush on Lnnnes' 
retreating corps, the resene under Des- 
•aix appeared on the outskirts of the 
field. Jlcssaii himself^ riding up to tlie 
First Consul, eaid, 'I think this a 
bnttloloet.' 'Ithmkitisa battJen-oi),' 
BjwirereJ A'apoleoa. 'So joa pueh 



on, and I will speedily mllj the line 
behind you.' And, in effect, the tinieiy , 
arrival of this reserve turned the fortune , 
of the day, I 

" Napoleon in person drew up the ' 
whole of bis army in a third line of 
battle, and rode along the Iront, saying, 
' Soldiers, we have retired far enough — 
let uB now adTanoc— you know it is my 
custom to sleep on the Geld of battle.' 
The enthusiasm of the troops appeared , 
to be revived, and Dessaii prepu«d to ' 
aet on the offensive. He led afresh | 
column of 6000 grenadiers to meet and j 
check tlie advance of Zuch, Tlie brave \ 
Dessaii full dead at the first fire, shot 
through tlie bead. ' Alas ! it is not 
permitted to mo to weep,' said Napo- 
icon : and the fall of that beloved chief 
redoubled the fui^ of Lis followers, 
Tiie first line of the Austrian infcntry 
□hailed, however, with equal resolution. 
At tlutt moment Eellerman's horse 
came on them in flank, and, being by 
that uocipectcd assault broken, they ^ 
wore, after a vain struggle, compelled j 
to BiUTender, General Zach huuself j 
was here made prisoner. Tile Austrian ' 
columns behind, being flushed with | 
victory, were advancing too carBlessly, 
and proved unable to resist the general 
assault of the whole French line, which 
now pressed onwards under the imme- 
diate command of Napoleon. Post 
after post was carried. The noble 
cavalry of Elsnitz, peroeiring the in- 
fantry broken and retiring, lost heart i j 
and, instead of forming to protect their 
retreat, turned their horses' heads and 
gnUoped over the plain, trampUng < 
flown everything in their way, Wlicn I 
the routed army reached at length the 
Bormida, the eonfuaion was indoBOrib- ' 
able. Hundreds were drowned — the 
river rolled red amidst Ibc corpses of 
horses and men. Wliole corps, being 
unable to effect the passage, surrender- 
ed ; and, at ten at night, tlie Austrian j 
■^"■nandor with dilTiculty rallied the 

ant of that magnificent array on I 
tlie very ground which they had left 1 
the same mommg in all the «ni&4e«wi | 

Tin.' iiotlion o!lWi^\a.\nQYi-s\-i\&v&U( 



56 



Eotite 7. — Tortona — Voghera — Casteggio, 



Sect. I. 



battle was fought was purchased some 
years ago by M. G-iovanni Delavo, who 
in 1847 erected there a Museum, and a 
monument to the memory of Napoleon. 
From Marengo the rlway runs across 
the plain, here richly cultivated, for 12 
m., passing by 

8 kil. 14a Spifietta Stat. 

6 kil. San GHuliano Stat. 

8 kil. Tortona Junction Stat., the 
Dertona of the Komans, a town of 1 2,500 
Inhab., situated at the base of the last 
spurs, of the sub-Apennine hills, about 
i m. beyond the rt. bank of the Scrivia 
{Inn : St. Marsano, where a good dinner 
and clean bed may be had) ; one of the 
most ancient cities of Northern Italy ; 
it was one of the towns of the Lom- 
bard league, and was levelled to the 
ground by Frederick Barbarossa. In 
recent times it was fortified by Yit- 
tore Amadeo II. ; but the French blew 
up the citadel in 1796, after its surren- 
der, in virtue of the stipulations of 
the treaty of Cherasco. The Duomo 
contains a remarkable ancient sarco- 
phagus, on which are inscriptions in 
Greek and Latin, to the memory of P. 
.^lius Sabiaus, and a curious mixture 
of Pagan and Christian emblems. The 
former are by far the most prom- 
inent. Castor, Pollux, and the fall 
of Phaeton stand out boldly ; whilst 
the lamb and the vine more obscurely 
indicate the faith of the mother who 
raised the tomb. This curious amal- 
gamation of Pagan mythology and of 
Christianity is explained by supposing 
that the family were a&aid to manifest 
their belief. 

In the church of San Francesco is 
the rich chapel of the G-arofali family. 
The other churches do not offer any- 
thing remarkable. 

9 kil. Ponte Curone Stat., a village 
so named from the torrent which runs 
close to it. The rly. continues across 
the plain, having the hills on the rt., 
passing through 

8 kil. Voghera Stat., the Tria of the 

Romans. (The Moro, the principal 

Inn, is thoroughly Italian. H. d'ltalie, 

tolerable, hut high charges unless you 

bargain.) 11,450 Inhab. The country 



around Voghera, which is situated in 
the plain at some distance from the 
sub-Apennine lulls, is very fertile. The 
church of S. Lorenzo is an elegant 
building of the 17th centy. Near 
the altar is the tomb of a certain 
Count Taddeo de Vesme, whose body 
was found entire 200 years after his 
death, in 1458 — a fact commemoMted 
in a strange inscription placed over his 
tomb, announcing that when it was 
opened, in 1646, his body was foimd 
entire, and, on separating one of the 
{u*ms, blood flowed from it. This count, 
despoiled of his possessions by Ludo- 
vico Sforza, died in odour of sanctity. 
Here is preserved, in a curious ostensoir, 
a thorn of the crown of our Saviour, 
presented in 1436 to this ch. by Arch- 
bishop Pietro de G-iorgi, whose tomb 
is in the middle of the aisle. There is 
also another OS ten soir, weighing 25 lbs., 
made at Milan about the same period. 
This is one of the earliest Italian 
towns in which printing was intro- 
duced; and the books produced here 
are of the greatest rarity. Voghera 
having been a station on the Via 
Emilia, several Koman antiquities have 
been found near it. There is a small 
collection of them at the Canon Man- 
fredi's : amongst others a large cameo 
of a female, supposed to be Eudoxia or 
Theodora. Leaving Voghera, the rail- 
way approaches gradually the hiUy re- 
gion, the foot of which it reaches, about 
a mile before reaching Casteggio, at 
Montebello 

9 kil. Casteggio Stat. {Tnn : Albergo 
d'ltalia); 2900 Inhab.; the ancient Clas- 
tidium, a town of importance in Cisal- 
pine Gaul, celebrated as the place where 
Claudius Marcellus gained the spolia 
opima, by defeating and slaying Virdo- 
marus King of the Gsesatse. It has been 
an important military position from the 
time of the Gallic and Punic wars down 
to the last great European conflict. It 
was besieged by Hannibal, and might 
have defied his power ; but 200 pieces of 
gold paid to PubHus Darius, the com- 
mander, purchased the fortress ; and 
the provisions and stores found therein 
were oi the greate%>\. xxtV^t^ to tke Car- 



Piedmont. 



Ihule 7. — Bmni—San Nicdlo. 



tiiBgiiiian fliTOj-. Of Hie CnrthBaiiiia 
fCMTal there is jet a rumtrkabU ni( 
moriiiL About a nuarter of a mile from 
lira tarm is a spring of verf pure and 
SeKt HBtcr, oalli-d, t^ imuianiorial tra- 
iftion, " the Fontana d'Annibale," and 
prt bj a wall which he is said to have 
bnitt. It is close to the track of the Ro- 
man armj, and about 100 jaiila from 
(he modern road to Fioaema. It wna 
near Ca^leggio that, on the 9th of 
June, 1800, the great battle bet neeo the 
FVeach and the Austrian* was fouglit, 
osuallj called the battle of Monte- 
liello, jroui the TtUage on the htU, 
about 1 m. W. of it, whore the Freoeh 
Gnallj ronted the aarps de reierve of 
the eneiof. The Austrians defeuded 
Ihemaelves in Oasteggio with the grent- 
Mt vrioui i and the liLUa near the town 
ware oonatantl; occupied and rc-occu- 
med by the oaoteiidmg parties ; but the 
lortmie of the day was decided bj 
Ticttn', nho broira the centre of the 
cnemji and when Napoleon canio up 
to the assistance of the Frondi van- 
guard, the yictoiy had befln already 
filled. Itwas ucarlyon the eaitie site 
that the united anmea of the French 
and Fiedmonteae defeated the Austrians 
in May, IS59 : the Srat groat successof 
the allied anuice during the late Italian 
war. A few fragments of walls and 
lowers are the^nlj remaining vestiges 
of anliqnitj in this town \ but many 
ourious Roman inacriptions, bronzes, 
and coins, have been found hero. A 
good road of about 10 m. leads from 
Ouleggio to Pasin, crosaing the Po at 
Stezxana Curfi and the Ticino at Ban 
Msrtino^ Conveyancea will be oaaily 
procured at the RIy Stat., and dQigences 
in corraspundcnne with the early trains 
from Turin, Genoa, and Piacensa run 
between the two places. From Cas- 
ieggio the railway follows tlie base of 
the hilly region, through. comfields,tlie 
hills bfflng eoyercd with vinca, passing 
by 

S IdL S. Qiulietta Sut. 

7 m. Broni Slat., a town of 4500 In- 

h ab.Its situation, a plain at the roota of 

the Apennines, h rerj beaotit^ll, The 

coUeglate cJiiiivb, /banded bf Azio Mtr- 



ijuis of Eate and Ferrara, in (he 13Ui < 
century, is a building of Tarious fl^M ■! 
and styles ; aome portions are of the I 
10th century. It has re(<ently been J 
richly fitted up by tile inhahitantsi | 
it boaste a silver shrine, containinjf ■ 
the relics of San ContoHo, the son ' 
of the founder. Very good wine it j 
made in this ncighbourliood, which, 
when old, has some reacniblanee to , 
Malo^. I 

4 SlradeUa Stat., at the eitrems 
northern point of the hiUa, whioh hew- , 
approach within 2in.otthe Po. Aro«d 
lends from Stradella to Milan, by Cortt , 
Olona, crosaing the Po (2^ m.) at tb« ] 
ferry ai Portaoera. 

From La StradeUa the Ely., follow- 
the base of the hills, approaches gra-- 
dually the Po. 

4 til. AreMi Fo Slat. The Ttllnga 
of this name ia at some dialnnue on 
the I. Half-way between this Slat. and. 
neit cross the BardonBana top-. 



7 ia. Cattel S. OiM-aniii. Formerly, 
(he frontier-town of tlie DnohJes, oUi 
the 1. bank of the Corona. 

4 kil. Sarmato Stat Sere the line, 
separates from tlio bills on the rt., Bod^ 

on crosBFB the Ttdone stream. 

^ kU. SottofrmB Stat. 

3 kil. San Sicaln Stat, near the 1. 
bank of tlie Trehbia, on leaving wMeh , 
the river is crossed on the magiiiScent 
bridge erected in 182S by the Empresi 
Maria Xouiaa, under the direction of 
the engineer Coocanelli, at an CKpvnac 
of 4T,a00i. sterling. It consists of 23 
arches, its length 500 yards, and tlie 
width between the parapets 26 ft. A 
column at its extremity recalla the 3 
great battles which took place in the 
neighbourhood. By an act of useleaa 
precaution, for the river was Arj at the 
■-' of 

retreat from Piacenia,in May, IBBB. | 

The lower course of the Ttcbbia i» 
celebrated in the militarr history of 
Italy, 08 having witoaBSai ttaw ^sa!i 
biiLtlea, eaclio!-«\lw\v ieniiiBi 'Coe W» 
of Ittily for t^w time -, 0\e ?a»\,^\iiA.fi«» 

i 



S3 



Route 8. — Turin to Nice — Carignano, 



Sect. I. 



Hannibal and the Romans under tlie 
Consul Sempronius, B.C. 218, which 
opened Central and Southern Italy to 
the Carthaginian invader ; the second, 
in 1746, between the united armies of 
France and Spain on the one side, and 
the allied Austro-Piedmontese, which 
led to the momentary expulsion of the 
Bourbons from Parma and Piacenzaj 
and the last, in June, 1799, when the 
French army, under Macdonald, after 
a prolonged struggle of 3 days, and 
a loss of 15,000 men, was obliged to 
retreat before the Russians and Impe- 
rialists commanded by Suwarrow. It 
is difficult to fix, with any degree of 
precision, the site where Hannibal de- 
leated Sempronius, or where the force of 
Mago was placed in ambuscade, which 
so greatly contributed to that disaster. 
It is probable, however, that, Hannibal 
being encamped on the 1. bank, the 
Romans attacked him nearly on the 
same spot where, by a similar manoeu- 
vre, Macdonald, 2000 years afterwardsy 
made a last effort to defeat his Russian 
antagonist — about 5 m. to the S. of the 
modem bridge. The battle of 1746 
took place nearly under the walls of 
Piacenza, the great feat of the day 
being Prince Lichtenstein's charge on 
Maillebois' columns near to San Laz- 
zaro. The battle-field on the last occa- 
sion (June 20, 1799), between the 
French imder Macdonald, and the 
Austro-Russians conamanded by Su- 
warrow, occupied the 1. bank of the 
river from G-rignano upwards to Ri*- 
valta, the first being about 3 m. on 
the rt. of the village of St. Nicolo, on 
the post-road, before arriving at Maria 
Louisa's bridge. Macdonald, being 
forced to retire from Tuscany, crossed 
the Apennines into the upper valley of 
the iS^bbia, hoping to be joined by 
Moreau, then in the G^enoese territory. 
Suwarrow, however, managed, by his 
great activity, to prevent this junc- 
tion, and to place himself between 
the two Republican armies. Attacked 
by Macdonald during 3 days, he op- 
posed to him an energetic resistance, 
the whole ending by one of the 
most disastrous defeats that the Re- 



publican armies of France had yet 
experienced. 

Soon after crossing the bridge the 
spires of Piacenza come into view, and 
the rly., after running parallel to the 
half-ruined walls of the city, and the 
elegant ch. of La Madonna della Cam- 
pagna on the rt., reaches the Stat., 
situated at the E. extremity of the 
city, close to the Porta di S. Lazzaro. 
9 kil. Pi:iCENZA Stat. (See Rte. 40.) 
Motels : La Croce Bianca, and San 
Marco. Omnibuses to the different 
hotels. 



ROUTE 8. 

TUBIK^ TO NICE, BY CrNEO AND THE 
COL DI TENDA. 

143 m. 

The Railroad ad far as Cuneo is now 
open. There are 4 trains a day : they 
perform the journey in rather less than 
2^ h. The dihgence from Nice starts 
on the arrival of the evening train, 
which leaves Turin at 5 p.m. in winter 
and 6 p.m. in simimer, crossing the Col 
di Tenda by dayhght, and reaching Nice 
about 5 p.m. on the day following. 

The railway follows the line from 
Turin to Gbnoa as far as 

13 kil. Troffarello Stat. 

7 kil. Villastellone Stat., at the junc- 
tion of the Molinasso and Stellone tor- 
rents. A road of about 6 m. leads from 
this Stat., crossing the Po, to 

l^Cari^nano, a town of 7800 Inhab ., 
not far from the river, and on the high 
carriage-road from Turin to Nice. 
The country aroimd is beautiful, dotted 
with villages, towns, and hamlets. 
Much sUk is produced in the vicinity. 
The principal ornaments of this Httle 
city are its churches ; and the Carig- 
nanesi are said to be distinguished for 



"rSftiraT. 'flouts 8. — Carmag^i 

Hie ore bestoveA. upon tlieir plarva 
of vorship. Sat Oiotiaam BaliuCa, 
bnilt by Count AlfierL Tlie principal 
bgnde ia nohle. The mlrance of the 
bmlding ia b'glitedalmoitentirolj from 
ibora, by windowa placed over tho 
eonoix. Tha bas-reliefs of tho four 
ixSoM of tho churcli, St. ChiTBostom, 
8t Jeronie, St. Ambroao, onci St. Au- 
stins, come out under tha glaring 
nyi. Sta. Maria delle Oratie, an- 
Daed to a raonastarj of Franciscan 
fnapa. It was endowed hy the Dnchesa 
BiancaPalceologua, wife of Duke CharleB 

wu the daughter of "WilbnmlV. Mur- 
qnia of Montferrat; as a widow, Biancn 
iVBs diet uiguishad for her geutilma 
tnd beauty ; and BajMil, who hnd 
been brought up SB a youth in the 
htnieehold of the duie, gaiued great 
honour in a ioumaTuent held before her 
in thia place when she wi 
idranced in years. After many 
tions Carignauo was severed tr^ 
rest of Piedmont, or rather fro 
tOBrquiBitte of Susa. and granteiJ 



appanage, 



withthi! title ofaj 



IjaUtj, 



I Thomas, second son of Charli 
Emanuel I., &om nhom the present 
reigning family of Sardinia ia de- 
aeondod.] 

9 kiL Cai-tnagnnla Slat, contains up- 
wards of 13,000 Inhttb. The principal 
dinroh is that of Saat' Agoftitn. It 
is Gothic, though much altered. The 
Campanile, with its pointed spire, ia the 
moat unchanged portion. In the clolater 
nnneied to the'churoh are the remnina 
of the tomb of James Tumbulj, a 
Scottish condailiere in tho iVauBh aor- 
vice, who died here wlien the army was 
returning from Naploa in 1406. The 
collegiate church of San Pielro e San 
FaoUi is also Gothic, but more altered 
tlinn the other ; it was eonaeorated in 
tlie year 1S14. Cormagnola stood on 
the extreme frontier of the marquiaato 
of Saluizo, and, as the border town, 
i/na defended by a very strong castle, of 
which only one massive tower remaiua, 
— .«. J— — the steeple of the church 
The woJls ore upwnrda . 
aeas. It was bniJt in 



E-roing t 
fJa tile 



59- 

1435 i and the city, whcu the marquis 
retjuired an aid, gaTB him hia choice, i 
300,000 bricks or 300 du«it». Bricka 
now cost in Piedmont 35 fr. \wr ihou- 
sand. The female pessantiy in and 
about dtrmsgaota ore gaily dressed, 
wearing round their necks rows of 
large metal beads, ofl«n of gold, which 
are manufactured in the town. The 
name of Carmognola is associated with 
tho horrible orgies of tho French ite- 
Tolution, though no one can explain 
eiBctly how. The inhabilants most 
sturdily disclaim the disgraoi of lieing 
the invmtora of the too celebrated 
" Danae de la Cormagnole," (he pre- 
lude to so many fear^ tragedies. 

Here was bom, in 1390, the. celebrated 
candottiere, Franoosco Busaone.tlieaon 
of a poor herdsman, who became so 
renowned under the name of Ckinte di 
Carmagtiola, which he assumed from 
hia birthplace. He began his careor in 
the service of Filippo Maria ViaoonU, 
Duke of Milan, anil, rapidlv rising in 
power, he served hia master most efibc- 
tiially, regaining a great pai-t of Lom- 
bardy and of the dominions of (Ho- 
vanni Oaleaxzo, which had escaped from 
hia successor. Suepioions of hia loy- 
alty were entertained W the duiej 
CarmBgnoIa was imthankniUy banished, 
his property conSscated, his wife and 
children cast into prison, whilat he 
passed into tho icrvioe of tlie republic 
of Venice, by which he was appointed 
generalissimo. He conquered Brescia 
for it friim the Duke of Milan; and 
at the battle of Maonlo, 142T, he en- 
tirely routed the ducal army. But the 
BiTstocrBcy of Venice, as suspicious as 
the despot of Milan, also distrusted 
the soldier bound by no tie of allegi- 
ance ■, and having seduced him to Ve- 
nioa by a vote of tlianks and confi- 
dence, ho was caat into prison, tortured, 
and beheaded on the 6tb May, 1-138. 
"between the two columns" in the 
Fiaxzetta of San Marco, 

a kil. SaceoMffi [Slat). Plenanutlj 
situated, and in tho daja of Trisain- 
was famed for the bcautj of ita «Ciffl« 
" F. noei fl\ Siamstmn tWiccwK'^, 



60 



Route 8. — CentaUo — Cuneo. 



Stjct. I. 



Tlie palace of Raccouigi is one of 
the country residences of the royal 
family. It was given as an appanage 
by Charles Emmanuel I. to his son 
Thomas, the head of the branch of Ca- 
rignan of the house of Savoy, in whose 
possession it has since remained. It 
was the favourite sojourn of the late 
king, Charles Albert, by whom it un- 
derwent great repairs, and is now one 
of the most comfortable villegiaturas 
of the royal family. The small park 
which surrounds it is handsomely laid 
out^ Following the rt. bank of the 
river Maira is 

7 kil. Cavalier Maggiore Junct. Stat., 
a large and flourishLig town of 5300 
Inhab., formerly fortified ; but there is 
hardly a vestige of the two castles and 
the lofty walls which once surrounded 
it. A Illy, branches off from here to 
Bra in 20 min. 

7 kil. Savigliano Junct, Stat. {Inn : 
the Corona, tolerably comfortable), a 
pleasant and cheerful town ; 14,500 In- 
hab, In the ch. are several paintings by 
Molinieri, a native artist of the 17th 
centy., a scholar of the Carracci ; others 
are in the Palazzo Taffino, representing 
the battles of C. Emanuel I. The prin- 
cipal street terminates in a species of 
triumphal arch, erected in honour of 
the marriage between Victor Amadeo 
and Christina of France. A branch 
strikes off from Savigliano to Saluzzo, 
passing by Lagnasco, in 25 mm. 

12 kil. Fossano — Stat. See Rte. 10. 

7 kil. La Maddalena — Stat., in the 
middle of the plain between the Stura 
and the Grana. 

4 kil. CentaUo, 4900 Inhab. ; also a 
large place in the midst of a fertile 
though not a healthy country : remains 
of walls and towers mark its import- 
ance in the middle ages. Boman in- 
scriptions are found on the site; but, 
as is generally the case in the north of 
Italy, there is nothing above ground to 
prove its antiquity. 

12 kil. Cuneo or Coni, 1500 ft. above 
the sea {Inn : the Barre de Fer, a 
dismal and dirty auberge : there is an- 
other, the H. de Londres, said to be no 
better), a city of 20,560 Inhab., situated 



between the Stura and Gesso torrents, 
at their jimction. Cuneo was, in its 
origin, a species of city of refuge. 
About the year 1100, Boniface Mar- 
quis of Savoy had conquered, or rather 
occupied, this district, which formed 
a part of the marquisate of Susa ; but 
his authority, hardly strong enough to 
enable him to retain his usurpation, 
was entirely inadequate to enforce the 
observance of the laws, or to ensure 
tranquillity ; and the lords of the ad- 
joining castles so plundered the inha- 
bitants of the surrounding country, that 
they determined upon resistance. 

Such outrages, a few centuries 
later, gave rise to the republics of 
Switzerland and the Grisons; but 
Piedmont was not yet ripe for a re- 
volution. The people came together 
under the colour of a pilgrimage to a 
sanctuary of the Virgin, called Our 
Lady of the "Wood, now included 
in the city ; and there determined to 
take vengeance, if, as usual, any of 
their wives and daughters were in- 
sulted by the petty tyrants of tlie 
siuToun^g castles. The anticipated 
cause of offence was soon given ; the 
peasants assembled again, destroyed the 
castles, slew the oppressors, and, re- 
treating in a body to the present site 
of the city, a wedge-like piece of land 
between the two rivers, they began to 
build. The abbot of San Dalmazzo, to 
whom the woods belonged, gladly per- 
mitted a settlement which gave him 
the prospect of such a numerous vassal- 
age; and the "nuova villa di Cuneo" 
rapidly rose into consequence. In the 
16th century Cuneo was strongly for- 
tified, and its history from then is a 
succession of sieges. No place was more 
celebrated in the military history of 
Piedmont, until 1800, when, after the 
battle of Marengo, the three consuls 
decreed, on the 5th July, that the for- 
tifications of Cuneo, the citadels of 
Milan and Tortona, the fortress of 
Ceva, and the gates and bastions of 
Turin, should all be destroyed; and, 
before the end of the month, those 
massy girdles of Cuneo were riven fi^m 
their foundations, to the great com- 



* PiBDJlOST. 

fort and advantage of tbe mlinbitanta. 
I The Hiomo, or catbedrsl, of Cond ia 
I t]ie ancirait Eanrtuaij of the " Uadanna 
I del Boseo," but it offers nothing re- 
I maAable bejoad its bietarkal inte- 
rest. Tbo pictnre of St. John nod 
St. Micliae!, orer tbe oliief aliar, is 
by the Jesuit P, Poiai. Sam Pran- 
eaeo, belonging to a Capuchin con- 
rent : a regular Gothic church of the 
litb centuiy, said to hare been built 
' ID tlie time of the asint himself. It 
ii reins.rkable lliat the FrontiiscBng, 
both in Italy and beyond the Alps, om- 
pl(^^ the Oothic style of architectuTB 
more than the other religious orders. 
Cujjeo suffered mucli from the cholera 
in 1835, and amongst its numerous 
charitable cptahlishnienta ia one for the 
reception of the cliildreD irlio were de- 
prived of their parents by the disease. 
At first there were 200. Thera ia a 
pleasant pubHc nalk at the Junction of 
the GesBO end Stura. 

In the Aljiine Taliey of the Pfflio, 
about 10 m. from Com, is the CerCosa 
of Val Peaio, foonded in 1173, in a 
my pioturcsquc situution. An hydro- 
patiue ee(4LblishniGnt haa lately been 
ibnned there by Dr. Brandeia, on the 
draffenberg or Freianitz system. The 
lituatiou is repreBanted as very salu- 
brious, and the water, which is in 
abundance, is eicolleut. lu the Tal di 
OesBO are tlie baths of Yaldien, no* 
much resorted to, although the SfCOm- 
nUNlation hitherto has been indifferent : 
pension 7 fr. a day, ererjtliing included. 
Thme waters are similar in their pro- 
partieB to those of Ais in SaToyi from 
their increasing repute, a new esta' 
bliriiinent, by a joint-atook company 
formed at Turin, to accommodate dOO 
or 500 persona, hits been partially 
opened, and will be completed in 
1861, Taldieri ia 2S m. or & bra. dis- 
tant from Cuneo, from which carriages 
start twice eveiy day foe the Baths, 
dnriog the scaaon, from the middle of 
June until the end of August. There 
are hot springs wMch are used for 
^^tbe baths, and a aligh<j aatine tepid 
^^Bta) called Aequa MasneHaca, wluch 
^^^bW patients use internally ; but it 



Hovte ^.— Baths of Vcddkri. 



appeoTEi til at the moat clGcacious 
remedy suppUed by nature arisv* from 
a cmitognmio plant which grow-s in 
thick gelatinous masses in the streams 
from tbe hot springs. This substance, 
called Le Muffe, is applied, while hot, 
to wounds, and in cobob of inCemal in- 
flammotion, and is frequently found to 
be very efBcacious. Valdien haa great 
natural adrantagea, being situated in 
the finest part of the clutin of the 
Iifaritime .AJps, whose jngged granitic 
peaks rise on erery side to the height 
of 8000 to 9000 ft. above the a<a-h)TeL 
Tbe climate ia cool, and aometimei 
even cold in the height of summer; and 
it is tbe resort of good Piedmontese 
society. TTp to the present time (Aug., 
1860) the BocommodatioA has been in- 
diifecent, and the charges for lodging 
high. Two nieals are supplied doily 
at the table-d'hdte^eharge 5 &. ; at- 
tendance indifferent. The shooting of 
cliamois, Ac., in this district is reserved 
eiclueivelj for the ting, who frequently 
pitches his tent in tbe valleya adjoin- 
ing. The road from Ouoeo to Taldieri, 
wMch poases throngh Borgo San 
Dalmazzo, has but lately been ex- 
tended t" " "" " ~" '" " ----- 






Ltmg 



in parapets. 



Alpa. I 
wifi be t 



TJLe pedestrian i _ 
eicursions from the Bathi of Taldieri 
through the range of the Maritime 
Feriiaps the most interesting 
I Saai Martino di lain- 
aide of the chain. This 
may be reached in aeven or eight hours 
by the paas of La Famna Morta, or in 
a shorter time over the Col delle Cereee, 
but by a steeper and rougher track over 
snow and rocks. Tbe aspect of the inn 
at San Martino ia very discouraging; 
but a clean bed and tolerable lare may 
be had there as at most of the villages 
in these valleys. i 

From San Martino di Lantosea the . 
tourist may return to Kntraque, on 
the N. side of tbe chain, by the Col 
delle Fineitre, and tbenca regain tlie 
carriage-road to the Baths a little 
above the village of Taldieri t or else, 
sleeping at the little inn on the 8. side 
of the Col delie Fineatre, be may make 



62 



Route 8. — Limone — Tenda, 



Sect. I. 



his way to Tenda tlirough a wild part 
of the range ; but this will probably be 
a long day's walk. It is also practicable 
to cross the mountains which separate 
the valley of the Vesubia from that of 
the Koja, ascending from E-occa Bi- 
ghera or Bollena, descending into the 
Val di Caros, and sleeping at Saorgio, 
or at the little village of Fontano, oh the 
high road to Tenda, 2 m. N. of Saor- 
gio. These valleys may equally well 
be visited from Nice, and would offer a 
resource to many a sufferer from the 
heat and dust of that city. 

The Ely. for the present ending at 
Ouneo, the rest of the journey must be 
performed by the ordinary road, which, 
on leaving the town, ascends gradually, 
offering much' beauty. 

Borgo di San Dalmazzo, a village, 
supposed to be the remains of the city 
of Pedone, destroyed by the Milanese 
in 1250. 4 m. after leaving Cuneo the 
l>ost-road enters the valley of the Ver- 
managna, along which it runs to the 
bottom of the Col di Tenda. 

14 kil. Mobillante. (An extra horse 
from Cuneo to Robillante from the 
Ist of Nov. to the 1st of May, but not 
in the opposite direction.) Hitherto 
the road has passed through the great 
plain of Piedmont, watered by the Po, 
the Maira, the G-rana, and the Stura ; 
but it now enters the mountains and 
begins to ascend, and the noble masses 
of the maritime Alps, crowned by the 
Monte Yiso, more than 12,000 feet 
above the level of the sea, become more 
clearly visible. The plains themselves 
are very fertile, and nothing can be 
more beautiful than the little streams 
by which they are irrigated and crossed. 
The hills abound with bright and aro- 
matic flowers. 

15 kil. Lifnone, 3340 feet above the 
sea. (An extra horse from E-obillante 
to Limone from Nov. 1st to May 1st, 
but not in the opposite direction.) 
Inn: the H6tel de la Poste; a civil 
and obliging landlord. The traveller 
hence ascends rapidly, and by a good 
alpine road, though constructed with 
less skill than those of more recent 
date. The abrupt turns of the terraces 



are often almost alarming in their 
aspect, nor are they so well defended 
as could be wished. The danger, or 
rather the semblance of it, is, of course, 
more felt in the descent from Nice. The 
difficulty is greater this way. About half 
way from the summit an attempt was 
made by the former princes of Savoy, and 
continued down to the French occupa- 
tion in 1794, to bore a tunnel tlirough 
the moimtain, and thus avoid altoge- 
ther the passage over its crest. If 
completed, it woiQd liave been more 
than half a mile long, and would have 
surpassed any similar work in the 
Alps. The summit is a narrow ridge, 
6158 feet above the level of the sea. 
It commands a very fine view of the 
Alps, from Monte Yiso to Monte 
Eosa, the latter appearing like a cloud; 
while, on the south, the Mediter- 
ranean may be faintly discovered. 
During more than three months in the 
year, and not unfrequently during five, 
the Col di Tenda is impassable for 
wheel carriages, though it can always 
be crossed by sledges, and generally by 
mules, provided there be no storms ; 
for the wind is so violent that the mules 
themselves can hardly keep their foot- 
ing, and are compelled to wind round a 
more sheltered path. The descent on 
the S. side is by a succession of 75 zig- 
zags from the house of refuge near the 
summit. 

30 kil. Tenday at the southern foot of 
the Col (between Limone and Tenda an 
extra horse, both, ways all the year) ; 
2600 Inhab. (Inns: Hdtel Eoyal ; 
H6tel National, dirty.) Tenda is an 
excellent station for sketching and fish- 
ing. It is a place of much note in the 
feudal history of Italy. From the 
family of Facino Cane it became vested 
in the unfortunate Beatrice di Tenda, 
the luckless wife of FUippo Maria Yis- 
conti, by whose commands she was 
cruelly tortm*ed and condemned to 
death. (See Binasco, p. 210.) There 
are some picturesque remains of the 
castle. 

The road from Tenda is amongst the 
earliest of the alpine roads. It was 
made by Carlo Emanuele I., 1591 ; and 



tmprOTed in 1780 by Vittore Amaii™ 
nj., fts is (.■ommcoi orated in two ia- 
•oriptions near ita oomnnmeBmeiit. Fine 
Kenerjr atiti good ohamois-hunting in 
Ihe mountain-rangB W. of the Cd di 
Xanjda. 

3 m. Btlff iFaTing Tonda ia tbe 
Ibbejr of S, Salmazco, recently con- 
tertedlntoaliydropiithiuegtabUsliment; 
the Bituation is ratier hot, but the 
neghbourhood nboundu in pictii/eeque 
Ksnery. Beyond thia the road becomds 
txeeedinglj striliii^ with alpine scenery 
of peci^iur boldnesa, and b; the 
lide ia tiie Koys, e, torrent aeotoelj 



I for a 






WlOTerer tbe rocia fall bact 
little out of tbe peq>endiculiu' — enougli 
to allovr tlie poESibility of raiaing a 
ran — yoa eee a little village in tlie 
■bit, Ulie the neat of a bird. Tbe 
flneBt of these aiiTHge defilea of tbe 
Sqja u belonr Saorgio, a town of 2600 
lifab., irheTD a fort, perchtid upon a 
rocky linoll, coinmpnds tbe pasBage of 
the Rorge- It naa taken by the Frencli 
in the aampaign of 1791. Tbe Bioja 
■boonda with oipellent trout. The 
npper pilrlion of thia Talley remaina in 
the banda of the Fiedmontetie ; but the 
strong position of Saorgio and the 
valliFy of the Boja is oucupied by the 
French. Tlie Italian Cuatom-houae Stat. 
is at Fontono, on tlie M. side of the 
yaea of Saorgio. 

19 kil. Oiaadola, which forms the 
boundary between Piedmont and France, 
Uie first French custom-house station 
in the county of Nice, 1350 feet above 
the sea. (FYom Qiandola to Tenda an 
extra horao all the year, but not vice 
vertd.) Iims: H6t«l des Etrangera 
afibrda decent accommodnlJon, and a 
mril landlady ; U&tA de h. Fosle, said 
to be good. The town ia grandly 
aituatea at the foot of high achiatosi: 
TDolcai, which loot is if Ih^ were on 
the point of crushing the inhabitanta. 
The road has bean recently altered, 
and loarea on the 1. Sreslio, a town of 
SSOOInliab, near whieh are the ruina 
of tie CMtle of Trirella j and aacende 
tie mountain of Srimis (^ a veiy steep 
losd to tbe paas of the ume name. 



tha aides of which Bpe coTcred with 
wild lavender. 

21 kU. Soipello, 1175 ft. above the aoa 
(between Qiandola and SospcUo an eitra 
lionie both ways all the year — Inn: 
lldtcl Carenco. BMd to be the beat 
between Turin and Hiee), 4300 In- 
hah., is the sleeping-place for trayel!er»_ 
by vetturino. Its aituation ia very* 
benutiful. Through it ruahes ths Be- 
vera, a roaring mouDtain atream; and 
all around ria» "' ' ' " ' 



Sgs. The Berera forme a jtinclian 
with Che Roya about 4 m. before enter- 
ing the sea at Vintimiglia, A eroea 
road branches off from Sospello to Tin- 
timiglia, by the ravine of the Berera. 

Tbe road commeuces to ascend from 
the inn door at Sospello untU we pasa 
the Ool di BniuB, about 4000 feet 
above the seo. In tbe autumn a 
good deal of Invender-watcr is made 
on tbe aidea of thia mountnin by the 
peaaantry, whose rude upparatus for 
that purpoao, wiiich you aee on the 
rood-sidoa, i» curioua. 

2S kil. Scarena (between Sospello 
and Scarena, an extra horae both waya 
all the year), BOOOInhab. Afler eroaa- 
ing unothcr hill we desoond along the 
FscarDna, one of the tribulnriea of the 
Pagliono, whieh is followed to Niee, 
and to the full luituiance of the Bi- 



3 kiir Aim (from Nice to Searena 
n Eitra horse all the year, but not vice 
iraS). (Rte. 13.) 



TDHIK TO OSIGLIA, BT BRA, CHEBASCO, 

DUtanca about 107 m. The first 
part of thia road ia now p«rformed by 
Bly. aa Hit aa CamdUr Masgiore, 29 



64 



Eoute 9. — Bra — Alba — Cherasco, 



Sect. I. 



kil., firom whence a railroad is in pro- 
gress as far as Cherasco : beyond this 
the only mode of conveyance is by vet- 
turino, there being no post stations. 
The distance from Cavalier Maggiore 
to Brit is about 10 m. 

JBrdy or Brauda, 12,500 Inhab. ; in 
the vale of the Stura, and about 2 m. 
N. of it. The principal object of in- 
terest in this town is the church of 
Sta, Chiara, bjiilt in 1742 by Vettone. 
It is in the most luxuriant style of the 
Piedmontese churches. A fine avenue 
leads to the Santuario di nostra Donna 
de' Mori. According to the legend, a 
miraculous appearance of the Virgin in 
the copse hard by, on the 29th Decem- 
ber, 1336, was the means of rescuing a 
peasant girl from the daggers of assas- 
sins J since which event the sloe-bushes 
with which the copse abounds are said 
to flower three times in the year — in 
spring, autumn, and the depth of 
winter. It is yet much resorted to, 
especially on the 8th of September, the 
feast of the Nativity of the Virgin. 

2 m. S.E. of Brii, on the 1. bank of 
the Tanaro, is Pollenzo, a castle and a 
village, replacing the Koman munici- 
pium oiPollentia. Here the armies of 
the Triumvirate frequently assembled. 
It was celebrated for its wool, as well 
as for its manufactures of terra-cotta, 
praised by Pliny as being scarcely in- 
ferior to those of Samos. In the age 
of the Antonines PoUentia was very 
flourishing ; and it is supposed that the 
edifices, of which there are still con- 
siderable vestiges, belonged to that era. 
An amphitheatre and a theatre can be 
distinguished ; and the walls of both 
are still standing to a considerable 
height. Upon the ridges of the CoUe 
di San Vittorio are the ruins of four 
small edifices, called by the peasants the 
" Tv/rilie" supposed by antiquaries to be 
the ruins of a temple of Diana, and the 
buildings which were annexed thereto. 

On the old road to Alba are the sup- 
posed remains of the Villa Martis, the 
birthplace of the Emperor Pertinax, 
who together with his father carried on 
what we should call an earthenware 
manu£Etctory. Hard by is a field called 



^^Ciupelle" of which the ground is quite 
covered with fragments of earthenware, 
the confirmation (or perhaps the origin) 
of the opinion by which the spot is 
identified. Pollenzo was erected into a 
county by Wenzel or Wenceslaus (the 
emperor w^o was deposed by the elect- 
ors in consequence of his sluggishness 
and vice), in favour of Antonio Pirro, a 
condottiere, who had served under Ga- 
leazzo Visconti of Milan in 1383 j and 
with the assent of the Antipope, Cle- 
ment, he erected, in 1385, a castle upon 
the site of a monastery. Most of this 
building is standing, and it is exceed- 
ingly picturesque, with its overhanging 
machicolations and lofty dungeon tower. 
It has lately been fitted up and judi- 
ciously restored, and is a favourite re- 
sidence of tlie present king. A good 
road (10 m.) branches ofi* from the road 
to Cherasco at Br^ and proceeding 
along the 1. bank of the Tanaro, by San 
Vittorio, leads to 

Alba (Alba Pompeia), a very ancient 
episcopal town of 8500 Inhab., on the 
rt. bank of the Tanaro, where the 
Querazza empties itself into it. The 
town is in a plain, surrounded by 
very fertile hiUs, producing much wine 
and silk. The Cathedral, dedicated to 
San Lorenzo, and founded in 1486, is 
attributed to Bramante, and contains 
in its choir a handsome mausoleum of 
the founder, Andrea Novelli. Alba 
was an Imperial fief, granted succes- 
sively to the Counts of Saluzzo and 
the Viscontis, and as such it formed a 
part of the marriage-portion given by 
G-ian Gfdeazzo to his daughter Vio- 
lante on her marriage with Lionel 
Duke of Clarence. 

The road from Br^ continues in the 
plain of the Stura $ crossing that river 
3 m. farther to 

Cherasco : 10,000 Inhab. The quad- 
rangular form of this town indicates 
its position upon the site of a Boman 
town. At each end of the principal 
street is a fine modem arch. Of 
the five churches, three, San Fietro, 
San MartinOy and San Oiorgioy are 
Gothic ; the fourth, the Madonna del 
Popoloy was built in 1693-1702. Its 



TteBSfKlfT. 



Rmte 9. — Oma — Bagjuiaco. 



3 of ri 



c work, anrl lieavy. 
It ha^, boirevBr, a good cupola. Id 
tho ^alaito dtl CumnuM are some 
paintingB bj Tarrico. There uro ottieni 
in the Palaizo Ootti. Thej are acrip- 
tiDBl and historical ; in the landscape 
portion Torrico was a suoeessfiil imi- 
lator of Or. PouBsiu. 

NiimerouH organio remains are found 
in tbs tsrtutr; murls and sands ui this 
zieighbonrhood. In the CoUe di San 
B^tolomeo is petrified wood. Tlie for- 
tiflcations of Charasco, once dceedingly 
strong, were dcatroied hy the French in 
1801, After tho 'hattlB oE Mondovi, 
Apil Z2iid, 1796 (see Etes. 10, 11), tho 
Piedmoutese troops fell back upon 
CberaacOiand madeanhowof Tvsistanco. 
Cherasco vaa well provisioned, and in 
ui excellent state of defence) but, afleF 
SBTj few ubellB had been thrown into 
the l^wn, tho garrison surrendered, not 
without Buapiuions of treoehery. The 
Sardinians now proposed a suspension 
of arms! and on the gSth of April 
ttMt commisBiouerB uouelodetl with 
NquIeoD the "armistioo of Cherasco," 
by which, and the treaty that fol- 
lowed, the Xing of Sardinia renounced 
tha coalition with Austria ; ceded to 
the IVench Ilcpublic 8aToy, Mice, and 
Uie whole pos^seions of Fiedroont to 
die weatwnrd of the highest ridge of 
the Alps (aitaiiding from Mount 8t. 
Bomarti by Mount Generre to Bocca- 
barbona near Oi'noa) ; and granted a 
free passage througli his dominions to 
the troops of the RepubUc, 

The road, which here enters the up- 
per tolle; of the Tanaro as far an Mon- 
ehiero, now passes through 

IB kil. Bugliani, 2000 Inhali. -, a 
TillqgB, standing partlynpon the hanks 
of the Bea torrent, and partly upon 
a bold hill. Thoroad &oni Doghsni to 
CevB is very liiJly. About 5 ni. before 
Hrririiig st the latter, at Moctezze- 
molo, the road from Turin to Sarona, 
through MiUesimo and the Cadibooa 
pa«8, strikes off to tho I. (^ Kto. 12). 



Mondalavia torrent ^ it has arisen out of 
the ruins of the ancient Augusta Ba- 
giennorum, destroyed hf AJaric, and of , 
which many interesting vestiges are | 
found at itone^fta, about half a mile olF. 
Theruinaofan aqueduct, amphitheatre, 
baths, and other buildings, uitend ovor 
a considerable tract of ground. To tlio 
H. of Bene is the district of Sahnour, 
aneienlly Sarmatia, so called from the 
Sarmutians settled tJvre during the 
Lower Empire, who had a Prefect of 

22 Ml. Ceva, a town of 4500 Inhab., 
on the rt. bank of the Tanaca : the 
capital of the marqnisate of Ceva, 
whose lords held rather a conspicuous 
place in the history of this port of 
Italy. They traced their origin to 
Aleramo, the horo of many a tradition- 
ary tale ; but tlie Grst of whom there ia 
any real account is Anschno, the fourth 
son of Boniface Marquis of Bavona, 
about 1142. The place is much de- 
cayed ; and recent demolitions have 
deprived itof all its feudal towers. Tha 
chief feature of the landscape is a rook 
towering above the town, and upon 
which are the remains of the dismantled 
citadel. The Piedmontese cheese, called 
Bobiolo, is made in thi£ neigbbour- 

11 kil. Bajptasro. We are now fairly 
entering Uic Maritime Alps. The 
mountains surroundiog Bognaaco are 
bold and piotnrasque, and the streama 
and torrents are limpid and beantiful. 
The coBtlo was destroyed by the Mar^ 
chul de Brissac in 1556. The ruins of 
its aneient fortificniions are fne, spread- 
ing vridcly above and around. On the 
E. are the remains attributed to the Sa- 
racens: it is recorded tliat Uie present 
town WBB originally built with the ma- 
terials of the Saraoeuio castle. Accord- 
ing to a must Bpocry|ihal tradition, 
the historian Valerius Maximus was 
buried here -, and a stone, with the in- 
scription "ilic jacet Valerius," found, i 
or made to be found, has been adduced 
in support ot tliis tradition. It is now ' 
at Turin. I 

11 kil. Gii™»mo,onoB tlie capital of J 
small martjuisate, which, in 1609, 



66 



Route 10. — Turin to Oneglia by Mondovi, Sect. I. 



sold to the Spinola fanalj. It is nearlj 
2000 feet above the sea. A good road, 
leading from Gtu*e8sio to Albenga, 
crosses the Col di Bernardo to descend 
into the valley of the Nerva. 

Hence the road to Oneglia passes 
through wild and picturesque scenery, 
by Oraiea and the Ponte di Nava, where 
it crosses, for the last time, the Tandro. 
The rocks are often of marble, the va- 
riety called Pertigliano being quarried 
here. 

The source of the Tanaro is of diffi- 
cult access, but the path is practicable. 
The mountain from which it rises is 
called the Tanarelo ; the rush of waters 
is magnificent. The mountain scenery 
of this part of the Apennines is entirely 
distinct in character from the Alps on 
the N., or from the central range 
further S. It is more verdant and 
luxuriant than either. 

Near this is the Cavern of Aleramo, 
where he and Adelasio took refuge with 
their seven sons, who, in process of 
time, became seven marquises. The 
traditions of this country deserve quite 
as much attention as the ^^ Deutsche 
Sagen" of which we have heard so 
much of late years. 

llkil. Ormea. It was once well inha- 
bited, but, having been nearly depopu- 
lated by the plague in 1630, it has never 
recovered. From Ponte di Nava the 
road ascends to the Col of the same 
name, the culminating point of the 
Apennines qn this road (3150 ft. above 
the sea), to descend into the valley of 
the Arrosia at 

20 kil. Pieve, in a lonely valley. The 
mountains around are singular and bold. 
The principal church has some frescoes 
of Ijuca Camhiaso. The Arrosia, which 
is crossed on leaving Pieve, fiEills into 
the sea at Albenga. 

Pass over the ColofSanBartolomeo, 
which separates the waters of the Arrosia 
and Impera torrents : along the 1. bank 
of the latter a wide and easy road leads 
to 

28 kil. Oneglia, (See Rte. 12.) 



ROUTE 10. 

TTTEIN TO ONEGLIA, BY FOSSA>-0 A^^) 
MONDOVI. 

About 116 Eng. m. ; by Rly. as far 
as Fossano (see Kte. 8) ; 64; kil. 
Like the last route, this is not com- 
prised amongst those on which there 
are post relays with horses. 

Fossano, on the 1. bank of the 
Stura, the seat of a bishopric, 16,000 
Inhab., offers a very beautiful pro- 
spect from without. Seated upon 
a lofty hill, surrounded by ramparts, 
and crowned by the still lofty feudal 
castle, it is as fine a picture as can 
be imagined. Within, it is singularly 
antique and gloomy. The houses 
stand upon ranges of arches, which 
in many parts are so low that you 
can hardly walk through them up- 
right, contrasting strongly with the 
Very charming walk planted with trees 
which surrounds the town. It is said 
to derive its name from some salu- 
brious fountain, Forde Sano, in its vici- 
nity. The city was founded in the 13th 
cent., by the inhabitants of the villages of 
the adjoining country; burnt during 
the wars of the Quelphs and Ghibellines. 
Constantly exposed to the attacks of 
the Coimts of Saluzzo on the one side 
and of Asti on the other, the Fossanese 
ended by placing themselves, in 1314<, 
under the protection of Philip of Sa- 
voy, Prince of Achaia. The cathe- 
dral is a fine building by Guarini, with 
some decent modem paintings. In the 
Palazzo Grimbaldi are frescoes by Gio- 
vanni Boetto, who was also a good 
engraver. After crossing the Stura, 
pass 

La Trinitct, a village of 2500 Inhab., 
the head of a very ancient barony. 

22 kil. Mondovi, on the rt. bank of 
the Fllero, 1810 feet above the sea, 
the seat of a bishop, 17,300 Inhab. 
A portion of this city is on a com- 
manding hitr Here are the cathedral 
of San Donato and the principal pubUc 
buildings. The three other portions, 
Brea, Carazzone, and Piano, are partly 



PtEDKONT. 



Route 11.— Alessandria to Savona. 



67 



on the aide of the Mil and parti; in the 
plain below. Mondosl » eompamtively 
B modem ritj. Laving been founded 
in the 13th century. Lile Ooni, Fos- 
MQo, &nd sercrat other of the Apeiutina 
towTiB, Mondoyl whs a city of refuge ; 
that is to say, built by the inbabitante 
of the TiUagea of the open country 
fljine &om the contentions of Chielphe 
>nd Q-bibell^ea. Near Mondovi in tlie 
nnotuiuy of the Madonna di Vico. 
This churoh, built by VitoiKi, i« one of 
the innuiDenible adaptations of the main 
idea of St. Peter'a. In one of the 
ohe^icls is tlio tomb of Charles Emanuel 
I., who died at SBvigliano in 1630 ; it 
i> by the b^oth(^r» Cellini. This chtu^ih 
Las been a Eavourite place of pilgrimage 
of many Sovereigna' of the houae of 
SsToy ! it is richly decorated by royal 
■nd pnvnte rounifiococe, and ts aaid to 
lave coat 9,000,000 franca (360,0001.) i 
it hac oqIt been recently Bnislicd. 

that the people aaaenibled 
when they determiucd to abandon 
" bonces and to found tho new city. 
gOTemod tbemaelrea bb an inde- 
mt Topnblic until, in 1396, they 
ttted to Amadeo, Prince of Achaia. 
HBre. a2nd April, 179fi, was fought 
(be dedaire battle bettreeo Napoleon 
and the Sardinian troopa under Colli. 
The Sonliniane occupied thia atrong 
poaition, wlule Beaulieu, with thtr Auii- 
trisDH and an anny atill forniidable, 
ms in the rear of the French, and 
might have resumed offenaiTe opera- 
tions. The French tllBrefbredetemjined 
to renew the attack on tlie fallowing 
di^, bot, on arriTing at the ndraneed 
potto at daybreak they found tbcm 
abandoned 1^ tho Pledmoiileae, who 
had retired in the night to Mondovi. 
Com was ovcrtnien, howerer, in hia 
retreat, near Moudati, by the inde- 
fatigable Victor, wIlo liad seized a 
strong poaition, where he hop<»l to 
arrest the enemy. Tho Bepubiicana 
immediately advanced to the assault, 
attacked and carried the redoubt of La 
Biooqnc, the prindpal defence of tlie 
position, aod gained a deeisiTO victory. 
Colli loat 2000 men, eight cannon, and 
eleven standards. Qreat as the losswas. 



KCdtt 



yet, conung in accomidalion upon the 
preceding (fefeats, the moral eHetl was 
still greater. Colli retreated to Che- 
raaoo, whither ho was followed by 
Kapoleon. The result has been already 
■ Id. (SeeRtc. 9.) 

In 1799 the people of Mondovl rose 
against the French. T)us olTence wai 
cruelly puniahed by Moreau, whose 
troops committed acts of violence such 

no provocation eoiild excuse. 

From Mondavi the road ascends to 
the Tillage of Tico, and deaoends to 
the bridge of San Michele, on the Cor- 
aaglia torrent, where Colli repulsed 
Joubort and Sommer on the 19th of 
April, but retreated on Mondovi in the 
night ; continuing on its rt, hank to 
Lcscgno, near where the Cortaglia joins 
the Tanaro, to Cera, and from then« 
along the 1. bank of the Tanaro as &r 
aa Foste di Sarni, between wliich and 
La Piece it crosses tho Apennines ; tho 
relays between Mondovi and OuegUa 



ROUTE II. 



Tliere are do relaya of poat-horsM 
between Alessandria and SavoDa. A 
RIt. is open as far as Acqui, 21 m. 

^Iiis is a very interesting road to the 
military traveller, as it is over ground 
rendered celebrated by Napoleon's first 
Italian campaign of 1796 ; tho greater 
part of it la np tho valley of the Bor- 
roida to the pasaea of Monlenotte and j 
Cadibona. 1 

a kil. CaMalvpo Slat., in the plain. I 
The road enters the hilly country at 

Sldl. Sorfforalo Sfal., followmg the 1, 
bank of the Bomiidnlo. 



68 



Roide 11. — Acqm, 



Sect. I. 



3 kil. Qamalero Stat., a small village 
in a pleasant country, and thence to 

2 kn. Sezze Stat, 

6 kil. Cassine Stat.y 4000 Inhab., 
situated upon a height overlooking the 
fine valley of the Bormida. This small 
town maintained many a sturdy conflict 
with its more powerful neighbour Ales- 
sandria. 

6 kil. StreviStat. 

6 kil. Acqui Stat. {theAqtuB Statielce 
of the Romans) : 8200 Inhab. This city 
the seat of a bishop, was the ancient ca- 
pital of the Statielli, a Ligurian nation, 
and acquired much celebrity under the 
Komans from its hot springs. The whole 
country abounds with them ; and, like 
those at Aix-la-Chapelle, they are partly 
within the city and partly without. 
Within the walls is the spring called 
the "Bollente." The heat, on the 
average, is 167° Fahrenheit. The flow 
is most abundant, and never diminishes, 
and the water is used by the inhabit- 
ants for the purposes of washing, 
though, both to taste and smell, dis- 
agreeably impregnated with sulphur- 
etted hydrogeji. The bath-houses are 
outside of the city, on the opposite bank 
of the river, where several springs issue 
from the ground, their temperatiu'e 
varying from 111" to 124° Fahrenheit. 
They were built in the 16th century, 
by the Duke of Mantua, but have re- 
cently been much improved. The mud 
of the baths is considered as having most 
efficacy. Gout, paralysis, and rheu- 
matic affections, are the complaints in 
which they are pecuharly useful. Dr. 
Cantu, a celebrated Piedmontese phy- 
sician, has discovered iodine in the 
waters, to which he attributes, much 
of their virtues, and also a trace of 
bromine. The waters of the Bormida 
are, or at least have been, supposed 
to possess the same efficacy as the hot 
springs. 

Koman remains are found at Acqui. 
The few wliich have escaped the de- 
struction of the city by the Goths at- 
test its ancient magnificence. Four 
arches of a massive yet elegant aqueduct 
are the most conspicuous. Several 
I'eservoirs and other portions of the 



thermsB may be traced. One spring 
retains, by tradition, the name of " the 
fountain of PaUas." The block or 
nucleus of a large sepulchral monument 
is called the Carne by the common 
people, a name having a curious, though 
perhaps accidental, similarity to the 
Gaelic and Cymric cairn or Cartiedd. 
Numerous sepulchral and other in- 
scriptions have been fomid near the 
branch of the Via Emilia which ran by 
the city, relating to the Lollian, Mettian, 
B>utiUan, Petronian, Rubrian, Mennian, 
and Plautian families, as well as urns, 
lamps, brazen and other idols. Coins 
are also found, extending from Augustus 
to Theodosius. 

The Duomo was begun in the 12th 
century. The frent has a fine and 
venerable porch ; and an ample flight 
of stone steps adds to its effect. The 
interior is divided into a nave with four 
aisles. The church of San Francesco^ 
a Gothic building scarcely inferior to 
the Duomo, is in ruins, having been 
reduced to this state by the French. 
The other churches have nothing re- 
markable. 

The Monte Stregone, or Mountain of 
the Great Wizard, rises above the city. 
Here the hot springs have their sources. 
The air is exceedingly pure and plea- 
sant; the Baths of Acqui are much 
frequented, and would be more so if 
their efficacy was better known, and the 
accommodation for visitors improved. 
The wine produced in this neighbour- 
hood is very good. 

Acqui was the capital of the Upper 
Montferrat, and some of the towers 
erected by the Palseologi yet remain. 
It suffered much during the revolu- 
tionary wars. 

On leaving Acqui the road follows 
the 1. bank of the Bormida, which it 
crosses at Terzo, on the site of a Roman 
station — ad Tertium — which represents 
very accurately its present distance 
from Acqui : from thence it follows the 
rt. bank of the river, leaving Bis- 
tagno, a village of 2000 Inhab., on the 
rt. The two branches forming the Bor- 
mida unite opposite Bistagno — the Bor- 
mida di Spigno descending from the 



Houfe U.—Dcgo—Caii 



Altsre or Cndiboiia Pass, and Iho Bor- 
mida (U MUIeaimo, wbtch neen nt tlie 
foot of MoDlB Cairo. T!ie road to 8b- 
Tona foUows the first of the two, nearly 
in a true ?outh direction, for 9 m. to 

^iffBO, a village Of 3000 lahab., 12 
m. from Acqui, in a fertile tBrritory, 
producing; wacb silk and wine; and 
10 m. furtlipr'iB 

Ihffo (Degas), a yillo^ of 2300 In- 
hab., which haa little toiuteraat tbelra- 
TdlK-, eieiijt itB historical reeoUeetions. 
It is situated in a bend, and on the 1, 
bank of tho Bomiida; its torritoPJ JTo- 
duces a good deal of wine and some Bjlk. 
D«^o. from ita ntuatioQ on one of 
the high roads ialo the plains of Jjom- 
IwrdT' and of Piedmont, lias suiTered 
■BTerely on Bcveral occasions from mili- 
iaij operntiona, bat especiallr in Se]it. 
1794, when a was occupied bj Mas- 
tvna, and in 179G, wlien it was the 
<cene of ono of tho sanguinuy battles 



succeeded bj a most nmsterlj move- 
ment in cutting through the centre of 
the allied armv of the Piedroontese and 
A.UBtriBas at Idontenotte on the 12th 
rf April, lost no time in foHowing np 
his success by atlacliiiig each in turn. 
The Austrians, after tbeir disaster at 
Montenotle, retreated along tlie Bor- 
Diida, and occupied Dego, vliere their 
ooaquered divieion received reinforce- 
nenta from tJio main bodj of the Im- 

Eial array, then about Genoa. Ailer 
^ng the Piedmontcae under Colli 
Bl MiSesirao, and forcing them to re- 
treat on Ceva and Mondovi, Napoleon, 
havillK under hia orders Laharpe and 
Uan£iB, attacked the Austrians at 
Deso. After a eeiwa of hard-fought 
BctionB during two days, the Imperial 
general was obligMl to retreat upon Ac- 
qui, leaving 3000 prisoners and 13 can- 
non in the liandfl of the French. Two 
d^ijs afterwards, however, a moat gallant 
attempt WBB made by General Wicka- 
ROwich, at Ihe head of 6000 Auatriaii 
greiuidicrs, to refrieve the post disoater 
of his countrymen. Dego wbb re- 
taken with 600 French in it ; but Na- 
poleon, uniting hin forces, pounced ujiou 



Wiekasowieh uneipocledly, and soon i 
recovered it, making IfiOO Ini]HiriBliata | 

Sisoners. The results of tho haltJe of 
ego were^ — the impossibility of tlie 
Imperialieta forming a Junction vrith, 
or relieving, their Piedmontflse allies, 
already hard pressed by Napoleon at 
Corn, and ultimately doliiBted at Kfon- 
dovi (see B(«. 10), and their b^g 
obliged to retreat on Alessandria la 
cover Milan from an attaek by Napo- 
leon. It was at the bottle of Dego that 
Lannes, afterwards celehretcd as Due 
de MontebcUo, wss first distinguislied 
by General Bonaparte, who for liia i 
gallant conduct made bim a colonel oa i 
the field of battle. I 

Cairo (Caimm), 5 m. S. of Dego, 
is supposed to have been n atalion on 
the "Via Emilia, which from Rimini 
led to Savona. It has a population of 
S.'iOO Boula, and aomo iron-fumaccB in 
tho neighbourhnod. It is the prijicipal 
town in this upper vallcv of the Bor-, 
mida. The old road to Savona by the 
Pant of MotitetuiHe, now abandouedi 
struck off to the loft from this poinl^ 
paasing bv the battle-field of Monte- 
notte. A mnle-imth, frequented by 
the Genoese flahemien, still eiiats 
over that cetcbnitcd pass. Since the 
new road hiis been opened, a hand- 
some sliiiiD bridge of 7 arehes has 
been thrown over tho Bonnida at 
Cairo. This new road was commenced 
in 1800 by Napoleon i and, instead of 
crossing a difficult col, as that of 
Montenotte waa, now penetrates into 
Liguria by that between Altare and 
Cadibono, perlutps the lowest pass or 
depression m the whole chain of tha 
Apennines, for the Apennines may be ' 
considered to commence heroabonts. 



of April, X796, Buccoeded in piercing 
the centre of the allied army by a mos- 
terly movement. Encamped at Savona, 
havuig the Austrian commander-in- 
chief in front, at Voitri, ho had de- 
tached n corps of 1300 men, under 
Colonel Kampon, to occupy the pass of 
Montenotte. The latter we* vigorously 
attatked by a vastly supc^yor force of 



70 



Moute 12. — Turin to Savona, 



Sect. I. 



the Imperialists under General Eocca- 
Tina, who bemg severely wounded, the 
command devolved on Argenteau. 
Forced to shut himself up in the dis- 
mantled redoubt of Monte Legino, the 
French commander defended himself 
with heroism until night closed in, ex- 
acting from his soldiers an'oath that they 
would conquer or die. Napoleon, hear- 
ing of Bampon's critical position, inune- 
diately broke up from Savona, unob- 
served owing to the darkness of the 
night, with the greater part of his 
forces, and by daybreak the next morn- 
ing was able to relieve Bampon. The 
Austrians were completely beaten, los- 
ing 1000 killed, 2000 prisoners, and 5 
pieces of cannon ; but, what was more 
serious still, having their centre forced, 
and their main body obliged to retreat 
on Dego. 

Leaving Cairo, some remains of the 
Roman road are seen about a mile be- 
yond the town, and the ruins of a con- 
vent, said to have been founded by St. 
Francis himself^ but burned down by 
the French in 1799. 

4 m. fisirther is the village of Car- 
carCi where the valley widens. The 
road from Turin to Savona, by Ceva 
and Millesimo, here joins that from 
Alessandria. Carcare has a population 
of 1500, and in a miUtary point of view 
occupies an important position; for 
this reason it was selected by Napoleon, 
after the battle of Montenotte, as his 
head-quarters, from which he directed 
his operations against the Austrians in 
the valley of the Bormida, and the 
Piedmontese at Millesimo, and in that 
of the Tanaro. Beyond Carcare the 
road rises from the torrent over a ridge 
which separates the two branches of the 
upper Bormida, to reach 

Altaref the last village on the 
northern dechvity of the Apennines, 
and only 7 Piedmontese m. as the crow 
flies from the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean at Savona. The ascent to Cadi- 
bona is very easy, and the road gene- 
rally in good condition. 

The very great depression of this 
part of the Ligurian Apennines gave 
rise to the project of the French go- 



vernment in 1805, of establishing a 
water communication by a canal be- 
tween the valley of the Po and the 
Mediterranean. Altare was in that 
project selected as the site of an im- 
mense reservoir to isupply the canal in 
its descent, through the valley by which 
we have travelled, to Alessandrm, from 
whence the Tanaro is navigable to the 
Po. 

The road attains its culminating 
point near Cadibona, from which it 
descends to the hamlet of Montemore, 
at the head of the Vanestra torrent, 
which it follows to Savona. There are 
mines of a lignite coal in the environs 
of Cadibona belonging to the tertiary 
geological epoch. This coal contains 
bones of an extinct quadruped, the 
Anthracotheriunij also found in the 
tertiary strata of the Paris basin, of 
Alsace, the Isle of Wight, &c. 

For Savona see Rte. 13. 



ROUTE 12. 

TITEIN TO SAYONA, BY MILLESIMO. 

The first part of this road, as far as 
Dogliani, has been described imder 
Rte. 9. 

From Dogliani the road follows that 
to Ceva, as &r as Montezzemolo, a 
mountain village 2500 ft. above the 
sea; from whence striking off to the 1., 
after 6 m. of rapid ascents and descents, 
over the Alpine spur that separates the 
upper valleys of the Tanaro and Bor- 
mida, it reaches 

Millesimo, a poor village of less than 
1000 Inhab., on the Upper Bormida, 
1490 ft. above the sea, memorable for 
the battle between the French under 
Augereau, and the Piedmontese com- 
manded by General Provera, in which 
the latter were defeated and forced 
to retire on Ceva and Mondovi, 
whilst at the same moment Bona- 
parte was forcing the Austrians at 
Dego (p. 69) from Millesimo. The road 
crosses a high ridge for 5 m. to reach 
Carcare, where it joins that from Ales- 
sandria to Savona (Rte. 11). 



C 71 ) 



SECTION II. 

SARDINIAK DOMINIONS ON THE MEDITEHRANEAH.— THE KI- 
VIERA DI PONENTE, AND RIVIERA DI LEVANTK.— TEBEI. 
TOEIE3 OF NICE, MONACO, AND DTJCffY OF GENOA.* 

rilELIMlSARY INFORMATION. 
1. Folitical Changei and Character of the Counirg. — 2. AgricvUvre, Toitmti 
—Z. Moods.— i. Postiag, Modea of TraneUlng.—h. Mosag, WeighU, Jfea- 
wref.— 6, Character of (he Fopalalioa.— 7. Ihiu.—S. Fine AtU, 

IlODIES, 



§ 1. PoUTioiLL CaiSQia. — Chakaotbb op the Copntbt. 
At till? bf^niiig of the present eentuiy the domiiiiinig of Sardinia on tliia 
coBBt consisted of tlie uonntj of Nice (ceded to France by tlie Treaty of 
UsTcb 24, 1S60), tlie prini^ipnUty of Oneglia, and Bomo smaller eaciavwrft i the 
ram&inder belonged to tlie republic of Qenoa. What were called the 
"imperial fiefs" in the int^or wfrc, bb the name importB, (mall feudal \ 
toveraieutie* j but tbey all beloDged to Genoese nobles, and, though by 
]nr aubject to the empire, still, politically speaking, thi^ had no indirpendcnt i 
existeiice, and had become more priTsto domains. Aft«r the transitoiy dura- 4 
tion of the Liguriun republic (1797), the whole was incorporated with the . 
Fraich empire (1805). The <;ongreea of yioirna traueferred it to the king I 
of Sardinia ; and the Houae of Savoy thus not only regained their old poa- | 
iBauoiu, but alBo obtainei) the tcrritorioa for which they had more than 
onoe struggled. A nominal existoDce has been giren to the " duchy of Genoa," 
and tbe title of dake waa taken by the sovereign { but the whole is politically 
united to the rest of tlie 9iirdiman, now Iforlh Italian, atatei, though it a very 
diftiuct in its physicnl featured and tbe natiomil character of it« population. 
Between the Var, Gied in the time of Auguatus as the boundaiy of Italy on 
tlie W., and the Magra, tbe ancient boundary of Tuscany, the greater part of 
this territory is situated. We say " the greater part," for a amall district be- 
yond the Mngra, won by the Senocae from their ancient rivals of Lucca, and 
composing a part of the Tuscan Liuiigiana, ia retained by the Sardinian monarch 
of the republic, 



^^^! 



KotwlllutaTiiUng UK tropnt pDllticnl nnlon or Nl» la FraiiH, we have ami 
man, ui u IL hu not la^ Inartcd In the iitea tinum uf uur Hsodtniult u 
Diu^jB. &c., at U i9 by lu E''[>gtBp1il<xil poeltLop. 



72 § 2. Agriculture — Tow}is. Sect. II, 

The country is a continued series of mountain ridges, valleys, and ravines, 
formed by the spurs of the Maritime Alps and the Apennines. The breadth 
of the district, which is now denominated " Maritime Liguria," varies (always 
supposing the central ridge of the Maritime Alps and Apennines to form its 
N. limit) from 25 m. at Nice, to 5 m. between Arenzano and Voltri, where the 
latter chain (at Monte Keisa) approaches nearest to the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean. The cUmate is most agreeable, the atmosphere remarkable for its trans- 
parency and purity. In several of the districts on the sea- side, which are protected 
from the N. and N.E. winds, the thermometer rarely falls below the freezing-point ; 
and hence the singular beauty of the vegetation, in wliich the botany of the 
temperate zone of the southern coasts of Europe, and of the northern coasts 
of Amca, is combined with that of the tropics. Where the ravines open into the 
mountains the sharp wind occasionally penetrates, and sometimes the winters are 
severe j but the oHve rarely suffers on this coast, and this affords a test of the mild- 
ness of the chmate. These transient variations of temperature, or perhaps some 
less perceptible cause, render pulmonary complaints common amongst the inha- 
bitants of the Riviera ; and the foreign invaUd who resorts hither in search of 
health finds the natives mowed down by the disease from which he seeks to fly. 
The mountains abound in valuable marbles, furnishing many of those with which 
the palaces of Q-enoa are adorned. The most remarkable of these are that of 
Polcevera di Genova, a mixture of serpentine with granular limestone, and the 
black marble of Porto Venere, quarried at the cape of that name, in the Q-ulf of 
Spezia. The first of these marbles was formerly much employed in Italy, France, 
and England, for chimney-pieces, but its sombre appearance has put it out of 
fashion. Taken as a whole, nearly all the beauties which the traveller admires 
in the Alps of Switzerland, or on the shores of the bay of Naples, are here 
combined. 

§ 2. Agbicxtlture — Towns. 

The coast of the Mediterranean from Sarzana to the frontier of France rises 
. abruptly to the Maritime Alps and the Apennines. Facing the S., with gene- 
rally a warm aspect, the vine and the oUve are extensively cultivated. Wheat 
and maize are grown in rotative crops. Beans, some potatoes, and other 
vegetables are also produced, which, with roasted chestnuts and Indian com 
meal made into poUenta, form the chief food of the lower classes in the mountain 
districts. Generally the rural inhabitants, as well as the labouring classes in 
the towns, are poor. The farms are small, held chiefly on leases of from three 
to seven years, and slovenly husbandry prevails. Along some parts of the sea- 
coast, and inland up the valleys and hills, the Metayer system predominates. 

The towns along the Mediterranean, from the Var to Genoa, with the 
exception of Nice (which strangers have enriched), appear strikingly pic- 
turesque and beautiful from the sea ; but, on entering them, dirt and discom- 
fort, windows without glass, a want of all that we consider convenient within 
doors, dilapidation and a generaUabsence of completeness without and within, 
and a prevalence of what may serve as a slovenly expedient for the moment, are 
their ordinary characteristics. Improvement is, however, making advances. It 
commenced under the late king, and it is making rapid progress under the pre- 
sent constitutional sovereign. 

The chief ports are Spezia, Genoa, Savona, Porto Maurizio, Mentone, Villa 
Franca, and Nice. 



§ 4. PuiU.-,>j. .J-c. g 5. Moiie>/~We!!jhts. 



§ 3. BOASS. 

At the beginniug of tlic present century there were only two roa^s practieabls 
for uamagBB, and thoie but indifferent— tlie road from Kiee to Turin bj the ' 
Ool di Teuda, and the rood from AlesBandHa U) Qenos over the Pass of ' 
tho Bocohettaj all the rest were roountain paths, eome of wMcb could not 
he croascd, eren on mulei, without daDgDr. The preseiit great thoroughfare 
whicb eoimect» SWice with TuseHny was planned and executed an far m Men- 
lane bj Napoleon I., but was completed bj the Sardinian govomment, whioh haa 
also opened most of the other carriago-roadB by which the traffio of the oountir 
a carried on, and to which its rapid iniproTement is to be in part aaeribeti. 
The road along the cooat ia intersected by iiity or slity torrents, the pa«Bago 
of aome of which is occasionally not unattended with danger, Sridgea hare 
already been thrown over many of them, as at Veulimiglia, Onoglia, Pegli, and 
Bt. Pier d' Arena, From Genoa to Saraana, tlio road is cscellent ; a bridgs ! 
Orel" the Mngra recently erected has been a great improvement. The only J 
Bly. yet completed is the short line &om Yoltri to Q«naa, although one 1 
tloag the whole line of the two Bivieras, from Nice to Phe, and Lucca, is ' 
projeeted. \ 

§ 4. POSTISQ, MODEB OF TEATELLINO, Sk. 
The poat regulations are the same aa in the other parts of the Sardininn 
dominions. The relays are good and well served. From the nature of the 
xot6», perBona who wiah to ace the country will prefer tho vetturini, whioh 
km good, thoogh much more eipecsive than formerly; or the diligences, wbieh 
4gf) awKlIent, idl the way from Bieo to Pisa. The Journey, from point to point, 
_ 1.„ 1 r — ^gj ]jy ^-■— '-- .^i-- -■■ <- -■ •• ■■• ^'- 



r 



also be performecl by water, by the ateamers between Maraeilles, ] 
and Spczia, 

S 5. Monet. 



The Sardinian currency ia the same aa the French. The following coini of the 
republic of Genoa are also emrcnt, though not very common. Those moat 
ourrent are of mixed metal : pieuea of 40 and of 20 ceutimea. 



^■*A!ii 



lOng the amall dealers calculations are still in use in tho old currency of 
_,io», the lira and soldo. Their value in the present currency is bb follows; — 

A lira of Genoa contains 20 soldi, and ia equal to 80 centimes of the preaent 
^fteocf, A soldo = 4 centimes, 

A French imna is equal lo 25 soldi of Genoa. 



The pound = 4891J graina Troy = 10 ounces 3 pennyweights 13j grains. 



^Hfciii 



74 § 5. Measures, § 6. Character of the Population, Sect. II. 

This weiglit, called ^e*o*oWt7c, is used not only for gold and silver, but for all 
commodities of small bulk. Other goods are weighed ^ith the peso grosso. 

100 lbs. peso grosso = 76*875 lbs. avoirdupois, 
100 lbs. peso sottile = 69*89 lbs. avoirdupois. 

Measures of Length. 

The palmo = 9'725 English inches. 

The canna is of three sorts ; the piccola, which tradesmen and manufacturers 
use, is 9 pakni, or 87*5 EngHsh inches. The canna grossa, wliich is used by 
merchants, is 12 palmi, or 116*7 English inches. The canna used at the custom- 
house is 10 pahni, or 97*6 English inches. 

The braccio contains 2J palmi ; but in aU large towns, and in general througli 
the coimtry, the m^tre is in general use, and the only official measure. 

§ 6. Chaeacteb of the Population. 

The Ligurian tribes were amongst the last of the inhabitants of Italy incor- 
porated in the Koman empire. We are not acquainted with the government 
and constitution of the people prior to that event ; it seems probable, however, 
that, being Celts, they constituted a confederacy of clans and tribes bound by 
their own laws and customs, but not acknowledging any common head or supe- 
rior. Having allied themselves to the Carthaginians, the Romans, after the 
second Punic war, assailed them with eighty years* hostility, and they were for 
a time rendered obedient ; yet they were not finally subjugated until they were 
conquered by Augustus, who commemorated his triimiph by the remarkable 
trophy of which the ruins are still existing at Turbia. By him — or, at least, 
during his reign — the Alps became the limits of Italy ; and that fair country 
acquired the boundaries by which it was known and characterised by its great 
poet — 

........ n bel paese 

Che F Appenin' parte, e 1 mar' circonda e 1' Alpe — 

untU the recent cession of the territory of Nice to France. 

But this conquest did not break up the nationality, nor indeed the govern- 
ment, of the Ligurian states. They continued to retain their identity, though 
imder Koman supremacy ; and this corporate succession (as in the large cities of 
the south of France) was contimied, in a great measure, until the great European 
revolution of the 19th centy. Thus Noli, Savona, Albenga, San' E-emo, Porto 
Maurizio, and Yintimiglia, were rather the aUies than the subjects of Genoa ; and 
even much smaller communities enjoyed a species of independence. The in- 
habitants of this coast possess a very decided national character, and present 
all the physical characteristics of a pure and unaltered race, excepting at 
Genoa, where there appears to have been a considerable mixture of Lombard 
blood ; and in the district between Nice and Mentone, where the Proven9al8 have 
intemungled. 

From the earhest period the Ligurians have been a nation of sailors and mer- 
chants. Mago the Carthaginian reduced the city of Genoa B.C. 205. The 
ancestors of Doria and of Columbus were distinguished by their aptness for 
maritime enterprise. In the middle ages Genoa alone vied with Venice j and 
at the present day she has recovered her ancient commercial prosperity, and far 
surpassed her rival of the Adriatic. 

The Genoese are said to be parsimonious : this reputation they had of old ; 




§t:fnns. S8, FiAeArta. 

of charity, nnd indeed in erery Mil wHpt oan be made on jrabliw 
... Ilieir liborab'tj- baa been nntiounded, uul Btill continuM yerj emin 
lower orders are ramarkublj bwd-worliJig and industrioua. 

§ 7. iNna. 
la between Nice and GlenOH, and between Genoa and Pisa, have perhap* 
T derliued ainoe the et(^SIcera betwwn Marseilliw, Nice, G^ioA, and Leghorn 
bUTe been eBtablished, the number of traTeUers by land having vary considar- 1 
ably diminished. Tbej are still, boworer, good in almoBb aU the plaoes iit I 
i^eh, according to the nsnal arrangement, a travoller requires to stop. Iron i 
bedsteads, for the manufucture of whieh Genoa is colobrated, nrp now in geULTfll 
rue, greatly to tio comfort of the traTcller. 

§ 8. Pine Amis. i 

little ia known respeoting the arts of Qenoa in the middle ages. There are 
Boman remaina at Cimies, near Nice ; others exiat at Tiirbia and at Albanga j but ' 
the Hucioiit masters of the world haTO loft few traces of their domination in Lign- 
rio. The " Qothio " aroliiteoture of the country ia of a pecnliBr eharooter, and, 
in GtenOft at least, cihihita mora atieaialUm tban perhaps in any other part of 
Vf. Europe. Bnt, in the 16th century, arehiteoturo burst out in Gtuoa with 
pacoliar splendour. The palaces of Genoa eihibit flue npeeimeiis of domeatia 
aMhiteeture. Galeazati Alesai (1500-1B72), by whom the beet of them wera 
designed, gare the impulse which continued till the last century, when the ' 
dwiinod, giving way to extravagant decoration. 

Nowhere has painting been more eloaely allied to architecture than at OeiL 

b the Srst era the earliest known Genoese artist is the indrridual who beara the. 
wmewhat romantic appellation of the "Mont of the Golden Islands" (1321- 
140S}. The ^Iden ialanda are said to be the isles d'Ey&reg, wJiera he tooic 
tbe TOWS. This monk, who is thought to have belonged to the noble family of 
Oibo, WBB also a Tronbadour of no mean powera ; and ho gave what may be 
termed a new edition of the works of hia prodeooasora, hy making comsrt 
oopies of them, which had been much corrupted hy tbe igDoranoe of tr 
Rcribcrs. As an artist !io waa chiefly diatingoiahed aa a miniatore painter or 
iHaminator. There appears also to liaTe hxa a elaas of artists who Qooriehed ' 
in this district, either Germans, or who followed Gorman models ; to (hia class 
bdong Qiusto d'Allemagna, who painted at Genoa in 1451, and Lndorico Brea, 
who, flourishing between the years 1483 and 1S15, is perhapa to be conaidered 
ai the fatipT of the Genoese school, of which the principal of the more early 
jUartora were, Kobartolli (1499), Hieolo Corao (about 1603), Pietro Francoso'o 
Saoehi (1512-1526), and Lorenio Moreno (about lB4i). 

The second era. was formed hy Pierino del Vaga (died 1547) and his seholars, 
and ma; be considered as on olTset irom the Koinan sohool. The calaroitii» 
of Borne compellod Fierino to seek a reiiige at Genoa at the time when 
those palflcea were rising which haye conferred such splendour npon tha Citt^ > 
Superba. Patronised by the great Andrea Boria, he was employed upon the, 
deooration of hia palace; and by him, and by the native Genoese who were 
mther directly or indirectly his pupils, wore thoEC Irr^eoes produced. To this 
period belong Laiaaro Caivi (born 10(13, nntl iiiio !ill:iiiu'd the pntrion-hal age 
of 106 years) and Pantnleon Culvi liis hnillur (iIIl-J 13(>;i), Antonio Scmini, 
follower of Pomgino (died 1517), ^ind bii hnri Auilriii {1&78), Gioynnni Cani- 
iiaeo and Luca Cambiaao liis sun (lUed 15S5), Tavarone (155C-1641), and | 
rdo Cftstelli (died 1029). 



■Bernardo < 



76 BoKte 13. — Nice to Genoa^ by the Riviera di Fonente. Sect. II. 

Giovanni Cambiaso is the chief of these artists. All were exceedingly prized 
in their own country ; and the Genoese republic conferred an honour upon 
painting which no other Italian state had bestowed. By a special decree, they 
raised painting from a trade to a profession, declaring that it was a hberal art, 
and that it might be practised without derogating from nobiUty. 

In the third era, which partly includes some who may also be considered 
as belonging to the precedmg age, Domenico Fiasella, sumamed " Sarzaha," 
from his birthplace (1584-1669), holds a conspicuous station. The Piola 
family produced many artists of high merit, one of whom, Pellegro (died 
1640), had he not been prematurely cut off^ would probably have attained 
the highest rank in art. Eight of the Piola family were artists, the series 
extending from 1625 to 1774. The Carlone family also formed a clan of 
painters. Giovanni Battista Carlone (died 1680) must perhaps be con- 
sidered as the greatest master of this period ; and his elder brother, Giovanni, 
was scarcely inferior. During the earUer part of this period Genoa was visited 
by many foreign artists, more, certainly; than any other state in Italy. "Both 
Bubens and Yandyke were much encouraged here, and had a good deal of influ- 
ence on the Genoese school of painting in the early part of the 18th centy. 
During the great plague of 1657 many of the principal painters died. This is 
assigned as one of the causes of the sudden decline of the Genoese school j but 
the main cause was the general decline in art, in which all Italy participated. 
Many young men went to Rome to pursue their studies ; and, on their return, 
constituted what is considered as the fourth era. The greater number of these 
students became the pupils of Carlo Maratta; the most distinguished were, 
Andrea Carlone (died 1697), Paol' Girolamo Piola (1724), Domenico Parodi 
(1740), and the Jesuit Padre Pozzi (ob. 1709). The later artists are of no great 
importance, nor does Genoa at the present day form any exception to the general 
observation — that Italy exhibits no real symptoms of any efficient revival in 
painting. 



EOUf ES. 



ROUTE 13. 

NICE TO GENOA, BY THE EIVIEEA DI 
PONENTE. 

206 kilometres (129 English miles). 

Nice may be reached from Marseilles 
and Toulon by 2 dihgenccs daily, in 24 
and 20 hours, distance 138 m., and by 
steamer, twice a week, in 1 5 ; from Turin, 
by the railway as far as Cuneo, and from 
thence over the Col di Tenda, by the 
mail diUgence, in 26 hours. 

Inns. — H6tel Victoria, a large new es- 
tablishment, recently opened by Zicchi- 
telli, on the sea-shore to the W. of the 



town, having a fine southern exposure, 
and convenient in winter for invalids, 
and in summer for bathers, from being 
outside of the town, and near the sea- 
beach. H6tel de la Grande Bretagnc, 
kept by Brizzi, in the centre of the great 
square of the PubUc Gardens, one of the 
best managed hotels in Nice; charges 
more moderate than at the Victoria, 
with an excellent table-d'h6te. H6tel 
d'Angleterre, kept by Vincenzo Pal- 
mieri, excellent, and praised by families 
who have lived in it, near the latter. 
H6tel de France, and H6tel Chau- 
vain, also very good, with gardens and 
a S.E. exposure, and nearer the old 
town : table-d'h6te 4 frs. H6t6l des 



Souts 13. — JWce- — Lodgings — Carriages. 



^ - „ »> kept bj SchmitJi, tha owner 
R'of (he HAtoldd laTillo ot Oenoa, in 
the town st some distance from tlic 
sea, is mnch fraqnented by trayellers 
MTTfmg tlNoi difl allpknof 
for il in d nit I rg th Offl o of 
tlie il r 1 Dd (, ce is 



istl 



th t 



Hotd R 1, k 
Eijgli 1 m 1 f t bl nnd 

well t t d tli B ul iird. 

Hdlcl dc l'UuiTera,intliePiaaBa8.Do- 
inenjoo, kept bj How, much improved, 
Iiear whern the Counior to Turin has 
its olBoe. Ilfltol de rEurojie, iu the 
Bub de France; and the H6tel dea 
ErincBB, 8t iLo E. Bitremity of the 
town, near the sea, " Tory clean and 
oomfortable," nnd in a good aitualioa 
under tho CaBtla-bill, proteoted from 
the IC. winds. n6t«l di Paradis. Tlie 
hotels at Kico liaye been njneh iniproTod 
of loto rears, and most of those abofe- 
mentioned are as good as in niij othfT 
part, of the ContiiM'nt : at the Grande 
BretDgne,AngleteiTe,siidVidomvisit- 

for a prolonged si aj, avoiding Ihus nmiiy 
of thb inconTOnionccB attending fiir- 
oished lodgings. Bnclielors in Zieohi- 
telli's new establialunent, and at the 
Qrunde Brebigne, on paying about 10 
fra. a ^y ore iumisliod with bod-room, 
breakfast, dinuer, serrante' hes, lights, 
^. ; similar arrangemfintB may be made 
ia many of the other first-rate hotels. 

X-odgingn. — Comfortaljlj fumiahed 
houses and lodgings may be bad to suit 
HVBTj purse, and nnmbor of persons, 
both in the town and tlie enTirons, a 
list of wHdt wUl bo found at Lattes' 
and Jougla's House Ageney Oflloea 
(p. 79) ( persona who can be rceom- 
manded for their honesty, and whose 
servioes will save tlio stranger much 
trouble. The price of bdginga yarie* 
from 6000 fra. downwards i excellenl 
apartmenta for lauiiliea in the best quar- 
to* may he prooured for 4000 fre., and 
rery contfortahle ones for smalh'rSimilios 
800 to 1 200 fra., always for the 
wliieh iodudes from the 



ir 



nt of the winter until llio end 
of A.pi'iL Eachelors' apartments, con- 
sisting of a small sitting-room and bed- 
room, with a S, aspect, ma; be liircd foe 
from 40 to 60 &a. per montn, with 15 &a, 
additional Ibr attendance. All persons 
tak ing lodgings at Nioo will do well to ' 
have an inventory of the fiimiture care- i 
fully mads out, which ought to be dons 
tho joint expense of the landlord and 
iBut. Latlee, Jougla, the house- 
agenta, undertake for a small remuner- 
ation to attend to this and deliver back 
the furniture. There are several htmd- 
is about Nice let to foreigners, 
for the season varyiug froni 
3000 to 12,000 franca. 

Ssrvantt. — As persons taking private 
lodgings must necessarily employ native-' 
lervonts, the followiug is the usual 
icale of wages :— for mon-servaiits, 60- 
o 70 &e. per month ; men-oooks, 60 tO 
JO 1 fem^e cooks, 40 to 60 ; house' 
maids, 25 to 3G. Lists of servanta roaj 






; procured at Lattea', f 



OlllClN 






). Ca£S'1 
It Keu^ ,1 



•anU. — None very good ; ser*- 
ml send out dinnora on the Boman 
system. The best are Lavit's, Eue 
LongchampB, andEseoffier, Bestnurausi - 
Franeais, QuaiMnssena. Bachelors will_'' 
always Bnd it as economical and vriA 
better fare to frequent the table-d'hAta 
(34 frs.) at the principal hotels. 

Ca/es.— The tot cafi^s are 
Corso, near the theatre. The Ci 
Am&ieain is elegantly fltt 
de I'Dnivers, Brmlevard du Pont 
with an excellent Neapolitan Oluvi^. 
Cafe Eoyal. Cafe du ConimoPee. The 
principij local and French newspapers 
are taken in at all, and good cigars may 
be obtained from Ihe waiters. 

Coniages. — Private oarriages with 8. 
horses of the boat kind may be hired at 
500 &s. a month, less ele^t for 4flCb 
to 320, the coadmum's ulowanee noQ 
being included in the above sumr^J 
Haerea or voitures de place abound, wi(M 
2 horses, at ai frs. for the first and S 
for every BuocesaiTB liour j with I Lorse' 
2 fr. and 20 sols. ' 

r e(iBriiii.— Xlie Kico vetturiiii are 



I 



78 



HoiUe 13. — Nice — Libraries — Public Conveyances, Sect. II. 



good and attentive ; and as persons pro- 
ceeding to Genoa and Marseilles must 
either employ this mode of conveyance 
or posting, the following are the ordi- 
nary charges : from Nice to Genoa with 
a good carriage drawn by 4 horses, 15 
to 16 Napoleons j with 2 horses, 10 to 
12 ; the same time and charge to Mar- 
seilles or Aix, and to Turin. Plana near 
the Croix de Marbre, and Felice near the 
Palace, can be recommended as worthy 
of confidence. Return vetturini may 
sometimes be found at more reasonable 
prices ; the keepers of the respectable 
hotels will make every necessary arrange- 
ment, and their intervention wiU save 
much trouble to the traveller. The 
journey to Genoa will generally require 
3J days, to Toulon 2J, to Turin 3, i.e. 
to Cuneo, and fix)m thence by railway 
to Turin. 

Passports must be signed at the 
Prefectui'e, for which no fee is exacted, 
nor is the visa of the Consul previously 
necessary. 

British Consul. — ^A. Lacroix, Esq., 
in the Place St. Dominique. 

Bankers. — The principal bankers are 
MM. Avigdor and Co.; Lacroix and 
Co., at the British Consulate; and 
Etienne, Carlone, and Co. ; aU of whom 
are very useful and obliging to then* 
English customers. The rates of ex- 
change on England are stuck up at the 
principal readlng-rooiMs. 

Physicians. — Dr. Travis and Dr. 
Gumey, in the Piazza del Giardino 
Publico, near the H6tel de la Grande 
Bretagne; Dr. P. Fitzpatrick; Dr. de 
Pascale. 

Apothecaries. — Ferrari's, on theQuai 
Massena, in the foreign quarter; the 
business is conducted by Mr. Turner, 
his partner, from London. Musso, Rue 
du Pont Neuf; the business is also 
conducted by an EngUsh partner and 
assistant. This establislunent is also 
celebrated for its dried fruits and syrups, 
which it exports largely. Paulain, in 
the Rue du Pont Neuf, also good. 

lAbraries and Reading Rooms. — 
Giraud, on the Place du Jardin des 
Plantes, in the centre of the English 



quarter, keeps a reading-room, where 
the principal London papers are taken 
in : charges, 5 frs. per month, 13 for 3 
months, 24 for 6 months. Attached to 
the reading-room is a circulating library. 
Tliis estabhshment is the most conve- 
nient from its situation for foreign resi- 
dents, and the owner is a very intelli- 
gent and obliging person. Visconti's 
estabhshment, in the Via di San Fran- 
cesco di Paolo, is one of the largest 
and best managed of the kind in Italy. 
Dalbecchi, in the Rue du Pont Neuf, 
bookseller and stationer, and the best 
suppHed with articles necessary for 
drawing and painting. 

Cluh or Cercle. — There is a club or 
cercle called the Societe Philhar^ 
monique, formed of the principal in- 
habitants of Nice, where foreign resi- 
dents are admitted on being presented 
by one of the members, gratuitously 
for 10 days, and afterwards on pay» 
ment for 1 month of 10 francs, for 
3 of 25, and for 6 months or longer 
of 50 francs. Balls and concerts are 
frequently given here during the winter 
season, to which subscribers can bring 
their famihes; the principal Italian 
and French newspapers are taken in, 
as well as several English; and attached 
to the estabhshment is a circulating 
library. 

Public Conveyances. — Diligences^ 
Steamers, Sfc. — Dihgences leave Nice 
daily, at 8 a.m. And 4 p.m., from 
the offices of the Messageries Imp^- 
riales et Gendrales de France, for Mar- 
seilles, performing the journey in 24 
hours; for Antibes every jnoming in 
3 hours ; for Genoa two dihgences 
daily at 8 a.m. and 10 p.m. in 26 
hours. Travellers, however, who do 
not wish to travel by night, thus losing 
a portion of the beautiful scenery of 
the Riviera, by giving notice 2 days be- 
forehand may secure places to Oneglia 
by the diligence of the Messageries 
Imperiales that leaves Nice at 8 a.m. 
and arrives in the evening, and proceed 
from thence on the following morning 
to Genoa ; an additional charge is made 
for effecting this arrangement. Malle- 



13. — ^7iw — Tmdisimii — I^iiglisk Clwivli. 



poste from Nice to Turin, dailj in 24 
tours, by Iho Col di Tonda to Cunco, 
■nd &om thence to Txirin by railway. 

Sleameri to Qtmoa on luoadii; and. 
Thacsday eTetiing;s, amving at Genoa 
the neit momiiig, fare 28 nnd IS 

not OTSt well uppointed) ; to Alarseillt^ 
twice a week also, but more irregular 
in their duys of departure. 

TRiDK3"itEK. — Qrocara. — Berlan- 
dina, Kue St. Fraagois de Faule, keepe 
> good warDhouae for tea, irineB, gra- 
eeries, and English articles in general ; 
be ia a ycr; obliging penOD, and will give 
informatiouastolodgingBjSerTants, &!!.; 
Q-ent, on the same quay, cqunlly good. 

Tailors. — Tliibsut is a gooii tailor, 
andmakGBladies'habita I GavanyMree 
are oooaidered tlje Stulta of Dice ; Mor- 
lisoii, BQ EngliBh tailor, in tlie Jardin 
Publio. 

Bootmakers. — BoueboQ, Bmn. 

Satter. — Cordiglia keeps Fi-encli and 
Eliigllsli hats. 

Xireisndkers. — The test are Madame 
Baud (an Engliali woman) and Ma- 
dame Davm, who work for the dif- 

Stravj Sail. — Nice ia celebrated for 
a peculiar form of straw hat for ladies, 
of late become so fasMouable, perhaps 
the best in Italy for protection from 
the snn ; the principal shop where thoy 
may be porehased ia at Tori et Fila, in 
tlie Place St. Dominique. 

TumBTj/i JKoj-gw*™, <^e. — Nice is 
dao celebrated for its inlaid work, a kind 
of mosaic in wooils of difTerent colours, 
lometLing reEcmbling that mads at 
Tunbridge Wells ; the best shops for 
it, and for turnery, which ia largely 
raanu&ctured at Sico, ace, Ciando'a in 
the Bue St. Franflois de Paule, who 
obtained a medal at the Great £i- 
hibitionoflBSl; GimeolcPIacB Ckarlmi 
Albert; and Nicolas and Lacroii'e, in 
the Buedes FonchetfcB, near the Uitcl 
doB Princes. 

Soaae AgeMa. — Lattea, whose o(Rce 

iauesr tile Pont Neuf, andOiiarlea Jou- 

^^^a, 13, Quai Massuns, ate represented 

^^niTery autiie and honest persons ; most 



of tlie fumishad lodgings at and about ] 
Nice are eonGded tu their letting, and ' 
1i»t9 of them may be seen at their olRces. 
Jougla, who speaks English fluoutly, 
ia on agreeable person to deal with, 
and is generally recommendod. Tlu) 
general system is, that the person letting ( 
the lodging paya the commission of the i 
agent aa well as the charge of the inven- | 
tocy, which ought «eii«r to he omifted; I 
but on leaving it ia usual for the hires i 
to give a auiall gratuity to the latCet 
for delirEring up the fomiture, and 
arranging all sqoahbles and diffiirenoaa 
with the proprietors as to damage done, 
breakages, &•:., during the occupation, i 

SMi/lith C/mKk—Tiie EngUah Ch. J 
is situated near the Hue de la Croii ds 1 
Marbre, and ia supported chiefly by tha | 
aubaoriptions of the Britbli reeidenta i 
and vieitors ; the contribution for scats 
is as foUowB : — ^'amilies, 105 francs foe 
the Benson, and 15 francs additional for 
eaoh servant ; single persons, 10 &iino« 
for 1 month, 15 for 3 montba, and 25 i 
for the season, and half the same ratea j 
for children. Divine sarvioe is per- I 
formed twioa a day on Sundays and 1 
holidays ; the present dergyman is Mr. | 
CMders. Annexed to the ohnreh ia 
tha English burying-ground. There is 
also a Franoh and German Befonned 
church, where the eerriee ia performed 

tcmntclj in these languages. 

Matter!. — It is difficidt to give a 
list of the various masters : the beat 
way for foreigners yill be to apply 
nt Giraud or Vianonti's libraries, or at 
the principal musiu-shops. M. UallBrd 
is represented as a good teacher of 
French. Belgrand ia a good mastef 
for the piano, and moderate in his 
terms. For persona wishing to take 
lessons in elementary botany, the Abbi 
Montolivo, librarian of the municipal 
hbrarv, gives lessons in tliat soienoe, in- 
tercBtrng at Hice from the great variety 
of the vegetable products of its environs. 

Sicfi, in Itolian Nina, called also Nizia 
rfi jlf are, andNizzaJ/ariHmo, to distin- 
guish it from Nizza diilla Pnghft, in tJie 
■|nce al Alessandria, was formerly 
apital of a small independent BOTe_ 



80 



Bottte 13. — Nice — History, 



Sect. II. 



reignty governed by its counts in the 
middle ages. It passed successively into 
the hands of the Counts of Provence, of 
the Angevin sovereigns of Naples, until 
the end of the 14th century, when it 
■was sold by Ladislaus to Amadeus VII. 
of Savoy, in whose family it has since 
remaiaed, except during the French 
revolutionary war and empire, to which 
it was attached, until the present year, 
when it was ceded to IVance; it is 
now the chief town of the French 
Departement des Alpes Maritimes. 
Considerable doubt exists as to the 
first foundation of Nice and the ori- 
gin of its name, but it is generally 
believed to have been peopled by a 
Phocean colony from Marseilles, as 
early as the 5th century of Home ; 
daring the imperial period it was a port 
of some importance, from its vicinity to 
Cemenelum (the modem Cimies), the 
Koman capital of the Maritime Alps. 
The name of Nice is derived by some 
philologists from Nike, in memory of a 
victory gained by its early Phocean 
colonists over some neighbouring Li- 
gurian tribes. 

Modem Nice ojffers no remains of 
ancient art ; we must seek this on the 
hills above it, near where the capital of 
the Maritime Alps stood. The medise- 
val town appears to have been entirely 
situated on the left bank of the Pag- 
lione torrent, and round the base of the 
hiU on which its castle stood, the whole 
of that on the right bank being of very 
modem date, chiefly during the pre- 
sent century, and since the great influx 
of foreigners; of late years the town has 
been much extended also in a northerly 
direction, and the quarter bordering on 
its Uttle port much enlarged and em- 
bellished. 

The city consists of three principal 
portions : that on the rt. bank of the Pa- 
glione, called the Quartier de la Croix de 
Marbre ; the Old Town, with its modem 
additions ; and the Port. The quarter 
of the Croix de Marbre is that princi- 
pally occupied by foreigners ; it borders 
the river with a handsome quay filled 
Vith gay shops. The great square called 



the Jardin Public is surrounded by 
handsome buildings, at the extremity 
of which is the street leading towards 
the French "frontier, and a new pa- 
rade, the Passeggiata degU Inglesi, 
facing the sea, constructed by subscrip- 
tions chiefly of the English visitors, to 
employ the poor during a year of 
scarcity. The English chmrch and ce- 
metery is in this part of the town, which 
derives its name of Croix de Marbre 
from a marble cross erected in 1538, 
on the occasion of the arrival of 
Paul III. to bring about a reconcilia- 
tion between Charles V. and Francis I., 
"when so great was the difficulty of 
adjusting the ceremonial, or such the 
remains of rancour and distrust on 
each side, that they refused to see one 
another, and everything was transacted 
by the intervention of the Pope, who 
visited them alternately." — Rohertson^s 
Charles V. The obelisk opposite this 
cross was put up in 1823 to commemo- 
rate the two visits of Pius YII. in 1809 
and 1814. 

The quarter of the Old Town extends 
from the Paghone to the foot of the 
Castle-lull ; on the side of the sea it is 
bordered by a very handsome quay or 
parade, affording a deUghtftd walk, in 
the direction of the port, of more than 
a mile. Parallel to this are the Rue St. 
Francois de Paule and the Corso, where 
the theatre, pubhc library, and principal 
caf(fe are situated. Farther N. is the Rue 
du Pont Neuf and Place St. Dominique, 
the principal centre of business ; and 
at its N. extremity the large Piazza 
Vittorio, which forms the entrance 
from the sides of Turin and G^enoa. 
The dirty quarter close under the lull 
is the oldest part of Nice. Near this 
are the market, the cathedral, principal 
churches, &c. 

Between this quarter and that of 
the port is the Castle-hill, an insulated 
mass of limestone, wliich rises to an 
elevation of 800 ft. It was formerly 
crowned by a strong castle, destroyed 
by the Duke of Bei-wick, a general ol 
Louis XIV., in 1706. This hiU lias 
been recently laid out as a public pro- 



n 



IftWMfl'. SofOe IJ.^-JWft— 'Oliffin^af— jEtSJW^^— CoB(i?e. 



W* 



a. UiB 

Corsica being tasily bodu, in clear 
weather, early in the moraing and be- 
ibre BuiueC. 

TliH qnartcr of the port, until la(<>!y 
s low erowdtfd place. Las beeu recenUj 
greatly imurorcd, and Ib spproacbed bj 
tiiB besutiful parade of tlie Foncliettcs 
from the W., and by tho Kue Caaeini 
[rota the N. It ia cMeSy inhabited by 
aeaflirijig persona. The little port it- 
self, capable of tkdmitticg reaseui dnin'- 
ing 15 ft. KBtor, is protected by 2 
moU«, at the extremity of Ihe outer one 
of nluuh is a Bmnll lighthouse uid a 
strong battery. The entranoe is some- 
wliat (tiiBtiilt, and at no time can it be 
eonaidi'TBd as a place of refuge, from 
the difficulty of it* approacli in heaty 
weather. 

The principal objcBts worthy of the 
traveller's notice at Kice are — 

The Cafhedral or Ch. of 8. Kepa- 
rata, the principal ccoloaiaatical edifice of 
the town : it ii in the ordiimry Italian 
style of (he ITth cent., and oBhre no- 
thing remarkable aa a work of art. Tlie 
same obftervatiou upplieu to tlie pietui-eB 
over the principal altars. 

The Public LiUary, in Uie Bne St. 
Francois dc Poulc, is open daily ham 
10 till 4. It coQtainB about 40,000 
ToIumeB, and is well supplied with 
works of niodom Italian and French 
literature. In one of the rM>nia are 
preserred fragmentB of 3 milestones, of 
the reigna of Auguatus and Aflrian, 
discovered ou the Yia Aurelia, near 
Turbla. The moat perfect, iuilicatiug 
tbe BCV. mile, was diacorered and pfe- 
lented by our countrj'man Sir Johu 
Boilenn. Annexed to the public li- 
brary ia tlie Zoological Aluseiun, luao 
supported by tlie municipality, and 
chiefly formed by Dr. Verrani ; it is 
rich in ornithological specimens. It 
eontuns aome interesting foaril bones 
found in the crevices of the limestone 
rock of the Castle-lulL 

ito«) Naxioitale, or College, near 

^K^Poute Vcccliio, a large educational 



cstabliahment on the plan of the 
French lycies or oollegca, uid eou- 
taining Bereral hnndred pupils. Ani J 
nexed to it is a small Botanic Garden, I 
which contains a gigantic specimen of i 
Melaleuca, perhapa the largest in Eu- 1 
rope. The geological colleotion, formed ] 
by Dr. Perei, is very rich in fossils \ 
of the environs of Nice, and will he | 
well worthy of a visit to those inter- ] 
eeted in natural science. I 

It may not bo out of place hera to ] 
give a general sketch of the diBferent A 
formations nHch constitute the en- I 
vitona of Kice, aa many of our rcademr 1 
may wish to occupy themselves in their 
walkB around with geological investiga- 
tions. " Commencing in the Bsoenduiv 
order, the oldest rock in this part m 
the Mistime Alps is a metamorphio 
conglomerate, called Verruecano by the I 
Tuscan g^logists, which may be seen j 
about San Dahuazzo and on the road i 
to Tenda. On this Ues, at Isola, an ei- J 
tensive calc^«ous deposit r^oreble to \ 
the lias and inferior oohte of England J 
and to our Oxford clay, and with tho 1 
characteriatio foasila of the latter bed» I 
in tlie Yall& de St. Anih^. The Coti^ | 
rag constitutes the greater part of the 
range of bills that separate the bays of 
Nice and Ville&Dnche, and the pi-omou- 
fury of Monthoron, on which is aitu~ 
at^ the lighthonae. To this portioa 
of tbe oolitic aeriea belong the deposits J 
of gypsum which enst close to ths ] 
town. The limestone of this period ia j 
frequently converted into dolutaite, as ' 
may be seen at the foot of Montalbiuia ' 
and in the (3aatle-hill of Nite. The 
only fossils hitlierto discoyered have 
been corals and the Biceras Ariottna, 
near to 5. Fons. Upon the coral 
rag, near the amoll bay del Fosret, J 
hes a series of beds of a compact lime- I 
atone, without fosaila, which ma; ba I 
referred to the Portland system. The 1 
Ncocomiau and Cretaceous syatama ara ■ 
well developed about Nice. The gauU 
e^ta, with its cliaracterietic fossUa, in 
tlie valley of the Madonna del Laghctto, 
m the ravines W. of the village of Eai, 
and on the Mont Chauve, H. of Kice. 



82 Eoute 13. — Nice — Geology of the District — Climate, Sect. II. 



In the two former places good collections 
of its fossils may be procured. Green- 
sand. — ^The best points for studying this 
formation will be perhaps along the E. 
side of the peninsi^ of San Ospizio, as 
we shall notice in our excursion to Yille- 
franche and that promontory. The same 
may be said of the upper cretaceous 
rocks, which abound in the most charac- 
teristic chalk fossils, G^ryphsea columba, 
Ananchites ovatus, about the village of 
S. Jean, and on the headland of San 
Ospizio itself. Tertiary System. — The 
members of the tertiary period, the 
most dereloped about Nice, are the 
eocene and pleiocene formations. The 
eocenic strata are weU characterised by 
their fossils in the escarpments along 
the E. side of the peninsula of S. Os- 
pizio, between Beaulieu and the village 
of S. Jean, especially in the small Bale 
des Pourmis. The richest localities, 
however, for these fossils are in the 
vicinity of Drap and Pallarea, on the 
road from Ni6e to Turin, where about 
400 species have been already found 
and described by Signor Bellardi. The 
pleiocene strata, with the exception 
of a small patch near La Trinity, 
are confined to the "W. side of the 
Paglione, and occupy all the low hilly 
region between it and the Var, so re- 
markable for its rich olive-plantations, 
and which presents so marked a con- 
trast with the bare and arid region 
of the limestone hills on the E. side 
of the first-mentioned river. The plei- 
ocene strata appear identical with those 
of the Subapennine hills, and of the 
patches which exist along the Comiche 
road and at G^noa. Quaternary. — An 
interesting quaternary deposit, which 
rises to upwards of 50 ft. above the 
present sea-level, and containing marine 
shells identical with those now living 
in the Mediterranean, may be seen 
covering the eocene beds between Beau- 
heu and S. Jean, on the E. side of the 
promontory. The dolomitized coral 
rag, which forms the greater part of 
the insulated bill on which stood the 
castle of Nice, is penetrated at its 
S.E. extremity with fissures and ca- 



verns, in which bones of extinct qua- 
drupeds have been frequently found. 
These remains are accompanied by 
bones of fresh-water turtle and some 
marine shells, as may be seen in the 
museum of the municipality. The 
bones of quadrupeds are referable to 
the elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, 
horse, hog, several species of rumi- 
nants, &c." 

Climate of Nice. — ^When Nice first 
became the resort of British residents, 
the salubrity and advantages of its 
climate were perhaps overrated, but at 
present there is too great a tendency in a 
contrary direction, in comparing it with 
other places adopted as a residence 
for invalids. With its few drawbacks 
as regards climate, Nice offers advan- 
tages from its situation, its resources, 
its vicinity to England, &c., vastly su- 
perior to most of the places which have 
been placed in competition with it. 
Situated at the opening of a mountain 
valley, enclosed by hills which in winter 
are often covered with snow, the wind 
descending from them is sometimes cold 
and stimulant ; but the greatest draw- 
back perhaps is the dry N.W. wind or 
mistral^ which, crossing Provence from 
the Pyrenees, is very trying to invalids 
while it lasts, and is attended with 
another inconvenience, clouds of dust, 
which no amount of watering can pre- 
vent. The great advantage which the 
climate of Nice offers in winter is its 
clear atmosphere and bright sun, which 
always renders the chamber of the in- 
vahd cheerftil. The temperature seldom 
falls below freezing during the clear, 
serene winter nights, and is then pro- 
duced more by radiation than by an 
absolute diminished temperature. The 
daytime is warm, sometimes incon- 
veniently so, even in December; and 
persons subject to nervous headaches, 
or determination of blood to the head, 
will do well not to expose themselves too 
much to the sun, or in doing so to use 
the grey linen parasols so generally 
adopted. The mean temperature of 
Nice, deduced from 15 years' observa- 
tion, has been found to be 60^^ Falu^n- 



HtWEiii. 



SotiU 13. — Nke — Envrraa — Cfeftf, 



heit. The greatest heat in Julj and 
Augnat, S8l-; Ihe greatest cold 
Janutii7, arl^! the mean tempiiratu 
during the 3 winter raontha, 'ISJ' . 
during the 3 spring ilitto, 58^ j in June, 
July, anii August, 78 ' j in the autumn. 
G3° : Jonuoi^ being the coldeat, and 
Ac^ust the hottest mcniths. In speak- 
ing of the climate, it inajnat he out ol 
place to add that the ftds-hathing at 
Nice is good, eomethiiiK similar to thai 
at Brighton, on a ahingle heooh. Bulb- 
ing macliineB on the Qnelish sjetera 
have been latelj introduced; those who 

Crer R sandy beaoh will find Bomc 
ntiful situations in the deep cores, 
uear Yille&anehe, and roitnil the penln- 
bdIs of Ijaint Hospioe. 

Among the low hills on the "W. side 
of the Paglioiie and behind Nice the 
la said to be milder and less stimulant 
than in the loivnr situation about the 
town and nearer the sea; and a. large 
boarding establiahment is novf in f] 
grees near Cimiea, to enable inTolidi 
enjo; its more equable t«mperati 
The climate of some of the towns along 
the Bitiera is undoubtedly milder than 
that of Nice, as is also tlmt round the 
bay of Tillefrauciio, owing 
protected situation by headlands from 
the sharp mistral, and not being at the 
moutlis of valleys descending from the 
Alps I Mcntona and San Bumo 
peculiarly Evvoured in this respect. 

The advantages of Nice may be 
Bummed np in a few words : a dehght- 
ful winter oliiuate, except during the 
fev days that the mistral hlou-s ; a 
town poaseaaing all the roaources of 
many capitals sa to lodgings, masters, 
teoreationa, In'odespeople, supplies, a 
Protestant church, Engliah medical men, 
and abundant society lor those inclined 
to take part in its gaieties ; house-rent 
and prorisione, and, we may add, hotel 
charges, moderate ; and, what will be 









Toulon is opened, at the easy iMetaucs 
of 3 days' journey from England. The 
climat^ of tiaa and Hyvres are per- 
bapH more equable,but certainly damper, 
"■^"Itilhat of If iee, and consequently m ore 
i, and with fewer social advan- 



tages and 
said of Cannes, which to Other draw* 
becka unites those of being a dirt^ 
town, the conntty around comparas 
tively bare and and, and the priueiutf 
— ;J, R,_ foreigners near a high 



^ad, from whicli then 









c clouds c 



EsOntBlONfl IN THB EjTVIBONS 01 

One of the most interesting, in an 
antiquarian point of view, is to Cimie^ 
the CtTitua Cemenelienaia of the So>4 
mana, and once the capital of Ibltj 
Maritime ^Ips. Cimiea ii Icaa thanSJ 
ro. from Sice, and may be reached iSl 
an hour eitlier on foot or in a corrdan 1 
The pedestrian can combine in UIM 
same cseursion other interesting pointa,j 



St, Burtheleraj. The road to Cimiet" 
branches olT &om the rt. banb of thft-, 
Poglione at the H. eitremily of thft, 
town, and, ascending rapidly between 
higli walla which oiclude all riew, a ' ' 
bordered by villas, at the end of 2 
reaches the well-preserved 
small !Roman Amphitheatre, caUed \>v.' 
the peasantry the Tlno dcUe Fade, ~' 
Bath of the Fairies ; it is 210 ft. 
175, and could have eontoined 
6000 Bpectutora. A short distaoo^ 
further on on the rt. is the Francisoaih! 
Convent of Cimiea, which is supposeAJ 
to occupy (he site of the ancient Ctm^ 
nelvm. The ch,, which has been newlj 
red, contains a picture by Lndo- 
Brea, the only artist of any 
B whom Nice has produced. 
Iront of the ch. is a sq^uaro pluitod 
with gigantic ileiea, and an interesting 
Gothio marble cross of the 15th centy. 
ixed to the convent is a buryiugs 
ground, a favourite spot of roposB &t 
■' ! inhabitants of Nita. Not fer from 

re, in the villa of Count Darin, are 

ne Roman ruins, the supposed ro- 

Lina of a Temple of Apollo. 

<^t St. Pons, about a mileirom Ciuiie! 
an abrupt atony path, 



In -I 



mUuiues, 

2l 



84 



Route 13. — Nice — Excursions. 



Sect. II. 



tionvent over the rt. bank of the Paglione. 
It stands on the site of one where 
Charlemagne is said to have dwelt on 
his way to Borne in 777. The place is 
more celebrated as having witnessed 
the assembly of the inhabifaants of Nice 
in 1388, when they declared for Ama^ 
deus VII. of Savoy. 

La Fontaine dti Temple, and the 
Fontaine de MomraiUe, both in very 
picturesque situations, may be reached 
by the pedestrian from Cimies, or more 
easily from Nice, combined with a visit 
to St. Barthelemy and the Vallee Ob- 
scnire. The Fontaine du Temple derives 
its name from the ch. of St. Marie du 
Temple, founded by the Templars. The 
neighbouring VaUee Obscure is a fine 
gorge, a Via Mala on a diminutive 
scale. 



CnATBAr DE S. AndeI:, Falicon aitd 

ITS G-EOTTO. 

This excursion may be performed in 
a carriage by the road running along 
the rt. bank of the PagHone as fsur as St. 
Pons, and from thence along the same 
side of the torrent of S. Andr^ by the 
road to Levens. The Castle of S. 
Andr^ is a very picturesque ruin, sur- 
rounded by plantations of aloes and 
cacti : the Grotto is at a short distance 
beneath the Castle, from which a path 
leads to it. Crossing the torrent, the 
pedestrian will soon reach the village of 
Falicon, from which, following the road 
to Levens, he will arrive, about a mile 
farther, at the Ghrotto of Falicon, at the 
base of Mont Cavo or Mont Chauve, 
one of the elevated Hmestone peaks 
which bound the district of Nice towards 
the N. The grotto is very picturesque, 
and lined with stalactites ; it is of a 
circular form: there are some remote 
smaller chambers which have not yet 
been explored. 

The geologist will find much to in- 
terest hun in the excursion to S. Andre 
and Falicon. 



excttesion to ylllefeanche, 
Cape St. Hospice, etc. 

This excursion, the most interesting 
for beautiful scenery, may be easily per- 
formed in a day. To the geologist it 
offers a great variety of objects for ob- 
servation, as during it all the formations 
found about Nice may be seen in a 
limited space. The best mode of pro- 
ceeding for ladies will be to reach Ville- 
franche (about 2^ m.) in their carriage, 
and from thence to cross the bay in 
a boat, or to walk round the head of 
the bay along the beautiful Comiche 
road which leads to Beauheu. There 
is a good Inn at Villefranche ; but we 
would advise travellers to lunch or 
dine at old Gianetta's homely Locanda, 
at the pretty Httle cove of St. Jean, on 
the S. side of the peninsula of St. Hos- 
pice, where they will find a comfortable 
meal and a good bed, should they desire 
to prolong their stay. A new Inn, the 
Victoria, of greater pretensions, has 
been lately opened near to St. Jean. 

The road to Villefranche leaves the 
Piazza Vittorio on the rt., and, after 
passing a kind of &ubourg, reaches the 
bottom of the hiU which separates the 
Bay of Nice from that of Villefranche. 
An ascent of 450 ft. through oHve 
groves leads to the summit of the low 
neck or pass called the Col de Ville- 
franche. Instead of proceeding imme- 
diately to Villefranche, the lover of the 
picturesque will do well to take a path 
on the rt., which in a few minutes will 
bring him to the Fort of Montalban, 
on the highest point of the range of 
Montboron, which separates the two 
bays, and from which, or a Httle fur- 
ther S. near some ruined buildings, he 
will discover the whole coast-hne from 
near S. Remo, on theE.,passing by Men- 
tone, Ventimiglia, Monaco, to St. Tro- 
pez, on the W. passing by Antibes, the 
islands of St. Marguerite, the mouth 
of the Var and its low delta. The Fort 
de Montalban commands the Bays of 
Nice and Genoa, and from its height 
(950 ft.) a magnificent view of the 
valley of the Paghone, Nice, and of 



SiTTHRA. 



Route 13. — ^ice — Exisursions, 



the rich diatrict between it aud the 
Var, covered with one continuous olive 
finvst extruding to the foot of tho lust 
■pure of tlio Aifs. Betuming to tlie 
Ctol of Tillefranthe, an eieellent, well- 
managed road loads to the pretty town 
of that oamB, which from its eleMJinesi 
offiirs a striking uontmet with the older 
parts of Kico, and with the otlier towns 
along the eea^-coiut. Villafrnuca, or 
Vill^ruttche, owes its foundatioii lo 
Ofaarlos n. of Aiyoo, King of Naples 
and Count of Provence, iu the 13th 
centy. It is near the head of a moat 
loToly land-locked baj, which offers a 
cecura anehurase Ibr vessels of the 
largest size- B^ure the Government of 
Fiedoiont beoome potsseseed of Oenon 
and its maritime ti'Triloty, VillcfrBnchB 
WH the nnval arsenal of the Honee of 
Savo^f: ii contains a good dock, store- 
hoosBB, &c- \ but since then, Qenoa, 
haring become the great naval sta- 
Uon, Tillofranchc was olmoet ubim- 
doned aa a naval post. Commanding 
the doct is an cit^naive fbrtiiied castle, 
and a LaKzaretto. Though so close to 
Bioethe climate ie much milder, sfsrcelj 
erer feeling the incouveideuce of the 
cutting mistral, or of the bksts bam 
the snow-otpped Alps. Orftnge, lemon, 
and DBrouba trees tibauiid in its teni- 
tai-y, oud its beautiiul gulf is not only 
riot in fish for the table, but fiimiahes 
a very ample Geld for the student 
in zoolog;, from the abundauce and 
Tiirietj of \iA marine molluecub and 
■oophjtcs; indeed, Villefranehe will 
altvays prove the best locolit}' for the 
natandist wisiiing to stndj the vai'itd 
soimals of the MediUtrranean, as the 
Bshenucn are the moat espcrt, and fiir- 
niah the greaier proportion of llsh for 
t)ie murket at Nice, A verv beautiful 
road leads from Nice to Beaulicn along 
the N. side of the baj, on a ledge over- 
hanging the Mediterranean, and ijaseing 
tllrougliwoodsoforange-treea, olivi'?, cfl- 
rouba, pistachio, &c. : at tlie distance of 
about a nule it suddenlj emcrgfs on 
ttie Bay of St. Jean, and a vevj Mgree- 
' le path, which strikes off on the ri. 
i atong the top of tlie cliff, will carry 
''" — ' ' '0 the small village of St. 



Yillefranche, which will enable him to j 
cross the bay to Passable, from, which a J 
stony path across the i&thmus leads td J 
the same village ; but, although less i 
fatiguing, this route offi^rs nothing of 
the beauty or interest of the former. St. 
Jean consists of an Tim (Gionneta's), 
wlierc a fair fish dinner may always ha 
had J and while this is preparing, a walk 
of luklf an hour will brins the tourist 
to the S.E. extremity of the penimuli, , 
crowned by a circular fort, at the fbot cf 
wMcli is tlie chapel of the patron sainl^, 
B recluse, who dusi in the tower when 
he was here iminnrod in the 6th ceity. 
It was on this portion, nailed Fraxinet, \ 
that the Saracens established them- 
selves, and were onlr eipolled in the 
10th ceuly. In the 'bay between Capfi 
St. Ospiiio and Beaulieu, oppoaita t» i 
St. Jean, is the Madrague or Tunny* 
fisheryofNioBjitiBinactivityfromEeb- ^ 
ruary until the antnmn, and, being Ihs 
one most acccssihle to the passing tra- 
veller along the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, will well repay the trouble of a 
visit ; no otiior exists until we arrive 
near Genoa. Instead of returning by 
the same route, let the tourist tako the 
path S. of St. Jean, leading to the light- 
house, along the E. dechvity ofMont 
Canferrat, and ahmg the "W. Bideoftha 
wild bay des Fosses ; a ditf^nt path 
will tafee him from the hghthouse to 
Fassable, where boats will gen^iaUy ba , 
found to cany him across the bay to . 
Villefranehe m 10 mhiutess or he 
will Bud a pleasant path round the 
head of the bay, amidst olive and 
oarouba trees. The Httle hay of Pass- j 
able is by some ontiqunriea sapposed 
to be the Olivula Portus of the Ancient 
Itineraries. 



jwever foreign to the object of 
this work to enter info details on dry 
icienttllc subjects, as many of c 



86 



Route l^.-^Nice'-^Oeohgtcal Eoccursioiis* Sect. II. 



countrymen during their Bojonm at 
Kioe may be disposed to turn their 
attention to the interesting geological 
features of the country around, no part 
of it is better calculated to show the 
suocession of the formations which enter 
into its structure than the envu'ons of 
Yillefranche and the Peninsula of St. 
Hospice. " The tourist, on leaving the 
Faubourg deViUefranohe,at Nice, begins 
to aiscend the chain of Montboron, which 
is composed of highly inclined strata of 
limestone of the ooUtic series, probably 
of the age of our great oolite of the West 
of England, and of the coral rag. ' The 
CbAteauor Fort of Montalbano is perched 
on strata changed into dolomite, a meta^ 
morphism very common in the environs 
of Nice, the effect probably of the 
porphyritic eruptions of the chain of 
Esl3«lles. If the geologist, before ar- 
riving at the. Col, at a small oratory or 
chapel, will turn off to the 1., the path 
will lead him to a ravine excavated in 
the gypsum, which is evidently a part 
of the ooHtic series, although its origin 
as a metamorphic rock (produced by 
the action of sulphureous emanations 
on the limestone) is probably posterior 
to the deposit of the cretaceous forma- 
tion, and even of the eocene beds. At 
the Col de ViQefiranche the green beds 
of the cretaceous rock lie on the dolo- 
mite. On arriving near Villefranche, 
let the pedestrian take the road on the 
L to BeauHeu, and, rounding the N. 
side of the bay, he will soon find him- 
self on the same rocks of the cretaceous 
^stem as he had seen at the Col do 
villefranche; before arriving at the 
lowest part of the neck of land which 
separates the two bays, these latter are 
covered by a quaternary deposit contain- 
ing shells still Uving in the Mediter- 
ranean, and which continues to the 
escarpment of the bay of Beaulieu, 
where it attains an elevation of 50 ft. 
above the level of the sea. Having 
reached this point, let liim dt^scend 
the escarpment to the thick bed of 
seaweed which covers tins part of the 
beach, and he will find imder the 
quaternary deposit a cliff of inclined 
strata of sandy marls aboimding in 



Foramin^ercBf and farther S. of nummu- 
lUe« and other well'characterised fossils 
of the Eocene period; following the 
sea-beach at the foot of the escarp* 
ment, he will be able to make a large 
collection of fossils* This Eocenic de- 
posit, here very limited in extent, Hes on 
the cretaceous rocks in a kind oi gorge, 
the latter reappearing in the Baie des 
Fourmis, where it contains numerous 
fossils, amongst others the Exogyra 
Haliotidea in great abundance ; and in 
the ledge of inclined beds which form 
the N. side of the little Bay of St. Jean, 
millions of that most characteristic shell 
of the upper chalk, the Gryphsea co- 
lumba, with Spatangi, &c. These cre- 
taceous beds form the whole of the 
small peninsula of St. Hospice, and 
may be seen resting on the oolitic ones 
behind the village of St. Jean. From 
the latter place let the geologist take 
the path leading to the Baie des Fosses, 
and following its "W. side he wiU dis- 
cover successively the lower beds of 
the Neocomian series, with Nautilus 
pseudo-elegans, Belemnites dilatatus. 
Ammonites intermedius, &c. ; and be- 
neath a compact limestone, wliich pro- 
bably represents our Enghsh Portland 
beds, resting on the coml rag full of 
madrepores, and which forms the whole 
southern portion of the peninsula on 
which the lighthouse stands, the Mont 
Canferrat as far as the small Bay of 
Passable, the bareness and aridity of 
which contrast so singularly Tvith the 
richly wooded region situated upon the 
cretaceous and tertiary rocks." 



Geological Excuesion to La Tei- 

KITE, DeAP, and PaLLAEEA. 

" This excursion may be made easily 
in a carriage, as the j^rincipal points of 
interest lie close to the high post-road 
leading from Nice to Turin. Following 
the 1. bank of the Paglionc, the road runs 
along the base of the Mont Tinaigrier, 
and Mont Gros, formed of Jurassic hme- 
stones,as far as the chapel of Notre Dame 
du Bon Voyage, where the PagUone 



SlViEUA. 



Soute 13.— iW™ to Oenoa. 



87" 



bands to Ibe N.E., and fivm vUcli to Clio 
village of LoTriiiite we pnsB over the cib- 
taoBoua a;»Urm. Tliid village is at the W. 
eitFBmitf of a Und oC idand of Ploo- 
iwnio msrlti, extending for a, short dig- 
tsdoe on eit^m- side of t)ie torrent of 
Ihe Al&gnan, and ofTers pei^haps the best 
pomt in llie environs of Nioo for studj- 
mg this modern marine depoeit. After 
laaying L» Trinity the road continuM 
tor about 2 m. further to the vilhwe of 
Drap, atil! on tlio crctaccoua or Noo- 
Oomian heile, which about the latter 
' villaeB contain a great variety of our 
Bugu&h gr^ensaud fouailB, Continuing 
^ong the bunks of the Pagbone, we at 
length Teach FallitFeB, a short distsnot 
on the r1., in the environa of whieb 
mboimd fossils of the Eocene period, of 
I nearly 400 epeciea have been 
ted, and described in Signor J3el- 
fB wotk on the ' Fosaila of Nice.' " 




There nrc several modes ofperfor 
this JouniL-y : with, post-horics it may 
builoneiu 2 days, but more oomfortably 
ing not very ourly, Mentono, 

good iniia, may be 

' ' Savona tbu se- 



Ci lliei-e lire 
ed the tot r 



oond, and Oenoa eoAj on the third. 
Vetturini generally einjiloy 31 daja, , 
sleeping at Ueiitoue, Oneglis, Bod 
Savona ; this is by &f the most eonvs< 
nient way for families, tlie charge for a. 
carriage with i horses being from 19 i 
to 16 napoleau. 2 good diligence* 
etart daily, morning and evening, per- 
formbig the journey in 26 honra. 
SteaEuers sail twice a week from NiMj 
bnt as tliey ore emull, pcrfomaing iha 
voynge by night, nnd seldom employing 
less than 15 Imurs, and with urea . 
nearly as high as by the diligences, the 
former mode of conveyance ia infnilejj 
preterable for those not pressed for timm 

Leaving Nice by the PiosEa Tit> 
torio and the fine alley of plane-treei 
whicli leads also to the road of the 
Col di Tonda and Turin, the road soon 
conuuences to rise, and for the neit 10 
itiiles is one continuous aacent ; thi« 
route, which has replaced the once dMl" 
gerous Comiohe, was commeneed b]i' 
the French, who, before the fkll ol 
Napoleon, carried it nearly to Venti- ■ 
niiglia,from whiohithasbi'encompleted ' 
by tlie Sardinian government to Genoa, 
under circumstances of great engineer- i 
ing dilBonlties. The views during thfl 
ascent to TurVia are Teiy fine, especial^ 
over the subjaoeut lovely Ijays of Ville- 
&anche, St. Jean, Beaulieu, and the | 
village, with its castle on a bigb pea]^ i 
of Esa. Tlie road attains its greatftt- 
elevalion (3100 ft,) 2 m. before reaehuig 
Turb'ia: soon after passing a column < 
oil the road-side, called the Coloniia del -< 
m, fi-om its having been erected to 
cominomorate the visit of one of the 
late kings of Sardinia, a road turns off 
on the 1. leading to the sanctuary of La 
Madonna diil Laghetto, in a romantic , 
valley at the foot of MontQ Sembola, 
and tlirough which the branch of tha 
Via Aurehtt passed between Turb'ui 
and Cimies i several remains of BoiuBn i 
antiquities have been discovered here- 
abouts ; the most remarkable is the Milv 
linrium, now preserved in the library, 
at Nice, marking the ucv mile, i 
verv grndunl descent brings us to 

18 Ml Turbiu, a village at an 



88 



JRouie 13. — TurUa — Monaco. 



•Sect. II. 



vation of 1900 feet above the sea, 
upon a col or saddleback between two 
limestone peaks. Turbia, a corrup- 
tion of Trophffia, is celebrated for 
the GDropheea Augusti, which stands 
dose to and S. of the village; and 
was probably a Boman station on the 
branch of the Via AureUa called Julia^ 
from having been continued from Tus- 
cany to Aries by Augustus. The 
Trophsea Augusti was erected by Au- 
gustus, and may be considered as 
marking the limit between Liguria 
and Ghiul ; it is now a mass of ruins : 
the 'medieeval tower by which it is 
surmounted forms a remarkable object 
in the landscape. Of the Boman 
construction only the basement re- 
mains, which offers some fine blocks 
of quadrilateral masonry, and which 
is supposed to have been surmounted 
by suooessive stories, tapering to a 
point, decorated with sculptures and 
statues like some of the sepulchral 
monuments on the Yia Appia. On 
this basement was an inscription com- 
memorating the victories of Augustus 
over the Alpine tribes, of which only 
some detached fragments have been dis- 
covered : one contains the letters RVM- 
PILI, forming part of the name of one 
of the vanquished tribes (Trumpili), 
which is recorded in Pliny's description. 
It is not knownat what period the Gothic 
tower which surmounts the Trophaea 
Augusti was erected, but it long served 
as a mountain fastness, and was reduced 
to its present dilapidated state in the 
17th century by the Mardchal de Villars, 
who blew it up, thus destroying what 
maQ and 17 centuries had spared, at 
the instigation of Louis XIV.'s ally, 
the Prince of Monaco. In some of the 
itineraries Turbla is assigned as the 
limit or boimdary between Italy and 
Gb,ul, and is certainly naturally so, 
being placed on the pass over the 
most inaccessible spur of the Mari- 
time Alps, wliich descends to the 
shores of the Mediterranean, and round 
the base of which neither the ancient 
nor modem rulers of Italy have suc- 
ceeded in carrying a line of communi- 



cation. Leaving Turbla the road con- 
stantly descends. Soon after emerging 
from the village a splendid view, em- 
bracing Monaco, Mentone, and the 
blue Mediterranean, opens, and a road 
branches off to the former town, but with 
so rapid a descent as to be only suited 
for mules or pedestrians, the traveller 
who may wish to reach Monaco by 
carriage being obUged to go round by 
Mentone. 

MonacOf the capital of the smallest 
European monarchy, is now reduced to 
the town itself and to a very small ter- 
ritory near the promontory on which it 
stands : seen from the N. it presents a 
good appearance, siurounded by forti- 
fications, and fiianked with batteries 
commanding its httle bay ; indeed the 
view as you look down upon the town, 
with its fortifications, towers, and quiet 
port, is peculiarly beautiful. Monaco 
contains a population of about 1500 
souls, and is the only part of its prince's 
donunions over wliich he still retains 
any authority : his flag, a sliield, en echi- 
quier, supported by two monks, in allu- 
sion to the name of Monaco (Monachus), 
may be seen floating over its half-ruined 
castle. The town is garrisoned by 
French soldiers. 

The principality of Monaco embraced 
the towns and territory of Mentone 
and Roccabruna : its history is ob- 
scure ; it seems, however, to have been 
one of those allodial domains which 
escaped feudaUzation in the middle 
ages, and over which the Emperor had 
no authority; we find one Carlo Gri- 
maldi in possession of this Httle sove- 
reignty in the middle of the 14th cen- 
tmy, but this seems only to have been an 
Imperial restitution, for the dominion 
appears to have been granted as early as 
the 10th century to one of his ancestors 
by the Emperor OthO, for the part he 
took in the expulsion of the Saracens 
from Provence and this part of Liguria. 
The reigning family became extinct in 
the male line in 1731, in the person 
of Antonio Grimaldi, whose only 
daughter married into the French 
family of Thorigny, and from whom 



iJoafe 13. — Wonaco — Menfone. 



t Frmce of Monaco, Cliarlea 
r6, of llie Untignan fimdly, and 
iw HSBiuued the name tmd arms 
e Orimaldts, is dBacendeil Con- 



g really the kgitimate heir ! by 

Q» eiBrtionB, hower^, of Prince Tal- 
leyrand Ms title was acknowledged 
at the Congress of TismiB, 



femiliea of Genoa, also now eitind; in 
the male line, and the principality 
pieced under the protection of the 
King of Sardinia, as suzerain. In 1848 
Che LnhabitiLDta of Mentone and Boc- 
eabnma, who had much to complain 
of OiB eiaetiona and roisgovernment 
at this petty aoTercign, annexed Ihem- 
aAvca to the Sardinian numareliy, 
which was Bubsequently conQmied by 
a decTDs of King Charles Albi'rt, and 
bj placing Fie^onlese garrisons at 
Mentaae and Monaco. An attempt 
of Ihe late prince to re-establish hla 
■ntftority at Mentone, in 1B54, n-aa 
iBt br bis expnlaion. France has 
atepped iutc Sarditua's shoes as regards 
the principality, and this pcttj botb- 
Ndgn is allowed to exercise a certain 
aatiiority at Monaco alone. 

The tonn of Monaco covers a coa- 
sidraiblB Bitent of ground. In tha 
oantre is a large pliice iFarnies and the 
PHnoe's palace. The plaeo is of remote 
antiquity, ite foiiiidnlioii bi'ing nttri- 
bated by some writers to the Greeks, 
*Tea to Hercules, who undertook acv oral 
tB of Liguria; it 
1 as the Monceci 
is noticed in tliD Antonine 
Itinerary, under the name of PortuB 
"*■ Tilia Monceci. Lncan gives an ac- 
'■e description of its situation : — 




c 



. fortified by Loua ilV. 
I proti'ge, the duke; the works 
V falling into ruin. 






n the L the 



framTnrl 

from the former ■ 

yillago of Roccttbruna, one of the former 

posseBsions of the Frince of Monaco, 

perched upon a mass of tertiary breccia, 

of which two targe pyramids are scan 

Btanding amongst the honscs of the 

village ; there are remains of an old 

castle and of some mediisTal towers and 

walls. I 

All tliis part of the countrf is highhi , 
romantic ; everj' inch of ground copabJil i 
of cultivatian is attended to ; giguitia ] 
olives rise to a considerable height oK { 
the mountain sides, and MentOne is »p- 
proaohed by a handsome alley of plaue- 
trces, on the 1. of which, before enter- 
ing the town, one of the ducal retd- 
deiices is passed. 

13 ML Mentone. (/km .- E6tel Tic- 
toria, a now and cicelhmt hotel, OH I 
entering the town from Nice i the * 
Hfltel de Turin, much improved, with 
a fine view over the sea ; the Pension 
AnglaJee, kept by Cierioi, is well spoken 
of; the Hfltel de Londres, newly 
opened by DuggL) Mentone will be 
foond the beat reutiag-place for the first 
night on lesTing Sice. This little city, 
of 6000 Inhab., is sitiutcd in a fW- ] 
tile distriot, a;nd caniee on a large trade J 
in oil, oranges, lemons, the produce of T. 
its territory. It has a clean, neat ap- 
pearance, and a look of more prosperity 
and comfort than most of the towns 
of the Riviora. French is generally 
spoken here, and the traveller, on ar- 
nviue from the side of Qenoa, will 
see the sign-boards for the first time 
in that languaoe. On the hill above are 
the remains of an old castle and wbIIb i 
at a short distance, under the Cape ^ 
Marline, is its littli> port, rcsorl«d to by ^ 
the coasters employed in carrfing oK 'i 
its produce. The climate ofMentonB'I 
is one of the mildest on the Liguriaa I 
seabord, and perhaps better calculated 1 
for invalids than Kice, as tlie H. wind, J 
or mistral, is seldom felt. It is su^- 1 
rounded by gardonsof lemonimdoliTO- T 
trees, the former blossomiDgdmTngth* I 
greater part of the winter. Of late Men- 



90 



Hotite 13. — Ventimiglia. 



Sect. n. 



tone has become a fEiyourite residence 
for invalids, and numerous villas in the 
vicinity and houses in the town have 
been fitted up for their accommoda- 
tion. Hitherto it has had the addi- 
tional advantage of being more econo- 
mical than Nice. The service of the 
Church of England is performed in a 
house near the H6tel Victoria on Sun- 
days and Wednesdays, by the resident 
olergjrman, the Eev. Mr. Morgan. Dr. 
Bottmi is recommended as a good phy- 
sician here. Dr. Berryer, son of the 
celebrated French Advocate, practices 
homoeopathy. A good road (5 m.) 
leads from Mentone to Monaco, and 
forms a very agreeable drive. Mentone 
being a part of the territory lately ceded 
by Sardinia to France, it is now the 
frontier custom-house station, where 
luggage is examined on coming from 
G^oa. 

Soon after leaving Mentone we enter 
the Sardinian territory ; the road passes 
near to St. Louis ; the Sardinian Cus- 
tom-house is in the valley of Q-aravan, 
near the latter place ; a steep ascent 
leading from the plain to 

11 £1. Ventimiglia {Inn : the Croce 
di Malta, an indifferent Italian locanda), 
the ancient Albium Intermelium, and 
the capital of the Intermelians, a,Ligu- 
rian tribe. From its position on the 
brow of a hill, commanding the road 
along the sea-coast, VentimigUa was an 
important military position, and its 
possession much contested in the mid- 
dle ages by the G^enoese, the Counts of 
Provence, and the Dukes of Savoy. 
Before the French Revolution it formed 
the frontier town of Piedmont on the 
side of Genoa. It is an episcopal 
see, and boasts of having had S. Bar- 
nabas for its first bishop. The Ca- 
thedral has been much modernized 
in the inferior j the principal entrance 
and some parts inside present good 
specimens of the GFotliic pecuHar to 
the churches of the Riviera. In the 
ch. of S. Michel are two Roman mile- 
stones foimd here, one bearing the 
number dxc, and inscriptions of Au- 
gustus and Antoninus Pius. Above 



the town is a castle strongly fortified, 
which, with the approaches on the 
eastern side, have been recently re- 
paired and greatly strengthened, con- 
stituting the principal strongliold 
between Nice and Genoa. Several 
Roman inscriptions found here are 
built into the waUs of the cathedral 
and of other pubUc edifices. A very 
steep and dangerous descent from the 
square before the cathedral leads to 
the gate on the side of Genoa, a short 
way beyond which the river Roya is 
crossed on a long bridge, the arches 
of which having been frequently earned 
away have been i*eplaced by wooden 
ones. A sandy fiat is now traversed, in 
wliich runs the river Nervia, over wliich 
a new elegant stone bridge of 3 arches 
has been lately built, approached by an 
elevated causeway. N. of VentimigHa 
is the Monte Appio, one of the prmci- 
pal spurs of the Maritime Alps. Upon 
one of its heights stands a castle con- 
sisting of 2 towers, supposed to be of 
Roman construction. At 5 m. from the 
road, up the valley of the Nervia, is thfe 
castle of Dolce Acqua, a fine feudal 
relic ; and on one of the heights above 
the same valley may be seen the vil- 
lage of PerinaldOf the birthplace of 
the great astronomer, Gian Domenico 
Cassini, and of Monaldi, his nephew, 
also eminent in the same branch of 
science. A flat sandy plain, formed by 
the detritus of the neighbouring sand- 
stone (tertiary) hills which extend from 
Ventimiglia, is followed nearly as far 
as Bordighera. Here the date-palm 
is extensively cultivated, the nature of 
the soil being particularly suited for 
that semi-tropical plant. These trees 
give an oriental aspect to the country 
around : they form gi'oups of quite a 
tropical character, and most of them 
will be seen bound up or swathed at 
their summits in order to exclude the 
light, so as to prevent their leaves be- 
coming green, as tliis palm is cultivated 
here exclusively for its leaves, used in 
the ceremonies of the Church on the 
Sunday before Easter, hence denomi- 
nated Palm Sunday. They ai*e sent in 



Steft' ij; — '8t. Jtefno — Porto 3faurmo. 



^^HLe quan 

^Pv3 the iuhabi 

^" lUBB tLa privilege of fiuTUBliing them to 
the Chapter of St. Petec'a, where tliey 
SI'S difltributed iu such large nuinburs 
bj the Pope. Tliis exelueive right is 
said to have bean aocorded b; Sixtus V, 
to revmnl the Ingenious su^eetion of 
a Btulor irom tbu place, duriag the 
CToction. of the great obeliBk of tlio 
Vatican, who, BoBJng oJl efforts uae- 
less to raise the column when it- had 



the dpsiroJ effect, well known 
aa^oring people, was instflotlj- pro- 
OKPed, Q? Bhortcniug them. BOTdiglieru 
it situaled on the dcclivitj of tlie ninge 
tBrminating in tlie promontoij of Capo 
di S. Ampoglio. It onee coustituted, 
with the odjoioina districts of San 
Biagio, Soldano, TuJebona, aud Sasso, a 
republic independent in some degree of 
Qtmoa, but under ita protetJtion. A 
delightful drtie along tho coast lutds 

17 kiL SI. Semo (Jnn.- La Pahna, in 
tbe Lower Town, improved), a hu'ge 
and flouriBhing town of 11,000 InhabT 
and oliiof pla^ of the province. It is 
beautifully situated on a dHCliritj' dea- 
oendiiig t^ tho sea-aliore, covered bj a 
Uadk wood of olive-trees. Eiuept the 
post-Tood, at the bottom of the town, the 
>troets are narrow, tortuous, and steep. 
The principal ohurch la very ancient, 
and of the ordinary Gothic atjie of the 
country. St. Bemo la pcrhapa tlul mild- 
mt situatiau on all tho Hiviera. Here 
palms, lemon and orange trees grow with 
the greatest luiuriBiico ; and the &tiit of 
ite-paloi nhnoBt attains maturity. 
,,f)a the outsldrta of the town arc several 
planted with palms, and during 
aaon the travellBr will not 
tho odoriferous effect of 
^te oraDse aud jessajnino ffoirei's m he 
poasos through. There is no part of 
the Biviera to which Ariosto's doscrip^ 
tion of the voyage of the traitor Qan di 
UnganiD from Itfarseilles can better 
jbpV (**"»'" "^ OrlaadQ Farioio, 
■*-• l,at. 71)i— 



^^^udflns] 

■Bfitore 
V^oran, 



^P 



nay bo made, on leBT>., 
he ah. of La MadonnH ' 



An escnraioD 

ing 8. Kemo, tc -, —. __ „ 

df Ua Quardia on the Capo Verde, &OBk j 
which there is a magnificent pancromioi* 
view of the coaat. The high-road «>a»* 
tinucs along the beach through Annft(i ] 
with an old square castlo before entering j 
the Filkge, to Kiva, 2 m. before reaching 3 
which the dangerous torrent of A i 
Taggia ia (vosaed by a handsome nM^^ 
brit^e. Tlie Tillage of Toegia is sooK , 
on a height to the 1. higher up Ihri'J 
valler, to I 

13"kil. Saa Sisfaao al 3Iare, aflshing^S 
villag<) lying along the beaob, on whicbAj 
heavy surf generally breaks. Lookiiw* 
back towards Capo Verde the view lil 
very pleasing. i 

SanLuremo, a small town with it«* 
ch. on alow point, backed byroundrf.J 
lulla, covered with olive-trees. VineiJ 
are grown in the plain, which an 
to produce a bwcbC wine something li 
OyprUB, and nearly equal to it. A gi 
dual ascent leads from the sea-shore i^ 
the promontory, on wliich stands 

Porto Manriaa. (Itm.- Hfitel Sx^ 
Oomraeruo, tolerable.) The town it. 
upon a Mil on the rt., the posl-roacl 
running below over a kind of neck of 
land, tlie lowest part of tliepromontorr j 
that separates the bays of Oiieglis and;; 
S. Stclkno. P. Maurizio ii 
the moat characteristie t«wiia ot ^ 



me <S 



92 



Eotde IB.— Oneglia — Alassio. 



Sect. II. 



Eiviera, standing on a high, promon- 
tory projecting boldly into the sea, and 
overlooking its little tranquil port, 
generally crowded with the picturesque 
ooasting-yessels of the Mediterranean. 
In the centre is a lofty ch. painted in 
brilliant colours, whilst towards the N. 
noble mountains form the background. 
The neighbourhood of Porto Maurizio 
produces much oil, and a considerable 
trade in this and in other agricultural 
produce is carried on &om it. 2 m. 
fjEurther we arrive at 

15 kil. Oneglia, (Inn : Hdtel Vic- 
toria; clean and comfortable.) Oneglia 
is a good halting-place for the night ; 
it . is about half way between G-enoa 
and Nice. The town was bombarded 
and burnt by the French under Ad- 
miral Truguet in 1792. Andrea Doria, 
the great G-enoese admiral, was bom 
here in 1468. Here, in the autumn, 
the fronts of the houses are often seen 
hung with the inflated pigs' skins in 
which the wine is kept. A fine sus- 
pension-bridge, with the piers which 
support the chains of white marble, has 
been thrown across the Impero tor- 
rent, and forms a noble addition to the 
approach to the town. A toll of 2J firs, 
is paid on crossing it. (For the roads 
from Oneglia to Turin see Btes. 9 and 
10.) 

From Oneglia the road becomes 
very beautiful ; far and near the land- 
scape is dotted with bright towns and 
villages. In one part you descend 
into the valley of Diano, celebrated 
for its growth both of olives and 
vines. 

Diano Marina, as its name imports, 
upon the shore, and through which the 
road passes. Diana Calderina and 
Diano Castello are upon the hills on 
thel. 

Ceroo, 

Cross the Merula^ a sluggish stream, 
which often swamps and floods the 
neighbouring valley. The country is 
unhealthy, and consequently not well 
peopled. About a mile onward is 
tiie haunted Castle of Andora, a ruin. 
Here, it is said, a papal Nuncio was 
murdered ; and the curse pronounced 



in consequence is the cause of the decay 
of the adjoining territory. 

2 m. beyond the mouth of the Merula 
the Capo delle Mele advances boldly 
into the sea. This cape divides the 
Riviera di Ponente into two nearly 
equal parts. The aspect of the coast 
changes. There is a perceptible dif- 
ference in the quality of the crops, 
p£ui;icularly of the oHve, of wliich the 
oil is of an inferior quahty. 

From the Capo delle Mele to the 
Capo di Santa Croce the coast encircles 
a beautiful bay, on the shores of wliich 
are the towns of 

Laigtieglia and 

22 kil. Alassio. (An extra horse 
from Oneglia to Alassio and vice versa 
all the year. Inns : Hdtel de la belle 
Italic, clean and comfortable — 1854; 
Albergo Reale ; Albergo della Posta.) 
The road runs through both of these 
towns. Both are places of much 
commercial activity. The inhabitants 
are excellent sailors. Alassio has 6500 
Inhab. It is said to derive its name 
fix>m Alassia, a daughter of the Emperor 
Otho the Great, who fled to the forests 
in this part of the Riviera with her be- 
trothed Aleramo, where they hved after 
the fashion of Lord Richard and Ahce 
Brand. 

On rounding Cape Santa Croce 
we come in sight of the island of 
Gallinaria, The name of this island 
is said by Yarro and Columella to 
have arisen from its containing a par? 
ticular species of the fowls now 
called domestic, or, according to an- 
other explanation mentioned by the 
first of these writers, from fowls having 
been left here by some navigators, 
which so multiplied as to overrun the 
island. 

Enter the beautiful valley oi Albenga, 
splendid in its varied vegetation and 
rich cultivation. It is watered by the 
river Centa, one of the few streams of 
the Riviera which are perennial. This 
valley contains many pleasant villages. 
In one, Dttsignano, Madame de G^nlis 
Hved some time, and she considered 
the valley as a perfect Arcadia. The 
vines are often allowed to hang in 



&nti 



featoona from tha traoa, a pniotioe 
which, whenever it preriula, iuijiruves 
1^ landscape at the expeoBD of the 
liquor. The female peasantrf arrange 
tteir hair with much tasti', uauslty add- 
ing small bundles of natural flowers. 

LusigDono is 2 m. &om Sna I'edele, 
which poBBessea a ruined feudal castle. 
Bo does VillanuiHia, situated at the con- 
flnence of the torrents bj which tha 
&ntn ia formed. 

After poBBuig oTHT a marshy plain, 
[oently overliowed by the Lerone, 
I of these torriiuts, you reach 

efarlenda. Tlie diuroli of tliia scv 
itered spot eoutains some good 
PBintinjjs. The martyrdom of St. 
SraamuB (!f. Foutdn) ia a fine com- 

Csition, though the subject is ao 
rrible as to render it almost dia- 
gnating. The Virgin and Child, be- 
tween St. Benedict and St. Maur 
{Domesieihitio), pnintfld with great de- 
licaity and Bweetnoaa. It was intended 
to remove this piunting to Paris. More 
teeently, the curate, and what we should 
obU the vestry, were in treaty to dis- 
pose of it for 20,000 francs, witli 
whii-h ther intendwi to purchase an 
n'gan, and otherwise to embellish the 
diurch, but the peaaantry rose m masse 
and prevented the completian of the 
bargain. Alter this excursion out of 
the main road, we must return to 

7 HI. Albeaffa {Irms : Albergo delia 
Fosta, said to be late^ improved ; 
Albergo d'ltalia, tolerable, but rather 
dirty), a city, the "eapoluogo" of 
the province, and containing nearly 
6O00 Inliab. Both within and with- 
out, the asjwct of this ancient metro- 
polis of a repubUu whioh was of 
anfficient importance to bo courted as 
an sllj by Carthage ia verr striking. 
Three topj lofty towers, besides iiieny 
■mailer BtructureB of tbo same nature, 
frown over its narrow streets in all 
Ihe stemneas of the feudal ages. Of 
these, the lollieat is that oalled the 
Torre del Marehese Malespina, in front 
of which, at the basement, are three 
fine statues of lions ooucliaut. The 
the Turre dei Chielft. The 
inncied to the Caea del Cora- 



B|^" 



I. Theso towers derive much 
effect from their bold maohieo- , 
lations Btid battlements, the poculioR 
foitures of Italion oaBtoUated srchi- 
leeture, and of which these are the 
ilrst eiamples whieh the traveller will 
ace on this road. They liave tha as- 
pect of castles of romance ; mul hem 
Madame de Qcnlia hu localized her 
atoi7 of the Duchess of Cerifelco, iov^ 
mured nine long years in a dongeon by 
her barbarous husband- 

Tlie cathedral is an ancient Qothiff 
tnulding : over the doorways are loiait 
baa-relicfs in a singular style, exhi« 
biting runic knots and imagery not uii-< 
lite what are found on the runic pillan 
of Penrith or Bewcastle. The interio^ 
is modernised. The baptistel; ia sigt 
octangular building, supported withnt 
by Corinthian piUu^ and supposed Ut. 
hare been a heathen temple. It ooni' 
tains early Christian mosaics, with % 
curious recessed monument enolosiiuj! 
a sarcophagus. Many unquestionabS 
Itoman antiquities, however, have heeOf 
discovered in and about Albmga ; ait(t' 
the " Fonte Lvsga," at the diatsnoe a^ 
about a quarter of a mile, is of Bomsll* 
constroetion, at least in the piers. I6 
woa built by the Emperor Honoriu*. 
Albcuga is ono of the unhealthy spotV 
of the Riviera. The frequent inundBi^ 
tiona of the Cents rendered the gronn(W 
about it marshy ; and the inBalnbril 
was increased by the nuraerous flr~ 
steeping grounds. "Hsi iaeeiB 
Albonga," You Have an Alheaffa /iie^ i 
is a proverbial espresaion, addressed to | 
those who loo^ out of sorts, or out ot^ 
condition. This insalubrity has, how* 
erar, recently+ieen diminished by drain-i' 
iiig ; and the stceping-grounda are now , 
confined to the vicinity of the eeftj 1 
and are at some distance from th*| 

Albenga was occupied by tha French 
in 1794, and became the centre of thejl 
militaty operationa ; and in 
Napoleon made it liis head-q 
Durine this period the adjoining oo 
try Biffiered greatly from the ravi ^ 
01 the contending armiea, and alsofrol 
epidemic diseases. In 17lf7 it formeq 



lm*1 



u 



Route 1 3. — Loam — Finale — Nolu 



Sect. II. 



a part of the Ligurian republic, an in- 
corporation which terminated its politi- 
cal existence ; for, although previously 
subjected to the supremacy of Gbnoa, 
Albenga had continued to be governed 
by its own magistrates and laws. 

The road now runs close upon the 
shore, passing, after 5 m., through 

Ceriale, a place abounding in plea- 
sant gardens. 1 m. farther is 

Borghetto di Santo Spirito, above 
which Ues Toirano. The cave of Sta. 
Lucia in the adjoining hill is filled with 
stalactites, and beautiful of its kind; 
one of its recesses is fitted up as a 
chapel. 

lioanOf a small city, a title claimed 
for it by the inhabitants. It was the 
principal fief of Luigi Fieschi, so 
celebrated for his unfortunate con- 
spiracy. Loano was the scene of the 
first victory of the French EepubHcans 
in Italy, on the 24th Nov. 1795, when 
Scherer and Massena defeated the Aus- 
trians with great loss. 

JPietra, a small town, the principal 
church of which contains some curious 
wood carvings. {Inn : H. d'ltalie.) 

A new road has been made close 
to the sea, to avoid going over the 
mountains; a tunnel leads to Finale. 
There is a fine view of G-enoa before 
reaching Finale. A toll of 2J fi^ncs is 
paid at the barrier before entering on 
this new piece of road. 

Pass the Headland or Capo di Capra 
zoppa. The road is carried up a cause- 
way to the middle of the rock, through 
wmch a tunnel has been cut. The rock 
here is constantly disintegrating and 
fisfclling down upon the shore. 

19kil. Mnale Marina^ oA the sea-coast 
(to distinguish it from Finale Borgo, 
situated higher up the valley in the 
interior). (Inns: H6tel de Londres; 
H6tel de la Chine, new and good, but 
not cheap.) Finale was the capital of 
a marquisate, which anciently belonged 
to the family of del Caretto. Towards 
the end of the 15th centy. the town, 
passing to the kings of Spain, was 
strongly fortified by them. The ruins 
of the numerous forts which they 
built are still seen upon the adjoining 



heights- : they were mostly dismantled 
by the Genoese when, after a series of 
contests, they acquired the marquisate, 
by purchase in 1713, from the Em- 
peror Charles YI. ; but their title 
was not considered as established until 
it was confirmed by Maria Theresa in 
1743. Bernini was the architect of the 
principal church, a collegiate founda- 
tion, dedicated to St. John the Baptist. 
On the heights above is the Castello 
Oavone, a picturesque ruin. One of 
the towers is fronted with stone 
cut in facettes, like Tantallon in Scot- 
land. 

Variffottif an inconsiderable village ; 
soon after leaving which, the road passes 
through the fine tunnel or galleir of 
the Capo di Noli, on emerging from 
which a most lovely prospect opens. 

Noli, anciently an episcopal city, and 
picturesque from its walls and towers, 
terminated by the castle, commanding 
the town. Noli, like Albenga, was a 
repubhc, and preserved its own govern- 
ment under the G-enoese, until both 
were equally devoured by their GaUic 
invaders. 

The rocks hordering the road are 
here lofty and beautifrJ, overhanging 
the path ; the splendid aloes rising in 
the rifts, and flourishing in gigantic 
vigour. A view of G-enoa is gained 
after you have passed the gallery of 
Noh, when you discover the lofty light- 
house, the long Une of the Mole, and 
the fortifications which crown the hills 
behind. 

Spotorno, opposite to which is a 
small island bearing the name of Isola 
dei Bergeggi, now uninhabited, but 
upon which are the ruins of an abbey 
and a castle. 

Pass Bergeggi. At the foot of the 
clifi" is a stidactitical cavern, praised by 
the Genoese in prose and verse. From 
Bergeggi the road runs along the sea- 
shore under Capo di Vado, on the top 
of which is a ruined fort. 

Vado, anciently the seat of a bishop, 
now a small village ; it has been pro- 
posed to form a great maritime arsenal 
under the Cape." From Vado the 
road continues near the sea, passing 






"flbwM-fih^i^^rtim. 



lugh tlia Tillages of Zinola and I 

'sSfca.'s«ro»B. (/iB«.- Orand Hfltd 
Rojal, siCuated oear the harbour; olean i 
baUiB on the premises. HOtel Suisss, 
near the theatre and tlie seaaide ; dean 
and good. An omnibuA rons daiiir to 
Clenoa, aad at timeH a small Btoamer, 
which perfocms tiie vovage in sbovit 3 
hours. For the roads Jrom ansona to 
Turin, see Rtes.ll irad 18.)— A flouriBh- 
ing pity, tiiD third in importanco on tlio 
BiTiera, Qenoa being the firat, and Nice 
tfaa second. Hie town eihibits much 
oppearanoe oE aotmly and prosperity. 
I^Tge quantities of pottery are made 
bore. It is of high antiquitj' j here 
Uaeo, the Carthaginian, deposited his 
Bpofls bSbt the EaptUTD of Q«noa. The 
acropolis of the Liguriauoity is thought 
to hare been the site of the fort on tile 
"mpo di San' Giorgio." Savona ia 
close upon the sea ; but ita once ample 
port WHS spoiled by the Genoeae iu 
1528. They blocked it up by sinlung 
hnlka filled with atones, and tho deposit 
of taail and silt did the vest i and 
though it has been partly denrcd and 
r^amwl, it oannot admit veaaela of 
more than 300 tons. 

The Cathedral was built in IG04^ an 
older and more curious structure hnviiig 
been demolished to molie way for the 
This former cathedral 
a enriched by the muiiiRcence 

jte Julius H. (Qiulio della Borere), 
i born at Albiaola oloae by, was 

p of this see at the time of his 
) the papal dignity. Some 
of the ornaments of the present cathe- 
' ' e his gifts, hating been 



n the di 



aoUah 



5, for 



owunple, the fine wood-work of the 
olioir. It contains soma good paintinga. 
A Virgin and Child, by Lodoaico Brea ; 
tbe Annunciation and Presontalion, by 
Alihaai ; the Scourging of our Lord, by 
L.Cambiaid; La Madonna dellaColonna, 
by Roberielli. Ihe last ia a fresu), and 
so called because it waa painted on a 
pillar in the ancient Duomo, from which 
It ^as ingeniously detached, and placed 
in its present sitoation. In the chapel 
of the Madonna is a large pointing in 



seven ooiDpartmenta, the Virgin a 
serera] Samts in a richly-aoulptm _ 
framework, roproaenting the front of ^ 
church, and exhibiting the allusive ai 
of the house of Borere, — an ook-tr 
snrmounted with the cardinal's hat, I#l 
was the gift of Pope J^ulius j nod ■' 
almost every pictnro in Italy has if 
story, it is said with respect to thi 
that Julius, who, when Pope, threatens 
Michael Aiigelo with a liiitor, or k 
thing as had, because hu did not pa 
fast enough, employed seven pamt 
upon this work, m order to get it s<: 
out of hand. The best compm-tituinl 
the St. John hj LodoBico Brea. Th 
"■■"•■id and gilt bi 

" rgin ia ■ 
the N. tranaopt, brought from the old 
cathedral Hear the cathedral stands ' 
the Sistine Chapel, founded by Siitn* I 
rV. (1471-14S4), also of the fiu^] 
of La Bovcre, and imcle of Jnlhia ILr] 
03 a place of aep^dture for his ancestonj 
Hia fiither was, however, but a powjl 
fisherman, though dosctmdod kimi ftl 
nohle family. J 

Savonn is tha birthplace of Ckia- ' 
brera, one of the beat poets of the 17B^ 1 
centuty. He was higlily successful an j 
a lyric poet : " and though tho Qroeuib! 
robo is never cast away, he imitated: 
Anacroon with as much sliili aa Pindar."? 
Chiabrera ateo wrote much poetiy of ( 
devotional character 1 and over hist — " 
in the church of San' Oiacomoheca 
this impreasive inscription 



ul Maale PitrntHO: 



In the Dominican chiuvh ia a painto' 
ing attribntad to Albert Ihtrer. "^ 
Nativity, by Antonio Sentiiti. 
says of this picture that it is su 
to Boa it to be convinced that Semiq 
rivale not only Perngino, but Baphi 
himself. In the cloister of this ohur 



• the 1 






brera, beneath which L .. . 
tion written by Pope Urban VIO ^ 
The yilla in which Chiabrera lived ia^ 
near the oh. of Sun' ^'iat'onio, his burial;^ 




06 



Route 13.— /Sawna — Varazze, 



Sect. II. 



place. The house in which he was bom 
is in the town, .'with the significant 
motto which he chose, " Nihil ex omni 
parte heatum." And the newly-erected 
theatre is dedicated to him. 

One of the towers of the port is 
decorated by a colossal statue of the 
Virgin, beneath which, in large cha- 
racters, is engraved the following in- 
scription, which may (after a sort) be 
read either in Latin or Italian. 

** In mare irato, in subita procella, 
Invoco te, nostra beuigna Stella." 

This conceit has been attributed to 
Chiabrera ; but there is not the shghtest 



the Virgin by Bernini. The valley of tlie 
sanctuary is properly called the Valley 
of San' Bernardo. In the small chapel 
of the village is a very curious and well- 
preserved painting of an early date 
(1345), containing 14 figures upon a 
gold ground. 

Leaving Savona for Genoa, the road 
runs more inland as far as Albissola ; 
in several parts timnelled through the 
rock where the last abutments of the 
hills come down into the sea, and 
in some parts supported by terraces. 
Along this part of the Riviera may 
be seen villas, sometimes high above 
authority for supposing him tol)e its I the road, sometimes on its level, with 
author. It is part of a popular hymn their gardens gay with bowers, terraces, 



sung by the sailors and fishermen on 
this coast. 

The sanctuary of Nostra Signora di 
Misericordiay situated about 5 miles 
from Savona, is a celebrated place 
of pilgrimage, and well worthy of a 
visit, though the road is only practi- 
cable for light carriages. It is embo- 
somed in the mountams. The church is 
built oyer the spot where a miraculous 
appearance of the Madonna is said 
to have taken place in 1536 j and, 
though of such recent origin, the devo- 
tion of the Biviera so increased its 
treasures, that th^ were thought only 
second to those of JLoretto. " The greater 
part of these disappeared imder the 
French; but the sanctuary has been 
somewhat replenished, particularly by 
a crown of silver studded with gems, 
placed on the head of the image by 
Pope Pius VII. Marino and Chiabrera 
in poetry, and Bernardo Castello in 
painting, vied with each other in ex- 
ercising their talents in honour of this 
sanctuary. The church is filled with 
paintings by Castello, containing nearly 
the whole life, legendary as weU as scrip- 
tural, of the Virgin. They are much 
faded. Castello was the intimate friend 
of Tasso ; and one of the most prized 
editions of the Qerusalemme is adorned 
with engravings, partly executed by 
Agostino Caracci from his designs. 
Other objects in this church are a Pre- 
sentation of the Virgin by Domenichino ; 
^^ an alto-rilievo of St. Elizabeth and ^ 



treUis walks, and the brightest profu- 
sion of trees, and shrubs, and flowers. 
These gardens are generally in the old- 
fashioned, regular style, and are mostly 
entered by a lofty gate, once sur- 
mounted by armorial bearings. Al- 
most all the buildings were originally 
painted on the outside, but these paint- 
ings are all more or less washed oif, 
or £aded, by exposure to the rain and 
sun. The traveller will have seen the 
first specimens at Nice of this kind of 
decoration. 

Albissola Marina^ at the opening of 
a pleasant valley, stretches along the 
shore. The town of Albissola Supe- 
riore, 1 m. on 1., contains a fine palace 
of the Delia Blovere family, not the 
building in which Pope Juhue was 
bom, though he was a native of the 
town. In the principal church, the Ma- 
donna della Concordia, are some good 
paintings by Masella and Ansaldo. 

Celle. In the church of St. Michael 
is a picture of the Archangel by Pierino 
del Vaga, painted by him in fulfilment 
of a vow made during a storm. Follow- 
ing the coast-line, we reach 

Varazze, or Voragine, a large town 
of importance, stretching along the 
coast for more than a mile. Here 
are built a large proportion of the 
mercantile marine of Oenoa, the slips 
for which along the beach form a 
busy and interesting scene. It is the 
birthplace of Jacopo di Voragine, the 
author or compiler of the well-known 



Jioute 13.— Vdltri—J'egli. 



RlVlEI!.\. 

OoUIea Legend, a colloctioii of monk- 
isli legenda of saints, imraclee, and 
Bdrenturea of the deril, whicli vaa 
most popnJa]: in the 13th, 11th, mid 
ISth centuries. It has the fki 
being tha ahief book which ( 
formed Loyola irom a soldier to 
li^oiu enthiui&st. In 129S its author 
became Archbishop of O^noit, where 
he eioelled in chanly and bencvolcncp, 
sod was most useful in putting down 
the Actions hj which the city was 
diaturbed. In the hills above Vo- 
raglne is a ver; singular monaateiy, 
most appropriately called " II Dd- 
iterto." It was founded by a noble 
lady of the lanuly of Bulbo PaUa- 
vicini. According to Cune, she was 
exceedingly beautiful, and ia said to 
bo somewhat profanely represented in 
the chamcter of the Madounti, though 
in the Genoese dress of the IGth cent., 
in Bii exqxusite altar-piece hy Fiaaella. 

Pass the cape or headland of 

CdiioUHo. Before entering this town 
ia an cKtmiaive foundry of shot and 
shells. Cogoletto is by b'aditiou the 
birthplace of Columbus ; and if Jaith 
ia to be giTen to inscriptions, we mny 
see the house In which he whs horn- 
On tlio other hand, the house of his 
iather Domeuico can be proved hjf title- 
deeds to haTB been situated in the 
suburbs of Qenoa, and he himself states 
that he was born in Genoa, an espres- 
aion which, howeTer, was quite com- 
patible with hia being born within the 
tomtory. The family can be traced in 
Sbtoiiq, Oncglia, and all about the 
nflighbuurhoad ; and the fact of Lis 
'''^g ^ Ligurian is unqucBtumablc. 

The country through whioh the road 
pasBH between Cogoletto and Arenzana 
offers the most picturesque and vuried 
sueuBrr, and the most liucurious rich- 
iiesB of vegetation, fine woods of piuas- 
lers and evergreen oaks, with an under- 
growth of myrtles and various kinds of 
the moat beautiful heaths, astragals, 
and lilies rearing their tall stems and 
snow-white blossoms among the ehrnba. 
The view on descending t«wwds Aren- 
£ana is enobontiTig- 

30 kil. Areaza»a, a pleasant viUiige. 

If. Ilali/—lBeO. 



ATI 



istmg t( 
qu^ty 



Voltri, a flourishiiig town of 8000 . 
Inhab., with churches richly adorned. 
Much paper is raunufaulured in this . 
townanditsneighbourhood. Anciently 
the Qenoeso supplied most parts of 
Europe with paper, and a considerable 

Juantily is stul exported to S. America, 
t Is said to have the property of re- 
the worm better tlian at^ other, 
Ity supposed to he derived from 
lulphureous impregnation of the 
water with wliich it la made. This is 
particularly the case with the mdls in 
the valley of ilie Xeira, about throe 
miles oS", The paper made thcro used 
lobemnch in request in Spain. In this 
volley are the eulphnreous springs of 
the Aq«a Saula, as it is called, which 
rush out very copiously near the chapel 
dedicated to the " Madonna della A^ua 
Santa," to whose intereeaeion the heal- 
ing powats of the waters have been 
ascribed. A bath-house has been re- i 
ccntly erected here. The waters are very 
<!lear at the source, and are considered' 
veiy efficacious in cutaneous diseases, 
and are much frequented by the Cto- 
nocso during the smnmer mouths. 
There is a villa of the Marchese Brignolb 
at Toltri, in a lovely situation. A 
railway between Voltn and Genoa vras 
opened in 1856, to be continued to Ba- 
vona and Nice ; and the post station 
is now here : the distance to Savona 
reckoned 30 ML (The distance by Bly. 
from Voltri to Genoa is 9Jm.,porfornied 
lu 35 min. ; it runs close to the sen tlie 
whole way until it joins the line from 
Turin, before entering the tunnel be- 
yond San Pierdarena.) 

3 111. Fra (Stat.), which ahiiost 
joins on to 

2HL-PlBjK(Stat.),anothertown. Tlie 
villa Oritnaldi has a small Botanic 
Garden. The ui7i» i)o«"a is fine. It was 
built by Adamo Centurione, one of the i 
richest merchants of Genoa in the timo I 
of Charles T. When the emji. was ' 
preparing for his expedition, his trea- 
surer borrowed 200,000 crowns from 
Centnrione, who immediately paid over 
the anio\mt in ready money, and then 
forthwith sent a receipt in full to 
Gharbs v., who cast it into the flames, . 



98 



Eoute 1 3 . — Sestri — Cornigliam — Genoa. 



Sect. II. 



detenninmg not to be outdone in con- 
fidence and generosity. A story not 
dissimilar in spirit is told of the 
Fuggers of Augsburgh. The Villa Pal- 
' lavxcini at Pegli well deserves a visit ; 
the grounds have recently been laid out 
at great expense, large artificial grottos 
constructed with stalactitic masses 
brought &om a great distance, and 
subterranean lakes formed, over which 
the visitor is conducted in a boat. As 
an order to visit this villa is required, 
it may be more conveniently done from 
C^enoa, fi*om which it is an hour and a 
halfs drive. Orders may be obtained 
at the Palazzo Pallavicini, in the Strada 
Carlo Felice. 

The church of Mont^ Oliveto is on 
a hill above. Here is a remarkable 
picture by Francesco Succhi of Pavia, 
with the date 1527. The subject is the 
Descent from the Cross ; it is in excellent 
preservation. The background, an exten- 
sive landscape, retreating in perspective, 
is painted with Flemish accuracy. 

3 kil. Sestri di Ponente (Stat.), a 
flourishing town of 6000 Inhab. In the 
principal church is a painting of the 
bark of St. Peter, by Masella, Behind 
Sestri rises the hiU of La Madonna del 
G-azo, crowned by a chapel, with a 
colossal statue of the Yirgra. From 
this point, in even^ direction, the view 
is magnificent. The Villa Serra, with 
its terraces and hanging gardens, is 
very striking. 

Pass the monastery of 8ant^ Andrea, 
now the Villa Vivaldi. 4 kil. Comi- 
gliano Stat., a flourishing town. Like 
many others on this coast it is com- 
posed of two — the " 'longshore " town, 
and the one more inland. Here are 
rather extensive manufactures of printed 
calicos. The Serra Palace has a fine 
elevation. On the height above Cor- 
nigliano is the church of Santa Maria 
Incoronata, which contains a Holy 
Family by Pierino del Vaga, of great 
sweetness, but in a bad condition. Be- 
low this church is an oratory attached 
to a convent, which contains some 
frescoes of merit ; the ceiling is attri- 
buted to P. del Vaga. 



Cross the Polceoera. The bridge 
over the river was built at the ex- 
pense of the Durazzo family. Herr 
Mass^na signed his capitulation with 
Lord Keith and the Austrians for the 
surrender of Genoa. 

1 kil. San Pierdarena Stat, may be 
considered a suburb of Genoa, but 
which is not seen until passing the 
gate of the Lantema, or emerging from 
the railway tunnel, when the city, its 
harbour, and the shipping burst in all 
their beauty on the traveller. In the 
principal church of S. Pierdarena are 
some good paintings. The Flight into 
Egypt, by CamMaso; the Yirgin, by 
Castello ; and some frescoes, by Fia* 
sella. The Palazzo Spitwla is an ex- 
cellent specimen of a Genoese villa. The 
great saloon on the first floor is painted 
in fiasco by Carlone. The Villa Im- 
periale also contains frescoes. Palazzo 
Sanli, smaller, but a good specimen of 
architectural skill. 

4 kil. GENOA Stat., Ital.Genova, and 
called " La Superba." Inns : Albergo d* 
Italia, or H6tcl de I'ltalie, in the Eaggi 
palace, is perhaps the cleanest and best 
in G«noa; it has been fitted up recently 
in a way to insure every English and 
foreign comfort j table-d'h6te ; the front 
windows command a view over the 
harbour, the lighthouse, and the eastern 
part of the town : charges — single 
rooms, 2 fr. ; breakfast, with eggs, 2 fr. ; 
table-d'h6te at 5 p.m., 3 J fr., including 
vin ordinaire ; servants, 1 fr. per diem ; 
servant's board, 4 fr. per diem j dinners 
in apartments, 6 fr. H6tel Royal, 
formerly Albergo di Londra, near the 
Italia, kept by Perosio, newly fitted up ; 
the landLskdy is English; comfortable 
and well managed. H6telde la ViUe, 
on the Port, kept by Schmitz; this 
hotel is well spoken of. H6tel Feder, 
formerly the Palace of the Admiralty, 
contains some fine rooms, is clean, 
and in general good, with moderate 
charges (table-d'h6te, 4 fr.). Croce 
di Malta, also good, with table-d'hdte ; 
this house once belonged to the Order 
whose name it bears j forming part 



■•^ 



IfrnfiS. 






-ff^nal— 0)«wjKm«ff. 



«J^ 



of it 



:i lof^ I 



1 enjoy t 
■iewrfa 



, from wliicL 



■e pauornmie view of GlenoB, 
(Kntr^ ligbthoiiaB, itc. In Cliia hotel 
Mr. MaBsn kee[)s ODe of the principal 
Bbopa of filigroo-work, for whicli ho 
receiveil a medal at the great Exposi- 
tion oflSSl; conifortahle Bad moderate. 
Hotel dea Etraiigera ; Albergo delie 
Quattro Noiioni — good, and reaeon- 
able cliai'gea. HStel do !a Oraiide £re- 
tagoe. HAtel de fViutce, opposite Cob 
H. Fader. The All. 4ella ViUoHa, 
ID the FiazxEi dell' Annimziata ; the 
Lega ItnUaiia, and the Jilbergo TS&.- 
ziotialc, in the Piazza dell' Acqua 
Verde, tbo iiaarest to the Kly. Stat.; 
and tile Fensionc Suizzem, are aatd 
to be comfortable second-rate hovues. 
Tha Italio, Eoyal, In Ville, Croce di 
I Malta, Quattro Naziotii, and Feder, all 
I overlookthD harbour, hut the now of it 
I &oin the loirer doors is ehut out by 
I the terrace on the top of Hie arcade, 
nliicli has been constracted along the 
quay to separate the port G'om the town. 
Complaints having been made lately 
of Sequent rohherioa in the hotels at 
Genoa, tpavellers may do well to keep 
their doors locked at night, and on 
. to d^Kwit their keys in the 
it the porter's ; otherwise the 
landlord's responsibUily to make good 
\-ay loBBes may be disputed. 

Cafes. — La Concordia, in tbe Strada 
Naota, with the best reBtaorant in 
(Jonoa, and a garden, and the Caf^ Ciran 
Cairo, near tbo Eiohange, are very 
goodi Qslignani and the French neiTS. 
1 papers are to be seen at the former. 
, thim Corso ia a new caf^ splendidly 
fitted lip, opposite the Carlo FeliL'e 
theatre. 

Oadiwfc.— GtrcHt Britain, M. T, Brawn, 
Esq. The British consular office is in 
the Balita di Santa Catcrina. Tlie 
ConBoi's visa is no longer necessaiy to 
a Secretary of State's Passport ^ that of 
tbe U.S. Consul, in the Piazza di Aequa 
Sola, whoso charge is o{ francs, ia still 
necessary. 



Leghorn, OiTili Vecchia, Naples, Mes- 
sina, Palermo, Malta, and Marseilles.' , 
The days and hours of the sailing of 
the atoaniers are announced by posted 
billE, and must be learned from these 



t the 



They. 



Bger may generally reckon on the aau- 
Ing of B, steamer belonging to one or 
other of the soTeral conipanios erery 
second day, both for Leghorn and 
Marseilles. The only steamers that a 
arrire and depart on filed days belong ] 
to the Frenoh Messageries Impi^riales 
Company. They arrive from Marsoillss 
on the morning of Friday, and sail 
on the same emg. for Leghorn, Civita 
Teeehia, Naples, and Malta i and re- 



day at 3 p.m. The Neapolitan Com- 
pany's steamers sail for Leghorn every 
Wednesday at 6 p.m., ond for MarsaillBS i 
on Sunday. Steamers leave Glenoa for 
Spezzia, Savona, andKice several times 
aweek, for the island of Sardinia, land- 
ing at Porto Torres, on the Wednes- 
days at A, 11., and for Caglieri on 
Saturday at 6 p.m. ; in connection vrith 
the latter, a steamer sails &nm Cag- 
liari t-o Tunis On the daya of their 
arrival irom Genoa, corresponding to 
the sailings of the 1st and 3rd Satur- 
day of every montli, and to Tunis , 
from Genoa on the 10th and 35tb, at ^ 
6 p.m. I 

MalU Testes, XHligencea.^-'KiiQ.e ' 
Postes daily -to Nice, at 8 p.m., in 26 i 
hours, irom the offices of the Froueh 
Messagenes Imp^rioles ; fares 50 and 45 



The 
1 wiU 



by stea 



t.— There w 
ef;jel9 belwi 



I Geiioi 



Hud 



franc 



be by Ely. by Novara and Magenta, 
for which trains start 3 times a day; 
in this way the journey may bo pet^ 
formed in 6 hours, farea 19 fr. 35 c. 
13 fr. 75 0. To Lucca, by Spoizia, 
MassB, and Carrara, a maUoposto doily, 
it 12'30 P.M. (fare 50 fr.) ! also a diU- 
jenco3limeBa*oekin27hrs. By the i 
last-mentioned eonveyance the traveller 
ly reach Florence on the following . 

Vettvi-ini. — Plenty ntid gooii. Tlioy 



-U 



100 



Routt 



\^ 



O.- 



Genoa — Fort Regulations, 



Sect. IL 



jnay be found in the Piazza della An- 
nunziata, and on inquiry of the mas- 
ters at the principal hotels. 

Mailway, Trains leave G-enoa for Tu- 
»a, Novara^ and Arona (fares to Turin, 
1.6 fr. 60 0. and 11 fr. 60 c. ; and to 
IN"ovara, 14 fr. 20 c. and 9 fr. 85 c.) 
ibur times, and for Alessandria five 
Jfcimes a-daj. The Rly. station is near the 
J)oria palace and the Piazza di Acqua 
Verde. Omnibuses from the hotels 
•meet each train; fare with luggage, 
1 fr. : there are very good broughams, 
by which the long delay in the start- 
ing of the omnibus can be avoided; 
iare, 1 fr. 50 c. : a Ely. is just finished 
^ong the coast, as far as Voltri, 10 m., 
and others are projected towards Tus- 
cany and Nice. 

Post Office in the Piazza delle Fon- 
J».ne Amorose. Letters arrive from 
J2ngland, the N. of France, and N. of 
.Italy, at 10 A.M. ; from S. Italy, Nice, 
5. of France, Spain, &c., early in the 
jnoming ; and are despatched for 
JSngland and the N. of Europe at 5 
J.M. ; for Nice and the S. of Franco 
And Spain at 2 p.m. ; for Tuscany, the 
JRconajn States, and Naples at mid-day ; 
ibr Turin and Switzerland at 11 A.11:. and 
5 p.ii. ; besides, letters are received and 
forwarded by aU the steamers: those, 
however, for which bags are always 
jnade up are the French mail-boats ; 
on Fridays for S. Italy, Malta, and 
the Levant, as well as to Marseilles; 
for the island of Sardinia by Porto 
Torres every Wednesday, by Cagliari 
every Saturday ; and for Tunis on the 
1st and 3rd Saturdays of each month. 
Letters from England cost 60 c, and in 
sending may or may not be prCT)aid. 
^ut letters for Piedmont generafly, if 
not prepaid in England, are charged 
double on delivery here, and vice versd. 
English Church. — ^A large room has 
been fitted up in the Via S. Giusep- 
pe, where the service is regularly per- 
formed by the Rev. Mr. Strettle, of the 
Flstablished Church. An Hospital for 
English Protestants has been lately 
opened in the SaHta di S. Girolamo, 
. 222ider the direction of the British resi- 
dentg and the clergymen of the Esta- 



blished Church. It is well deserving 
of the support of our traveUing fellow 
countrymen. A book to receive the 
names of subscribers will be found at 
the principal hotels. 

Bankers. — Messrs. Gibbs are parti- 
cularly civil and obUging to their Eng- 
Ush customers. 

Physicians. — Dr. Gilioh, an Edin- 
burgh M.D., who practised some years 
in London — a very respectable man — 
he lives in Casa Tagliavacche, Salita all' 
Acqua Sola, No. 894; and Dr. A. MilHn- 
gen, an English Physician, 59, Strada 
Carlo Alberto San Tomasso, 3° Piano. 

English Pharma>cy^ kept by Aiu-elio, 
in the Piazzetta delle Vigne, near tlio 
Banchi and H6tel Feder. 

Port regulations^ Passports. In these 
respects G-enoa ofiers an agreeable con- 
trast with the worries and annoyances 
which the traveller will experience in 
some of the other seaports of Italy. Pas- 
sengers arriving are now allowed to land 
at all hours., and are detained but a 
short time on board. Travellers pro- 
ceeding to sea,— if to Marseilles, their 
passports must bear the visa of the 
French Consul, which costs 3 fr. ; to 
Civita Vecchia, of the Papal Consul, 
3 fr. 20 c. ; and to Naples, of the Neapo- 
litan Consul, 6 fr. Passengers to Malta 
and the Levant require no Consular 
visa. The passport of the British 
Secretary of State does not require any 
visa at Genoa except that of the foreign 
consuls to whose States the traveller ia 
proceeduig. 

Boatmen. The charge for embark- 
ing and landing passengers from steam- 
ers at Genoa is 1 fr. per person, in- 
. eluding luggage; the fee for carrying 
it to the hotels by the porters is 1 fr. 
each porter, but the traveller who has 
several parcels will do weU to make his 
bargain beforehand; the charge for a 
boat in the port, or for an exclusion 
round the moleheads and lighthouse, 
is 2 fr. an hour. 

The expenses for embarking carriages 
are — for a caleche, 15 fr. ; for a chariot, 
or Berline, 20 fr., everything included. 

Antiquities and Articles of Vertu. — 
"Wannenea, Contrada Canetta, Piazza 



ItrviraA. 



RotOs IS. — Oenoa—8^'^. 



stamps, No. 1374, tehind tho ch. of 
S. Qioi^io ; and Msggi, in the Stni^ 
Carlo Felice, have Teiy good coUectionB 
of curiosities, antique Articles, &e. ; the 
litter asks unraasooable prices, which 
be haa been known to abnte 50 per cent. 
Silki, Velvett, ^c.-.The best shape 
for velyets are thoaciifiFemiri, Via degli 
OreGci, ISo. 352; and-of {^ivini, Fiaiia 
Campetto, No. 14. 1\ie bo^ qualitiBa 
of denoeBo velvet cost. -frgtn 18 to 
22 fr. a mitre, about 13i. M. wJQi. M. 

BotikteUer.~'3<Ba!!, Strada''St«i''5a- 
litno, No. 574, has a good assortmenf oE 
Omde-books and Maps ; there is a<yr- 
.Tulating hbrnry and n newe-rooin in the 
dame eatablishment, where Galignani 
and the French and Italian BowspapBra 

JeWflWif, liligree Work. — Parodi, 
Via degli OreGri, and Braii, at No. 109 
in the samflBtrset; Masas, in the HAtel 
della Croee di Malta ; Selimiti, Hfltal 
de la Vitlr. 

Engliih Warehonte, Teaa, ^'c. — An 
estabhshiDent well tiimiahed with Eng- 
iah articles has been opened by Pelle- 
grini in tho Palazzo du' Mari, Piazza 
Annunzista, where tho traveller going 
into Italy will be nble to obtain, at 
prices not eiceeding thoao in England, 
moat Brticlcs of comfort. 

Coitftc/ionei'j.^Itonianengo, Via de- 
gli OreHci, is celebrated far hia aiiulied 

Sedan-chairi are common, and are 
geoarallr med ly ladies going out in the 
evening, although not so much employed 
as formerlj, the nam Btrects having ren- 
dered tho town, more eaaj of access t* 
carriages. 

Genoa is now in a flonrishing state. 
It is not an e(N)n0mical residence ; ospe- 
daliy with respect to houafl-rent, which 
is high within the city. Villas may be 
hired in tho country, but the rei ' 
are by no means moderate i tlie be 
winter situations for invuhda are about 
Nervi and Kecco, the deelrritii 
the Apennines along the Biriera di 
iBVBole being muchleaa ciposed t- *'-- 
"*i nortlwrlj winds from the n 
■ '*' 'n the opposite diroctio- 



\ dilllcult to hire lodging* here, ex- j 
[■pt by the year. Signor Noli, who live* 1 
ear tlie post-oHioe, is a good house- 
agent. Provisions are abundant. Beefi 
poultry, and flsh are good, but of tbo ' 

tar there is only a scanty supply ^ 

tliat tlicre is some truth in the old 
vituperative Tuscan proverb, which sa; « 
>f Qeuoa, — Sfare jeaio petee, — mow- 
■agite tenia alheri, — HomiiH leazafida, 
— f donne aenza vergogna. The olimstfr 
s fine and tho atmosphere clear, but 
:he winds in winter ore so piercing, the t 
groat caution is needed for stnuigBP-, 
aspeCLslly iuvalida. 

'■ Genoa has a Porto Franoo, whers- i 
gciotis may he warchouaed and re-cx- 
fbi^ free of duty. It is the chictl 
fiittlet on the Mediterranean for the ma- ' 
nufactore^ of Bnitzerland, Lombatd^l 
and Picdmopt ; aud Lombardy recBfvf^i 
many of _^s_in^orted foreign articlfis.-, 
through \ir ,-'rtie harbour, which i«- 
not of great (Titen^ is deep, and pro^ 
tected bj- two-m^es. The width rX ' 
the opening betwe£i)'lho heads of th»> 
moles is ^S yards.* ^e port is eir , 
posed to the south-wost -wind (the Li> 
beeeio), and to the heavy awoll whiok 
foUows gales from that quarter. Th» ' 
opening of the BIy. to Turin and th« , 
liBgo Maggiore, and ultimately acrou < 
the Alps mto Savoy and Switieriand, j 
is likely to mako Genoa one of the Grsti' 
commercial porta in the Mediterraneai^,. 
and a vely dangerous rival to l&VT-- 
seillcs, especially when the judicioiU>' 
plans proposed by the Oovemment for 
the construction of docks, and the CBr 
largement of the accommodation for 
the mercantile marine, by the removd 
of tho naval arsenal to Spmaa, have, 
been carried into effect 

Tho reaidpat population of tha town, 
within the walls, excluding tho garrisoil | 
and seamen, amounts to 105,000. Ma-'. 
nufacturcs of silks, velvets, damasks,] 
thrown silks, paper, eoap, and the ur — ' 
trades of a seaport town, employ m 
of tlio inhabitants. 

The shops are good : the a 
manufacture peouEar to Genoa are gi 
and silver objects, especially f ' 
work, the lhre?-piled ■^e\\(fc, ■»; 



102 



Moute 13. — Genoa — Fort — Lighthouse. 



Sect. II. 



flowers, and coral ornaments. The vel- 
Tet is still an excellent article ; and 
embroidery on cambric and muslin is 
carried to much perfection. Bedsteads 
of ir(m are well made, and, to the great 
comfort of the traveller, are coming very 
much into use. 

The Genoese are laborious, and a 
robust and well-looking people ; but 
the Ligurian character, both physical 
and mental, is very peculiar ; and they 
have yet a strong feeling of nationality. 
GDheir dialect is almost unintelligible 
to a stranger. One national pecu- 
liarity will, it is to be hoped, long re- 
main unaltered — ^the exceedingly simple^* 
graceftd head-dress of the women, 9^1- 
sisting in the higher classes of a mv^lini 
scarf (pezzotto) pinned to "the Mii- 
and falling over the arms and shccalders, 
allowing the beautiful f^psi ai^ hair 
of the wearers to be ^^•ttyt>ugh it ; 
this costimie is genej^ UttAongat the 
higher and middla..clasV during the 
summer, but in, tlfe,t»lder season is 
replaced by thtf J^Vch bonnet. The 
lower ordei^ wear 'a long calico scarf 
printed in mowk^ gaudy colours, called 
Mezzaro^ manufactured in large quan- 
tities about Genoa. 

To the beautiful road of the Biviera 
through which the traveller has passed, 
GJ«noa forms a very worthy termina- 
tion. " I have now seen," says a 
competent observer, "all the most 
beautiful cities of the South, and have 
no hesitation in ranking this after 
I^aples apd Constantinople. But the 
charm of the latter ceases on landing, 
whereas the interior of Genoa does not 
disappoint our expectations. The streets 
indeed are narrow ; but, to say nothing 
of the obvious convenience of this in a 
hot climate, it does not of course pro- 
duce the gloom which it does in our 
northern cities. We too naturally at- 
tach the idea of small mean houses to 
narrow streets, whereas these are lined 
with magnificent palaces. In this re- 
spect, as well as in the massive and 
florid character of these edifices, Genoa 
bears a considerable resemblance to La 
Y&lletta, in Malta} hut in that island 
aJvIuteoturehassomethhigofAn oriental 



cast ; here it has adopted a more festive 
character. " — Hose. 

The port, round which " G^enova la 
Superba" extends, is terminated at 
either extremity by tvro piers, the 
Molo Vecchio and the Molo Nuovo. 
Near the land end of the western pier 
stands the Fanale^ or lighthouse, built 
1547 ; the t^verVi^es out of the rock, 
to the h§^ht*»Qf 247 feet above its 
base, o^ ^5*^t above the level of 
the s^a/,^ tSeveral towers had previ- 
ously, st^d here. The last, called the 
B^Ut^f * or Bridle, was erected in 
i^C& by Louis XII., for the purpose 
^f.«ecuring the authority which he 
Ihad acquired. The lighthouse should 
"be ascended for the extensive view 
which it commands. The arrangement 
of the light is excellent, being on the 
Dioptric or Fresnel principle now so 
generally in use in Great Britain. It 
exhibits a revolving, flashing Ught, and 
in clear weather may be seen from a 
distance of 30 marine miles ; in addi- 
tion to this principal light there is a 
smaller one on the extremity of the E. 
or old mole, and another, a coloured 
one, on the W. or new mole head. 
Close to the foot of the lighthouse is the 
quaranj;ine establishment. On the N. 
side of the harbour is the Darsena 
(dockyard and arsenal), which was 
established in 1276; the first ex- 
penses of the works being furnished 
by the spoils taken by Tomaso Spi- 
nola, in 1276. It now exhibits con- 
siderable activity. A fine dry dock has 
been added to it, capable of admitt- 
ing the longest steam or line-of-battle 
ship ; it was constructed by Col. Sauli, 
an eminent engineer officer, at an ex- 
pense of 2,725,000 fr., and as a work of 
engineering would do honour to any 
coimtry. Here also is the Bagne, or 
prison for the convicts, who are still 
called galley-slaves, although galleys no 
longer exist. They, now 800 in num- 
ber, are employed, in gangs, in the 
public works in different parts of the 
city, and are dressed in red clothes 
and caps. The caps of those who 
have committed murders have a band 
of black, wlaWe t\iOfte -wVioa© cw^^ \mk^«> 



iRTffitil. Eouts 13. —Genoa- 
It yellow one hme been condemned 
for theft or otliar erimBe. The great 
m^'orit; of llie flrat come from the 
ialand of aordinia. It ia the custom, if 
tbey behnre well, to pardon them at the 
cipiration of ludf tliair flenteneo. 

The Bmall but respBofnble Jfa ^ 
Sardmia is ou tlio English model, and 
is as superior in pfficiencj to tlial of 
any other Power, except France, 
the shores of the Mcditerranenii, as the 
Oenoeee sailurs are to all other Italiim: 
Toimg mcu of family are much mi 
oouraged to enter the service- 

Tlie Por(o Fratwo, which is oo th 
E. Bide of the harbonr, near the end 
of the Molo Vecchio, is a collectiou of 
bonded wareliouaoB, aurrouuded by high 
trails, and with gates tovrnrds the Bea 
and the eity : the most recent portions 
were built in 1643. It contains 355 
wiirehous«s, which are £lled with goods. 
According to ancient regulations, en- 
trance is forbidden (except by special 
permission) to the niilitarT, tlie priest- 
hood, and womankind ; all these beiug, 
as it would seem, oqudly liable to aus- 
pioion. Tlio Porta Franco is under 
Uie management of the Chamber of 
Commerce. The Facehini, or porters 
employed in the Porto Franco, form a 
privileged corporation. There are two 
elaasca, the Facckiai Si CanJldBjita, who 
are employed in the interior of the 
warohouaea, and fbe Faechiai di Cara- 
ouno, who cany out the goods. Thi 
latter were formerly BergamatcM, and 
the calling hereditary in their &nii]iee. 
They enjoyed an eioluaive privil^e 
since 1340. They were recruited, not 
from Bergamo itaelf, but &om oertain 
towns in the Val Brembana, to the N. 
of it. They sold their privileges to their 
feUow-countrjmen at high prices. Of 
late years this system has fallen into 
disuse, and the porters arc now re- 
cruited from the Genoese. 

Close to the Porto Franco is the 
Dogaua (oustom-honae), and&om this 
to the Darsena, along the quay of tlie 
port, extends the new portico, con- 
■truct»dinl839,underwhioh are shops; 
■ *""" ■ 'e on whieh is an agree- 



Franco — Fortifications. 



lOS* 



hai"bour. The braTieh E.ly. from the 
principal atalien to the Forto&auco 
runs idong the line of these areades. 

The city has been repeatedly in* 
creased in size, and its walls as oilaa 
enlarged. It is said that some tracei 
of the BiOmau walls are disceroiblB^ 
The first modem fortiBeations wers 
erected iu 035, extending Irom tha 
Fort of S. Giorgio above the modern 
BIy. station to San Andrea. In 1155 
the Genoese raised another circuit, j 
for the purpose of resisting the threat' 
ened attacks of Frederick Barbarossa, 
Some of the gates are yet standing, i 
Such is the Porta Vacca, or Comgati, 
near the Darsena, a fine and lofty arch, 
between two towers. Above arc pen- 
dent hugelinlcs of the chain that closed 
the Porto Piaano, carried off by the 
Genoese as a trophy of the great naval 
victory which they gained over their , 
commeroiai and political rivals. 

Another ciromt was begun in 1827, j 
In this many of the previous suburb* ' 
were included. It is in the semi- 
modern style of fortification, hut very . 
strong. The ramparts afford vei; 
agreeable promenades, and are con- 
nected on the F. with a public garden, ' 
called the Acqva Sola, which affords ' 
a dehghtful walk. The loat pi^rtionl ' 
of this a«cond line of fortiScationl, lia 
CaateUtto, which only served to over- | 
awe the town, or was conaidered in | 
that light by the popular party ia 1849, I 
hasbcendeBtroyed, and the site covered < 
with tall dwelling.houses ; as well aa the 
Porta di San Giorgio, above the Fiasza 
dell' Acqua Torde, to make room for 
the "Sly. station. 

The third circuit, at a considerable 
distance from the second, eneiroles all 
the heights that immediately command 
the town and harbour : planned in 
1627, it was begun in 1630, and com- 
pleted in 1632, and forma an immonfle 
triangle, having the harbour for it« 
base, and the great fort of the SperoiW 
for its apex : the oirouit occupies an 
extent of several miles, and is stwof^. 
oned at ^fflere\A wroAa ^s^ *^OT 
■works in tlia [oim ^ tarts, Vniiia. 
mlirid the approaches Vo '" 



104 



Route 13. — Genoa — Fortifications, 



Sect. II. 



tlie valleys of the Bisagno and Polce- 
vera ; the principal of these forts are 
the redouhts of La Lantema and S. 
Benigno on the W., commanding the 
entrances on the side of Turin and 
Nice, the Tenaglia, the valley of the 
Polcevera higher up ; the forts of il Be- 
goto and la Specola^ near the summit 
of the triangle, which are of recent con- 
struction ; and the great citadel of il 
Sperone^ which, from a height of 1650 
ft., completely commands the fcown and 
harbour. In addition to these forts 
on the line of the wall which sur- 
rounds Genoa, an extensive system of 
detached redoubts has been added on 
every peak from which the city or its 
defences can possibly be threatened; 
to the N. are the forts of the Dia- 
mante i Fratelli and IPuino, which 
form such picturesque objects as seen 
by the traveller descending the Apen- 
nines from the Pass of i Giove, and 
on the E. of the valley of the Bisagno 
Forts Kichelieu and Tecla — ^in fact, 
the mihtary works round Genoa 
constitute at present the largest town 
fortifications in Europe, those of Paris 
excepted; since 1815 they have been 
greatly strengthened ; and should the 
city again sustain a siege, it will be on 
these lines its principal defence must 
depend ; but so large must be the at- 
tacking force, that, with the approaches 
by sea open, Genoa may be now con- 
sidered impregnable, a rigorous and 
long'continued blockade by sea and land 
being alone capable of reducing it. 

The fortifications in the first instance 
were erected to protect the city against 
the present dynasty, when the Sallo- 
Sardinian army, under Carlo Emanuele 
Duke of Savoy, threatened the very 
existence of the B>epublic; and they 
were, in great measure, raised by vo- 
luntary contributions and voluntary 
labour. Upwards of 10,000 of the in- 
habitants worked upon them, without 
receiving either provisions or pay. All 
the citizens contributed individually, 
besides the donations made by the 
diflferent trades, pubhc bodies, and cor- 
pomtionB. One Carmelite feiaT raised 
JOO,00O lire by coUectiona after his 



sermons. Within these walls Massena 
sustained the famous siege of 1800. 
The city was invested on the land-side 
by the Austrian troops, the British fleet, 
under Lord Keith, blockading the port. 
Massena was at length starved out, and 
he evacuated the city on the 4th of 
Jime 1800, after a blockade of 60 days, 
during which the garrison, and. still 
"more the inhabitants, suffered the 
greatest misery from famine. Of the 
7000 troops under Massena, only 2000 
were fit for service when they surren- 
dered. The number of the inhabitants 
who died of the famine, or of disease 
produced by it, exceeded 15,000. The 
present garrison amounts to 700O 
men, but treble that niunber would 
be necessary to man its works, in the 
event of a siege by any great conti- 
nental power. 

An interesting excursion maybe made 
by the pedestrian round the fortifica- 
tions, following the road on the inner 
side, from the Porta della Lantema to 
the Porta delle Chiappe, during which 
he will enjoy some of the finest pros- 
pects over the town and harbour ; 
emerging from the latter gate, a walk 
of little more than an hour will enable 
him to reach by a good road the Dia- 
mante and the fort of il Fratello Mag- 
giore, from both of which the views 
over the encircling valleys of the Polce- 
vera and Bisagno are splendid, with 
that of the whole line of sea-coast, from 
the rugged promontory of Portofino 
on the E. to the Capo delle Melle on 
the W., lined by the towns of Sestri, 
Voltri, Savona, &c., and the high 
mountains of Corsica on the extreme 
southern horizon. No one can enter 
the forts without an order from the 
military authorities. 

Genoa is, like Bath, very up and 
down. Many parts of the city are 
inaccessible to wheel-carriages ; nor 
are the smaller vicoli convenient for 
foot-passengers. Through these the! 
trains of mules, with their bells and 
trappings, add to the busy throng. 
In the older parts of the town the 
houses have an appearance of antique 
solidity, wYnVst t\\o^e Vn. \>aft Tawc^ xaa- 



Hade IS.— fiwtoa — Peioxxo BrigMie Jtosac. 



dem streets, the Sti-ada Nuoca, til' 
Slrada ffKOviniima, the Slrada BalU, 
the Strada Carlo Felice, fmifbe Strada 
Carlo Alberto, ore all diEtinptislied for 
their mnenitudu ; and the first, iii the 
Slrada ifvoea, for their unpardleled 
Bplendonr. 

" Genoa inoj justly be proud of her 
palaces : if ;ou n-alk along ilie three 
continuous atrceta of Balbi, Niioti~ 
sima, and Nuora, looking into t] 
courts aud Btoircsaes on eaeh hand aa 
jou proceed, jou maj indeed 
yourself in a eity of kiutts. The umal 
dUpoaition eihihlta a largo hall i 
port«d partly on columTis leading 
court aurraunded try arcadea, the arches 
of which likewise ireat apon columns. 
Sometimes, on one side of the street, 
these courts are on a level with the ex- 
ternal payemeot ; while on the other 
llie rapid rise of the ground is com 
pensated by a flight of marble step! 
Efwond this court is tbe (treat stflircose 
rising on eiwh band, and further still is 
frequently a small garden, shaded mitli 
oranges ; so far the composition is ad- 
mirablE. It is inrnriably open to public 
Tiew i and the long porspectiTO of haUs, 
cour^, oolunins, anihee, and flights of 
steps, produces a most magnifleoni 
effect ; and this is still further en^ 
hanced when the splendour of the 
ninrble is contrasted with the dork 
shades of the orange-groves. But the 
chief merit of tlie buildings lies in 
tliese parts. There are inlerually flue 
apartments, but by no means oft 
nificence correspoudiug to that of the 
entrance. The other streets of Genoa 
are mostly narrow and dark : but even 
here soma noble edifices are fouud."^ — 
Wooih. 

The objects moal worthy of the at- 
tention of the passing traveller who 
has but little time to devot* to Genoa 
are— the Strade Nuova, Huovissima, 
Balbi, and Carlo Felice 1 the Piaiza delie 
Fontano Amorose; the Briguole, Serni, 
Balbi, Reole, and del Principe Palaces 
and Galleries ; the CathednO and the 
Stnda degti OreGci ; the ohurehes of 
" ' ibrogio, Carigmmo, and San Mat- 
Mort of these may be visited in 



vA 



Ihe course of one day, indeed hetwi-ea < 
the arrival of the steamer in the morn- 
ing and its depnrture in the altemoon. 
The Strada Noma was built in lesS, 
on ground purchased by the republic, 
Tliis street, tbe most splendid in this 
City at Pai^oks, contains on entering^ 
&om the W. on the L or f(. side tb« 
Briguole, Doris Tursi, Spinola, Lercari- 
Imperialo, and Cambiaao palaces, and , 
on the rt. Durazio, Brignole Sale ol , 
Kosao, Serra, Adomo, Doris (Giorgio) „ 
Cattaneo, and Gomborn. Of those, aJl \ 
except two ore by Alessio. 

Just at the entrance of the Strada 
Niiora, but in tbe Slrada JfiKWu- 
eima, is the Fatatso Brig-Mile (now- , 
DurszEo), the vestibule of which is 
decorated with modem arabesques tv& 
frescoes : the portal is supportal by tv«k 
gigantic Terms. In this palace is pre- 
served one of the most eitensivc col- 
lections ofrora engmvingsin Italy, saidi.' ' 
to exceed 50,000 in number, 

Palaxzo Brignole Sale, albo called tho- ' 
Falaiio Soiio, from the outaide being- 
painted red, is in the Strada Nuova, No~ , 
63 ; its front is very extensive, and, wera 
lot for its colour, the architectura 
lid appear to advantsge. The opart- 
its on the second floor contain th& 
it Bitensive collect ion of piotures in , 



baU B 



e the n 



K 



markable, following tbe order in which, 
the visitor is generally shonn over th^ 
rooms. Very fiill hand-catalogues are to. 
bo found in each, as is generally th«i 
case in ail the Genoese polacBs contain- 
ing coUeefJona of pictures, and whicU 
are most liberally tlirovn open to thei 
stranger from 10 A.u. untU 3 p.ic. — 
First Boom. Sola delle Arti Liberali- ' 
A kind of ante-room contAining oopies- 
of p>rtrai<B of Doges of the Brignolei 
iimnly ; tlie frescoes on the root by 
OirloHe.—U. Salone delta TUa deW 
Ubmo. Faolo VeroiKae, a portrait of i 
a Woman holding a fan ; A. SaccM, 
DtedaluB and Icarus; Gvereino, tha ' 
Almighty looking on a Globe ; Ana. 1 
Caraca, Christ bearing the Crossj J 
Carlo Dolce, Christ a^ieatm^ 'BVxA'i ' 
Vaitdyze, a ■bea.ultiM. WtW^Oa-^fii^ 
troit of Jerooima "BTigwAeSiAa vu^'SM 



106 



Tioute 13. — Genoa — Palazzo Municipale, 



Sect. II. 



Daughter, and another hy the same 
painter of a handsome young Man in 
a Spanish costume : both are beautiful 
specimens of Vandyke's finest style. — 
III. Sala delV Jnverno. JPlohiy a Holy 
Family ; Sirozzi or II Cappuccino^ a Ma- 
donna and Child ; Carlo Marratta^ the 
Flight into Egypt ; F. Barroccio, the 
Virgin and St. Catherine ; Domenichino, 
San Rocco in a Scene of the Plague ; 
P. Veronese^ Judith holding the Head 
of Holofemes just cut off — a disagree- 
.able picture, without expression on the 
face of the murderess; Piola, Sant' 
Orsola; Frocaccinif the Virgin, Child, 
St. John, Joseph, and Elizabeth : a good 
picture ; Spagnoletto, a Philosopher ; 
li. da Vinci, more probably by Luini, 
St. John the Baptist ; Mubens, a good 
male portrait, very like Vandyke in 
slyle. — IV. Sala cf Autunno. Oior- 
ffione, an excellent portrait of Doctor 
Franciscus Philetus (Fileto) ; &uido, 
half-figure of S. Marco; Tintoretto, 
male portrait; Bonifazio Veneziano, 
the Adoration of the Magi, a fine spe- 
cimen of the master — it has by some 
been attributed to Palma Vecchio; 
GnidOf 2 heads of Our Saviour and the 
Virgin; Gueboino, Madonna, Infant 
Christ, St. John the Baptist and Evan- 
gelist, and St. Bartholomew — a fine pic- 
ture of Guercino*s richest colouring ; 
Andrea del Sarto, Virgin and Child, a 
replica, similar to that in Lord West- 
minster's gallery ; iMca Camhiaso, a 
dead Christ : II Cappuccino (B. Strozzi), 
Christ on the Cross, with St. Francis 
in Adoration before it. The frescoes 
in this saloon are cliiefly by Piola. — 
V. Sala di JEstate. M, A. Caravaggio, 
the Resurrection of Lazarus ; Quido, 
St. Sebastian : Lanfranco, Christ bearing 
the Cross ; Luca Giordano, Olinda and 
Sophronia, the same subject as that of 
the picture at the Palazzo Eeale (p.l02), 
but inferior to the latter ; Chiercino (?), 
the Suicide of Cato ; P. Veronese, a 
spirited sketch for his large picture of 
the Adoration of the Shepherds ; Luca 
di Olanda, portrait of a middle-aged 
Man with a long beard ; Gueecino, 
Christ expelling the Merchants from the 
Temple — a£ne composition, two of the 



female figures in the foreground on the 
right particularly ; Procaccini, a Holy 
Family with St. Thomas ; lAica di 
Olanda (or L. da Leida, as he is 
generally called by the ItaHans), St. 
Jerome.— VI. Sala delta Primavera. 
Vandyke, a fine portrait of a Prince 
of Orange ; id., a portrait of Antonio 
Brignole Sale on horseback; id., a 
full-length portrait of the Marchesa 
Paolina Adomo-Brignole — the two 
latter are amongst the finest works 
of Vandyke at Genoa, where so many 
of his best portraits exist ; Scipione 
Qaetani, portrait of a Cardinal ; Tin- 
toretto, good portrait of a Warrior ; 
Moretto da Brescia, portrait of a 
Botanist; Titian, portrait of Philip II. ; 
Vandyke, Our Saviour on the Cross ; 
Paris Bordone, portraits of a Venetian 
Lady and Gentleman ; Francia, a small 
male portrait ; CHov. Bellini, id. The 
four Halls of the Seasons through 
which we have passed are decorated 
with frescoes allusive to the names 
they bear, by Piola, de Ferrari, Haffher, 
Canzio, &c. — VIII. Salone or Sala 
Ghrande, a magnificent square hall, the 
roof decorated with the armorial bear- 
ings of the Brignoles and the aristo- 
cratic famiHes of G^noa with whom 
they have formed aUiances, and with 
frescoes by de Ferrari and Canzio. Over 
the doors are 6 pictures representing 
events in the life of Abraham and Lot, 
by the priest Ghuidohono da Savona, and 
a large composition by Domenico Piola, 
called the Chariot of the Sun. On one 
of the consoles stands a large model in 
white marble and bronze of a monu- 
ment to Columbus, executed at the ex- 
pense of the Marquis Brignole. 

Palazzo Doria Tursi, in the Strada 
Nuova, now occupied by the Muni- 
cipahty of Genoa; it formerly belonged 
to the Queen Dowager of Sardinia, who 
bequeathed it to the Jesuits, by whom 
it was occupied until their expulsion. 
The facade is grand, and is flanked 
by terraced gardens. The architect 
was Rocca Lurago, of Como, who 
built it for Nicolo Grimaldi, from 
whom it passed to one of the Doria 
family, created Duke of Tursi. In the 



^j 



•iMA. Smitt 1%— ^^nM — ftriS»o»»— S»r» — Spinoiti. 



wS 



lower cortile are Bome Tery mGdiocpe 
feifflDoes relstire to the Tisit to Genoa 
of Don Jolin of AuBtris, removed 
fi-om fhe Duoal Palace. Ou the Sret 
floor in tlie ante-room ot the 
where the town council aasBmblee, is 
a luarbld pedestal, on which stands 
a bust of Oolumbua, and in a rec 
under it a box containing nomo in( 
eating MSS. of that great naTJgati 
espeoiaUj 3 aufograpli lattera, one 
theBink of St. George transmit ting hie 
will (1503), by whioh he bequeathed 
oae-t«ath of all lie posseaaed to that 
estabUahment and an authenticated 
copy of alJ the doeumBnta connectod 
with the hooouTB conferred upon him 
bj tha Kings of Spain ; a sBoond 
letter on the same subject j and the 
third to Oderigo, the G^oese agent in 
Spain, complaining tliat the baot had 
iiever ocknowladged the receipt of the 
will. It may not bo out of place to 
state that no trace of the will has been 
diacOTered amongst the records of the 
£anco di S- Qiorgio, and that tbe 
only record of the last wiahes of IJie 
discoverer of the new world is a copy 
is the arcliives cpf his SpKiish de- 
eeendant, the Duke di Teragiias, at 
Madrid. These prccioiis M8S. were 
diacofered among the papers of the 
Catnbiaao family some years since, hav- 
ing been Gnudulenlly obtained from 
tbo arohiTCfl of S. Giorgio, a too com- 
mon practice oflateyearsinltaly; they 
arc now preaarred under triple loot 
and key. In anotJier room of the Mu- 
niotpshty are a few good Batch pic- 
tures, formerly in the duoal palace ; 
one' by Albert Durer, another by 3fa- 
liHte, and a third probably by Vaa 
Egek ! as they are in the apartments of 
tlie Mayor (aindaco), they cou only be 
seen wlicn his v>OFship has lofl hia oillce. 
Here is kept one of tlie most re- 
markable monuments of the history 
of Genoa ^ a hronse table, contain- 
ing the award made A. v. o. 633, by 
QuuttuB Marous Minutius and Q. F. 
RufiiB, between the Ovaufnm and the 
TilHrii, supposed to be the inhahit- 
anta of Langaaco and Yoltaggio, in tlie 
upper vaSej of tlie Polatyei-a, who had 
fiaw) dispating about the eitco t of their 



respective larritories, nnd hod peti- 
tioned the Sciintc in an appeal froai . 
the jiirifldiotion of the local Genoese . 
authorities. This boundary qnestioii 
was most carefiilly investigated i the 
landmarks are set outwilh great minute- 
ness, and clauses ars inserted respect* 
ing rights of conunon and commut»> * 
tion rents, with as much accuracy aa J 
we should now find iu an Inolosuro ' 
BilL The tabb was discovpredm 1506 
by a peasant wlien digging hia land at \ 
Isoseoco, near Podomonte, 6 m. from ] 
Genoa. He brought it to Genoa fo» ' 
the purpose of selling it as old metal f * 
but the matter coming to the know- '. 
ledge of the senate, they purchased it '1 
for the commonwealth. 

Pataeia Serra, Strada Nuova, No. I 
4fl, by AlcBBio. The entrance, which il 
modemiacd, is rioiily decorated ; and 
Semmi and QaleotH, Gi>no»B artists, 
painted the ceilings, lie., of the prin- 
cipal rooms. The aaloon is portiour 
larly ricli : the gilding, said to baT» , 
cost a inilUon of franca, the white , 
marble bas-reliefe, the caryatides, the • 
mirrors, the moaaic pavement, procured 
for thia palaee its name of tlie PalazxO' 
delSolc. The entresol liBi been recently 
fitted up by a member ot the &milj, 
in a style of richness and mag;nificenoa 
seldom to be met witli, even in the 
dweUings of royalty. • 

Falasto Adomo contains some gooci ' 
frescoes by Tacerom, of subjects from, * 
Genoese histoiy. . 

Falasia Spinola (Fordinando), for- 
merly Palazzo Orimaldi, Strada Nuoya, 
Ko. 44, opposite file last, a large and 
ilue building, with good pictures. The 
HALt. — Frcaeoes by Bemimi s a, man 
on horseback by Vandyie. FiMT 
-Saloon, — Two fine portraits by Andrea 
del Sarloi a remarkable portrait of ■ 
Philoaoplier in a black dress, by Sebsu- 
fiaaa del Pionlo : a finely preserved 
and beautifijlly painted circular pio- . 
' reof the Virgin and Child, by jSenw- 1 

mi ; a Yeuus, by TiMait; end a find J 
head, by Vandyke. Tflian Salooh.— 1 
A Cruoiftiion bj Vondglca •, » "SjA^J 
Family, Glan. Bellini, ; to^ >Ooft fnmS 
subject, -wit^i two SauAaiVj Lmvio,. 

Polaiio Lercnro IiftpeT"ial.e, ' -"■ 



k^ 



108 



Route 13. — Genoa — Palaces — Pictures, 



Sect. II, 



ing facade, opening into a handsome 
cortile. The first floor is now occupied 
by the club or Casino, ■where strangers 
remaining at Genoa for some time can 
easily obtain admittance. 

The Palazzo Spinola (GHov, Batt.) ; 
containing the following pictures: — 
CartonCf ^neas and the Cumeean Sibyl; 
Vandyke^ Madonna and Child; Le 
Sueur^ Joseph before Pharaoh ; &uido, 
St. Sebastian ; Ghtercino^ Madonna and 
Child sleeping ; Domeruchino^ the Fa- 
mily of Tobias; Borgognoney Holy 
Family, and Abraham's Sacrifice ; Bos- 
sano, the Marriage of Cana ; JParmeg- 
gianOy the Adoration of the Kings ; 
ChiidOy the Flight into Egypt ; Ann. 
Caracci, a Woman and Child, and a 
Woman with two Men ; JLuca Oior- 
danOy the Woman of Samaria. 

Palazzo Doria (Giorgio), Strada 
Nuoya, contains a fine full-length por- 
trait of a Lady of this noble house, by 
Vandyke ; and a remarkably fine one of 
a Duchess of Sforza Cesarini, by Leo- 
nardo da Vinci. 

The Strada Nuova opens into an 
irregular open space, called the Piazza 
delle Fontane AmorosCy containing some 
fine buildings, of which the principal 
are the 

Palazzo Negroniy No. 24, a wide- 
spreading and noble front ; there are 
here some good pictures — ^Tarquin and 
Lucretia, by Ghtercino; and some in- 
teresting frescoes, relating to the deeds 
of the Negroni family, by Parodi. 
Next to it is the P. PaUiavicini with its 
painted fa9ade ; and close to the latter, 
forming the entrance to the Strada 
Nuova, the handsome P. Camliaso with 
its marble front. 

Palazzo Spinola dei Marmiy Piazza 
delle Fontane Amoroso, an edifice 
of the 15th century, built of alternate 
courses of white and black marble; 
in front are four niches containing full- 
length statues of members of the family 
with inscriptions in Gothic characters 
beneath. This palace is said to have 
been built from the materials of that 
of the Fieschi, near Santa Maria in Via 
Lata, pulled down by order of the 
Senate after their Conspiracy in 1336. 
Jt contains some of the earliest frescoes 



of CdmbiasOy in pai'ticular the Combat 
of the Titans, which he executed at 
eighteen years of age. 

The Strada Carlo FeUcCy wliich eon* 
nects the Piazza delle Fontane Amorose 
with the Piazza Carlo Felice, is of re* 
cent date and has less architectural 
splendour than the Strada ZJiTuova : it 
is broad and regular, and is chiefly oc- 
cupied by shops. 

Palazzo Pallaviciniy Strada Carlo 
Felice, No. 12. The name of Palla- 
vacini, one of the most ancient in Genoa, 
has by some been derived from Pela 
vicrno, or " strip my neighbour," but 
without any foundation, the appellation 
being derived from the district of the 
same name, the Stato PallavieinOy situ* 
ated near the Po, between Parma and 
Cremona (see p. 404). A member of 
this family acted in England in con- 
formity to the supposed signification 
of his patronyme. This was 



Sir Horatio I^alvaaene, 



Who robb'd the Pope to pay the Queen." 

He was receiver and banker of the 
court of Home during the reign of 
Mary; and having a good balance in 
his hands at the accession of Elizabeth, 
could not then reconcile himself to the 
iniquity of letting so much money go 
out of the country to be employed 
against his new sovereign. He built 
Babraham in Cambridgeshire, and be- 
came afterwards allied by marriage with 
the Cromwells. The palace contains 
a collection of pictures, many of which 
are of great merit. The collection may 
be considered the second in Genoa. 
As there are no hand-catalogues, and 
as the person who shows strangers over 
the apartments is little versed in the 
history of the paintings, we shall enter 
into greater details in describing the 
Pallavacini gallery than would have 
been otherwise necessary. — I. Sai.a or 
Gallery. Chiercinoy an Ecce Homo ; 
F. Siraniy Santa Csecilia ; Bretighel, a 
Flower Garden; Alianiy a Magdalen 
and Our Saviour. — II. Sala della 
Cahmina. a. del Sarto, Adoration of 
the Magi ; B, Strozzi or 11 CappuccMO, 
Sta. Caterina ; Luca GiordanOy a large 
picture of a Holy Family ; Luca di 



Boats 13, — Gmiea — Palaces — Picturtg. 



Olanda, d curious jiicturo repreaenting 
the Cnicifiiion, with the family of tha 
Donatario kneeling below. — III. Siti 
BBt CtBDiNAi^, from a portrait of a 
Cardinal of the FaUaTUcini fuuil; over 
the chltnne^ ; Ijoch di Olanda, Ma- 
domia and Child, with the Donatarii in 
the lateral oompartmenta ; Franeei- 
chim, Diana ; Luca di Olaiida, a dead 
Christ; ^Wani(7),DianaintlieBatli: 
in the passage leading from this to the 
imt room ia a good picture of Ma- 
donna and Saints attributed to A. del 

SartO. — IT. SilOSE DI LBViSTB. 
Subeiu, the Angel hherating St. Feter ; 
RomaneiU, a Terr pretty Mttgdalenei 
ScAidoM, a good ^^onna and Child ; 
II CapjHutciiui, i.n Adoloraia ! Fraaeet- 
chini, the Aacension of St. Mary Mag- 
dalen ; Ovido, Christ on the Cross, 
with St. Franeia; IlAPHABt(?), the 
Madonna detla Colonita, so called 
from the colimin introduced in the 
picture— somewhat injured by resto- 
mtiona, still it is a lovely picture : the 
central portion, containing the Virj^iii 
and Child, appears to form ii aepiU-iile 
JMOCO from the rest, the oroater psrt of 
the oolamn bebg on what apiiears a 
part subsequently added. It is very 
donbtful that Itaphaelpainted this pic- 
ture. QtierdBO, St. Jerome j A. Ca- 






no. — v. SiLoNB DEL DlTiso. lan- 
dyke, Hre circolBr &mily portraits, four 
of females, all very One paintings- — 
TI. SuLOS-i DI COSTEEiAZIOHB. Cai- 
tiglioHe, a largo picture of Puu and 
Animab. Vasdtkk, the beautiftd. pic- 
ture known by the name of Corioianus 
and Yeturia, generally considered to 
represent James I. of England, his 
vitle and children. The costumes are 
quite Hispano-Dutoh of the 17th cent. ; 
the portraits of tlie females lovely. 
Ghterciso, octagonal picture of Music; 
Zwia Catubiruo, Venus and Cupid; 



FoNBMlt. Oiierdno, Mutins Scievola 
before Porsennu ; jAiea di Otanda, De- 
scent from the Cross, with portraits of 
the Dotiutorio and family in the latsral 



compartments, the men on the 1. and 
the females on the it. ; Spaffnoletta, 
the Woman taVcn in Adultery ; jFVait- 
cescMni, Bathsheba in the Bath, H 
good painting ; Ann. Caracei, a pretty 
small Magdalen on copper ; fandyke^ 
portrait of one of the Pallnvaeinis; 
Saasaso, two pictures oE Cattle and 

The beautiful Villa FaUuticinl at 
PegU (see p. 89) belongs to the owner 
of this palace, one of the most wealthy 
of the Elonoose ariatocraof, whem orders 
to visit it may be obtained. 

The Slrada Balbi, which forma k 
continuation of tha Piazza delV AnnuK- 
ziala, derives its name from the uoble 
family by whom some of its pnlaL-ea 
were built, tlie principal of wliieh are 
—on the rt. side, P. Durasco della 
SoalaanA P. Balbi, now the Dniversity ( 
and on the L another F. Bathi, which 
was once the Duraizo Palace, but which, 
having be^n sold to the government, 
now forms the residence of the sove- 
reign, under the name of i's/nim £eab. 

Palaizo Balbi, a Cno palace built in 
tlie early part of the ITth century from 
the designs of Bartolommeo Bianco. 
The court is sm-roundcd by 3 tiers ol 
porticoes, the uppermost of which 
forms part of the fanuly a]iBrtmentB, 
being enclosed with glass. This suite 
of rooms is very richly decoratetl, and, 
biiing at all times open to the stranger, 
will give him a good idea of the dwell- 
ings of the wealthy Genoese aristo- 
cracy ; the vaulted ceilings are highly 
ornamented and painted by iiativc 
artists. The rooms contain a vciy 
good collection of pictures, many of 
which arc first-rate ; indeed the Balbi 
gallery may be considered the third iu 
importance in Gvnoa. 

The first room entered from the 
is the 

cent square room. — Vandi/ke, sn eques- 
trian portrait, very fine ; Beitiadiao 
Stroizi, or H Cappueciiui, Joseph in^ 
terpreting the chief Butler'i dream — 
one of the artist's best works — he was 
a Qenoese Capuchhi friar, and in & 
jj;reat measure self-taught. 

3NII Boon.— Ci. Qiiido,\i>i.cte\J».\ 1«J 



110 



Itoute 13. — Genoa — Palaces — Pictures, 



Sect. II. 



Albauif a Bacchanalian scene ; Ann. 
Caracdi Sta. Caterina — very pretty 
picture; A^. Caracci, a Martyr; 18. 
MatUe^naj Madonna and Child; 19. 
IGchel AngelOy Our Saviour and the 
Apostles — more than doubtful — called 
by some Christ's Agony in the Garden, 
said to be designed by M. Angelo, and 
finished by Seb. del Piombo ; 20. Van- 
dyke, A Holy Family. 

3ed Boom. — 23. Vandyke, fine fe- 
male portrait ; 24. id. equestrian por- 
trait of Paolo Balbi the senator, to 
which was subsequently added by Ye- 
lasquez the head of PhHip II. of Spain, 
to save it from destruction when Balbi 
was disgracedand banished from Genoa; 
25. lAikca Cambiaso, family portrait. 

4th Room. — 31. Michel Angelo 
CaravaggiOj Conversion of St. Paul ; 
32. lyuca di Olanda, a Holy Family ; 
Chiido, St. Jerome ; Ann. Caracci, 
a Magdalen. 

6th Room, Lihrary. — 39. Gruido, 
Andromeda ; 41. Chuercino, Cleopa- 
tra ; 45. Bassano, a large picture of 
a Market. 

6th Room, Gallery. — ^Although this 
beautiful room contains nearly as many 
paintings as all the others united, none 
are very remarkable ; Spagnoletto, two 
pictures called the Philosopher and 
Mathematician ; Tintoretto, a fine male 
portrait ; Fierino del Vaga, Madonna 
and Child ; 73. Vandyke, A Holy Fa- 
mily ; 75. Vandyke, Portrait of a Spa- 
nish Gentleman on horseback ; 76. 
Breughel, The Temptation of St. An- 
thony — a singular composition ; 82. 
Hemling, Our Saviour on the Cross; 
85. Garqfalo, A Holy Family ;• 87. 
Mlippo Lippi, The Commimion of St. 
Jerome; Otiido, a Magdalene; Paolo 
Veronese, Portrait of a Venetian Boge. 

jpalazzo Reale. Formerly belonging 
to the Burazzo family, was purchased 
by the king in 1815, and splendidly 
fitted up by Charles Albert in 1842, as 
a royal residence. The front is nearly 
300 feet m length ; it was built from 
the designs of &. A. Falcone and P. F. 
Gantone. It contained a fine collection 
of pictures, the greater part of which 
have been removed to the Royal Gal- 
lery at Turin. The fine portraits of 



the Burazzo family, and the other pic- 
tures relative to that noble house, by 
Piola and Barloletto, are however stiU 
at Genoa in possession of their de- 
scendants. The P. Reale is open to 
strangers every day except during the 
occasional visits of the court. 

Entering from the great staircase on 
the second floor, the 1st room has 2 
large Marinas by Burrasca ; the 2nd, 
called the Salotto della Pa^se, a Carita 
Romana by Carloni ; the 3rd, the 
Salotto di Paolo, contains an ancient 
copy of the fine picture which is now in 
the gallery of Turin, by Paul Veronese, 
representing the Feast of Our Lord in 
the house of the Pharisee, with the 
Magdalene at his feet. Opening out 
of this room is the Gran Gallema, 
painted by Parodi : there are some indif- 
ferent antique statues, busts of Apollo, 
Venus, Bacchus, &c., but all much 
made up : 2 modem ones of Flora and 
Zephyr by Filippo Barodi, and a group 
of the Rape of Proserpine by Schiaffone, 
Recrossing the Salotto di Paolo, we 
enter the Piccola Galleeia, forming 
a passage to what formerly was called 
the Salone di Giordano, but which is 
now the Thbonb Room, newly and 
magnificently decorated and containing 
the 2 celebrated pictures by Jjuca GHor- 
dano, of Olinda and Sophronia, and the 
Transformation of Phineas by Perseus. 
Next to this is the king's Audience 
Boom, having only some indifierent 
modem pictures and tapestry ; copies 
of St. Peter and St. Paul by Fra Bar- 
tolommeo: followed by the bed-room 
and study of the unfortunate king 
Carlo Alberto, the floors formed of 
very handsome inlaid work in coloured 
woods. In the Sala delta Cappella there 
is aLast Supper hjBonnano diFerrara; 
San Bernardo by Spagnoletto ; San 
Antonio by Ann. Caracci; a Bead Man 
by Monthorst ; a Sibilla Cimiflea by 
Awn. Caracci. In the Salone di Tapis- 
seria are some very old Gobelins and 
several portraits of kings of the House 
of Savoy, which replace those of the 
Burazzo family that once stood in 
these spaces, and which were not alien- 
ated with the palace. Salotta di 
AuEOBA contains a Crucifixion and a 



Itoale l2.—Gi>.ioa—I\iIaces-^PKlui 



lU 



portrait of Caterina Diirazzo, aai 
be by fandi/te; 2 pielurea of Bajnl 
It Cappuccino, 4b. : thia room opei 
Uie beautiful terraoe oTerlookuig tlie 
harbour, from which the view i 
interesting. At tlie oppoeita side of 
thia tBTruce is a room tailed tha Sa- 

I.OTTA BEL TBMEO, corrpsponilillg witll 
the S, di Aurora, in which there 
good ModoQUDi and Child ivith St. 
John by S. Piola; a doubtful pot- 
tmits bj Tititortftlo ; 2 battlB'piecaa 
by Borgognona : and Be»erai pictures 
witli animals by il OrecAetto: tho Wo- 
man taken in Adultery by Moretlo da 
Brtieia ; a protended head by TUias, 
&u. 'Sheiaoi&ji SaIU-&-i>ta>iger,Tievi\y 
fitfcd-up, IB a eplendid apartment. 

Pedatxo delta Vmreraiti, Strada 
BuIbL Tlila building was ereotcd at 
the expense of the Balbi faraily. Tho 
vGtitibule and the cortile are amongst 
tho finest specimens of the kind. Iwo 
huge lions are plaeed nt the top of 
the staircase. The balls arc decorated 
with freecoea by Otnoeee painters and 
irith oil pieturea. The Httll of Me- 
dicine oontaina some bronso statuw by 
Oiovanni di Bologna, and in the Great 
Hall are sii o£ the Cardinal Virtues by 
the same sculptor, whilst in a third 
room aboTe are a number of liis 
bas-reliefa in bronza. Tho museum of 
natural bistor; is interesting, as oon' 
toining a, good collection of the birds 
and Bsbea of this part of Italy, Tha 
librBTF, whioh is open to the pubJio, 
eontauis about 45,000 toIs. The Uni- 
Teraitj consists of three faculties, Law, 
Medicine, and Humanities. In each 
there is a senate composed of twclvo 
doctors, by whom the degrees are oon- 
ferred. In the ohurcb belonging to tbe 
Dnirarsity is a baa-relief in bronzo, 
and in the sacristy another, a good 
Dcfloent from the Cross, both by Oiae. 
di Bologna. Behind the Unirersity 
Palace Is a small Botanic Qardea; in' 
the eourt leading to it several onrious 
inscriptions remored here from sup- 
pressed cbnrohea, and on the top of the 
palace tlie Meteorological Obsertatory. 
Palazza Dwazzo, or della Scala (of 
the Stairs), in the Via Balbi, is o: 



the finest of tlio Genoese palaces: it 
was erected in tlic ITtli century for tha 
Balbis, by Bart. Siaiuro. Tho court i*- J 
surrounded by a Doric colonnade ot^ 
ifhite marbh), from a comer of whiob' j 
opens the maguifioent Qigbt of stain 
wbieli has rendered it so celebrated. | 
Tho 2 statues of Union and Force, in , 
the lower vestibule, are by V. Rovaacbio, ; 
The Palace contains several good pic- , 

1st room on the left : LudorttDO , 
Caracci, an Eeco Homo ; A*»ibait ( 
Carofci, St. Peter ; Paolo VerOKeaa, i 
S, Catherine; Snbeiu and Vand'Jch, 
2 circular portraits. \ 

2ud saloon : Quereiiio, Christ and tk« ! 
Pharisees, or the Tribute Mouot i St-'-} 
mone da Pesaro, theFligbt into Egypt f J 
PelUgnni, the Oath of Gtrfcrude, mo- ' 
ther of Hamlet ; TitiaM, a Magdal«^ * 
injured by restorera] JVoeacoiBJ, tho ' 
Woman taken in Adultery. 



Philip IV. ; Someniehino, Jesus ap- 
pearing to Mery, the Martydom of \ 
St. Sebastian, and Venus weeping over 
Adonia ; Spagaoletla, 3 pictures of 
PhjloBophera, ] 

Palatio ImperiaU, near the Piaxza < 
del Campetto, This pslaoe is much | 
deeayed. In the soffit are froacoe^ , 
with mythological subjeeta in tha com- , 
partments, , 

To describe tbo palaces of Genoa i 
would be oat of place in the prcaeat ', 
work, yet one more roust bo notiood, 
whidi, from its situation, is the most 
striking of them all : the Falaxzo 
ZloriOy ealled also P. del PrinfapSf 
aituated beyond the Piazxa di Aqua 
Verde, outside the Porta di Snn To- I 
maso, and the gardens of which extend 
to the sea. These gardens, with the ' 
palace in their centre, form a noWe J 
feature in the panorama of the port of i 
Genoa, J 

This magoifloent pile, origmolly the ] 
PalasKO Fregoao, was given to the great" 1 
Andrea Dorio, in 16S3, and improved, ois ] 
rather rcbuiltjBnd brought to itB present 
form, by him. The stately feelings of 
this Doria, who is ompliaticnllj cnlled 



112 



Route 13.— Genoa — Palazzo del Principe, 



Sect. II. 



" II Principe " (for that title of dignity 
had been granted to him by Charles V.) , 
are expressed in the inscription which 
is engraved on the exterior of the edi- 
fice : " Divino munere, Andreas D'Oria 
CeyjB F. S. R. Ecclesiss Caroli Impera- 
toris Catolici maximi et invietissimi 
Francisci primi Francorum Regis et 
Patriae classis triremimn nil. prsefectus 
ut maximo labore jam fesso corpore 
honesto otio quiesceret, sedes sibi et 
Bucoessoribus instauravit. h.d.xxyiii." 
The architect who directed Doria's 
alterations was Montorsoli, a Floren- 
tine, but many portions were designed 
by Pierino del Vaga, who has here 
left some of the best productions of 
his pencO. Pierino, poor, sorrowful, 
and needy, driyen n*om Rome by 
the calamities which had befallen 
the Eternal City when stormed by 
the Imperialists in 1527, was kindly 
received by Doria, who became his 
patron, giving him constant employ- 
ment. JSe worked here, not merely as 
a painter, but as a general decorator; 
and it was Doria's express wish to 
reproduce in his palace, as much as pos- 
sible, the magnificence of the buildings 
which Raphael had adorned at Rome. 

The decorations introduced by Pie- 
rino in this palace were exceedingly 
admired ; and he became, in fact, the 
foimder of the peculiar style which 
prevails in the other palaces by which 
Gl^noa has been so much adorned. In 
the gallery that leads to the terraced 
garden are the portraits of Andrea Do- 
ria and his family. The figures are in 
a semi-heroic costume j ^drea Doria 
is grey-headed, his sons are helmeted, 
and supporting themselves upon their 
shields. Beyond this gallery you look 
upon the garden, where are walks of 
cypress and orange, fountains, statues, 
and vases. In the background are 
the moles, the lighthouse, and the sea. 
The fountain in the centre represents 
Andrea in the character of Neptune. 
Over another fountain is a fanciful 
mermaid or merman, the portrait of 
one which, according to popular be- 
ll^, was caught at G-enoa. Opposite 
to the palace, on the street front, is ano- 



ther garden belonging to it, bordered by 
a grapery. In this garden is the monu- 
ment raised by Doria to " II graiC 
Moldanoy^ a great dog which had been 
given to him by Charles V. : here also 
is a grotto built by Alessio, in its time 
much admired, but now almost a ruin. 
The successive employments held by 
Doria enabled him to acquire great 
wealth. With these riches he was able 
to keep a fleet of 22 galleys; a force 
with which he turned the scale against 
the French, and accomplished the deh- 
verance of Genoa, 11th Sept. 1528, from 
the heavy yoke which they imposed. 

" Questo h quel Doria, che fk dai Pirati 
Sicuro il vostro mar per tutti i lati. 

Non fii Pompeio a par di costui degno, 
Se ben vinse, e cacci6 tutti i Corsari ; 
Pero che quelli al piii x>ossente regno 
Che fosse mai, non x>oteano esser pari ; 
Ma questo Doiri& sol col proprio ingegno 
E proprie forze purghera quei mari ; 
Si che da Calpe al Nilo, ovunque s' oda 
II nome suo, tremar veggio ogni proda. 

Questi, ed ognaltro ch^la patria tenta 
Di libera far serva, si airossisca ; 
Ne dove il nome d' Andrea Doria senta, 
Di levar gli occhi in viso d' uomo ardisca. 
Veggio Carlo, che 'I premio gU aug^enta ; 
Ch' oltre quel che in commun vuol che 

fruisca, 
Gli d^ la ricca terra, ch* ai Normandi 
Sarft principio a farli in Puglia grandi." 

Orlando Furioso, cant. xv. 30-34. 

It was imder Doria's influence and 
counsel that the form of government 
was established in Genoa which lasted 
till the French revolution. He was 
offered the ducal authority for life, and 
there is no doubt but that he might have 
acquired the absolute sovereignty. Tlie 
Dorias are still numerous at G^noa, 
but the elder branch, since its alhance 
with the Papal family of Pamphili, 
resides at Rome; the palace is generally 
let, and is in good preservation. The 
statements that the decorations by P. 
del Yaga had been injured of late years 
are unfounded. 

The Diiomo or Cathedral of St. Lo- 
renzo was built in the 11th century, 
consecrated in 1118 by Pope Gela- 
sius II., and restored about 1300. 
The front belongs to the latter date. 
The intention was, probably, to erect 



HiviKRA. BoiUi 13.— (7a* 

two towera, but of tlicae only one hsa 
been executed, and tbatnt a later period. 
TIiHTB are traeea in tJiia edifieo of the 
\aaie wHuh prevailed at Pisa and Lucca. 
Some of tlie columns of tlio portal were 
taken from Aimeria, aa part of the apaQB 
won at tbe capture of that city, 1148 : 
among the TeetigeB of an earlier period 
are the curious ornaments on the N., 
exhibiting monstcra and runio toots, 
and some rude baaao-rilievoa enomated 
in the outer walla. Orer the principal 
entrtuice la it bas-relief representing the 
Martyrdom of S. Lorenzo, with Bome 
quaint figures of the 13th or 14th 
cents. ; and into aevcml parts of the 
outer walls ore let Pagan bna-rcHefs, 
whiet formed, the front of earcopliagi, 
of the Itonisu period. 

In some parte of the cliUTL-h are in- 
_ aariptionSi&oniirluch we ascertain that 
■-fhe If. side was completed in 1307, and 
f ttie S. in 1312; furthermore it is on 
one related bow the city 'i'as founded bj 
Janus I. King of Italy, the grandson 
of Noah; and how Janus II. Prince 
of Ti'oy took poaseanon of the city 
fouuded by his namesake and ancestor. 
Theao inacriptiona ore eneraved in capi- 
tal letters exactly in the form eroploycd 
in coeval manuscripts, aud are fine 
spetnmens of lapidary calligraphy. 

Internally the nave is preceded by a 
Tery elegant inner Gothic porch with a 
groined roof, and which, ae well aa the 
pilasters that support it, ia formed of 
alt«mnte courses of black and wliitc 
marble : over t?iis poreh ia wliat was 
originallj the organ-loft. The uare 
is Boparated from the aisles by Co- 
rinthian colimiuB Bupporting pointed 
arches, eooh column being fcrniod of 
alternate courses of that variety of 
serpentino called Folcerera breccia and 
of white marble ! upon these pointed 
arches rests an entablature with a 
long inscription in Gothic letters, over 
which rises a second tier of round 
BTOhea, Bupported by alternate atu 
columns and pilasters, the latter ii 
earij Itaban- Gothic style. 

^e choir and side cliapels have been 
modernised, and covered with can 
paintings, und gilding. Tlie arch 



—CathiHral, 



113 



turc ia by Alessio. The high altar if 
decorated with a fine statue in bronie>, 
■f the Madonna and Child, by G. PJ 
lianehi, a work of the ITtb cent. 
The paintings are not Drat -rate; th» 
principal are — Barroncio, 9t. Sebostiaiii' 
m the chapel on the rt. at the eneF^ 
ofthenave; Jtrrori, the Virgin i Piola^' 
theAscenaion; and,Z/. ConiAfan, Saint*- 
adoring the Infant SaTiour, good. Titf 
stalls of tbe ehour behind the high alt«r' 
arc in very handsome wood carving^ . 
with backs of coloured initmio-workftr 
the choir, occuniing to tbe iiumption^ 
was restored to its present form ii^ 
16Z4. The anoient manuscript choiisa; 
hooks are yet in use, and they are fin^ 
volumes of their kind. Jn the PaUa- 
racini ciapfl, corr«ponding to the left-^ 
hand transept, ia a curious dotaohetf 
marble atatnc of a man kneeling befoi* 
the altar, a good figure, An altarpicco- 
by Gaggiiii, of Genoa, has lately beei», 
put up in the chapel on the rt. of tbe""" 
high altar. 

The ricbBst portion of tliis churob 
is the Chapel of St. John the Baptigl,- 
into which no female ia permitted Ur 
enter except on one day of tlie year, rui 
cicluaion imposed by Pope Innocent 
YIII., as it ia said, in recollection oft 
the daughter of Herodias. The sereeBlj 
which divides it from tbe church is of- 
rich cinqtiecento Gothic, and was com-' 
pleted about 1496. Tbe canopy ototi; 
the altar, supported by four porphyry 
pillara, covering the saroophagus in-" 
which the so-called relica of the Bap-" 
tiat are contained, was erected m 
1532 at the expense of Filippo Doria, 
The eleven statues, and the bas-relietl*- 
which adorn the external Cujade, ar*^ 
hy Qnglielmo della Porta. EigbV 
niches in the interior of the chapel aiw 
also filled with atatnes, aix of whioV] 
are by MaHeo Oivitalc (1435-lBOlV 
that of 2;aocharias is pecularly ftaoj" 
and two, the Madonna, and the SaptiaU 
by SaOMvina. The allar is by OioeemM 
and Ovslieiao cUUa Porta. The retiHJ 
of tlie saint are contained in an iron^ 
bound chest, which is seen through' 
the apertures of the marble covering.^ 
Ou the day of Uis ■(si\.\<i.^^ ftia^ vn 



114 



Route 13. — Genoa — Churches, 



Sect. XL 



carried in procession, being placed in 
the Cassone di SarC Giovanniy a shrine 
preserved in the treasury of the cathe- 
dral. It was made in 1437 by Daruele 
di Terramo, of silver gilt, a combination 
of Gothic panels, tracery, and finials of 
the most delicate workmanship. The 
sides are covered with imagery of the 
history of St. John j the figures bemg 
all but completely detached from the 
background. 

In the treasury is preserved a more 
interesting relic, the Sacro Catino, long 
supposed to be composed of a single 
piece of emerald. It was part of the 
spoils taken at Csesarea, 1101. The 
Crusaders and their allies divided the 
booty; and the Genoese, under the 
command of Guglielmo Embriaco, se- 
lected this precious vessel as their 
portion. The supposed intrinsic worth 
of the material was infinitely enhanced 
by the fond traditions annexed to the 
vessel, whether as a gift from the 
Queen of Sheba to Solomon, or as 
the dish which held the Pascal Lamb 
at the Last Supper, or the vessel 
in which Joseph of Arimathea received 
the blood flowing from the side of 
the Redeemer. Three times each year 
was the Catino brought out of the 
sacristy, and exposed to the venera- 
tion of the faithful. A prelate of high 
rank exhibited it to the multitude; 
aud aroimd him were ranged the Cla- 
vigeri, to whose care the relic was com- 
mitted. No stranger was allowed to 
touch the Catino under heavy penal- 
ties ; and the attempt to try the mate- 
rial by steel or diamond, gem or coral, 
or any real or supposed test of its genu- 
ineness or hardness, was punishable 
with heavy fines, imprisonment, or even 
death. Acute and somewhat sceptical 
travellers, as Keysler and the Abb^ 
Barth^emy, in spite of these precau- 
tions, saw enough to lead them to sup- 
pose that the Catino was glass, a fact 
which is now fully confinned. But 
the extraordinary perfection of the ma- 
terial, as well as of the workmanship, 
mufft alwajB cause it to be considered 
as a very remarkable monument, and 
of remote antiquitjr. The dish is hex- 



agonal, with some slight ornaments, 
which appear to have been finished 
with the tool, as in ^em engraving. 
The colour is beautiful, the transpa-* 
rency perfect ; but a few air-bubbles 
sufficiently disclose the substance of 
which it is made. The Catino was sent 
to Paris ; and was reclaimed in 1815, 
with other objects of art. It was so 
carelessly packed that it broke by the 
way. The fragments have been united 
by a setting of gold fihgree. The keys 
of the cabinet are kept by the munici- 
pal authorities, and a fee of about 5 
francs is expected, at least from Eng- 
Ushmen, by the officer who opens the 
door. 

Near the cathedral is the Baptistery, 
no longer used as such; and a large 
cloister, in which are the residences of 
the canons, but it has nearly lost all 
vestiges of antiquity. 

Many of the churches of Q-enoa were 
demolished during the French occupa- 
tion. Amongst those which remain, 
the most conspicuous are 

Sant^ Agostino, now desecrated, a good 
specimen of the Genoese Gothic of the 
14th centy. The campanile, which, like 
the rest of the church, is bvult of alter- 
nate courses of white and black marble, 
is remarkable. 

Sanf Amhrogio or di Gem, entirely 
built at the expense of the Pallavacini 
family. The interior is covered with 
rich marbles and paintings ; from the 
vaulting down to the pavement all 
is gold and colours. Here are several 
fine paintings : — The Assumption, by 
Chiido, in the 3rd chapel on the rt. : 
the Virgin surrounded by hosts of 
angels. The commission for this pic- 
ture was sent to Bologna, and offered 
to the Caracci and to Ghiido; when 
the latter, being willing to execute 
it for half the price demanded by his 
competitors, obtained the order. The 
Caracci were much vexed ; but when 
the picture was exhibited, they fully 
acknowledged its excellence. The Cir- 
cumcision, over the High Altar, by 
Rubens, painted before he came to Ge- 
noa ; and ^t , \giv«ttvaa\vB«!^^ «» "Oetc^a- 



KlVIEl 



Hoale 13, — Oeima — Cliurdhes. 



115 



piece was executed wliilBt he wi 
i^oratice of the height and the poaitioD 
wheiux it would be teen ; but in the 
ttetiond pictuTG he wna able te adapt 
his figui-ea acouratelj to their site. 
Beneath is a smuU painting of the 
Tirgio and Child, whioh belonged to 
St. IgnatiuB. St. Peter in Fnscrn, bj 
Wdel. I'be frescoea in tha cupolas " 
nrineipally bj Carloni and Galea 
The four very Gno Corinthian colur 
nt the high altar are of Porto Venere 
marble. 

L' AtHHituiala is, lite many other 
churches we hare natiu<d, a monument 
of pmate munificence, It tcus built 
and decorated at the expense of the Lo- 
niellini family, formerly sovereigna of 
the Uiand of Tabarea off the H, coast 
of Airicia, which they held until 1741, 
when it was talon by the Bey of Tunis. 
The rerj rich marbles of the interior 
give it eitraordinary splendour. The 
roof has been recently regilt, and the 
clioroh niflgnifipentlj rostoccd. Here 
is the "Cena" of Procacdai, s noble 
paintiog, but unfaTOurahly placed over 
the prinuipnl entrance. 

The Ch. of Sua DoAnto, built on the 
site of a more ancient odifine of the 
llth centy. In the luterior are soa 
colunuis, in granite and cippolino, of 
pagan edifice, which support the round 
arches of the nare. In front are 
linka ol the chains of the Porto Pieano, 
which were diatnbuted among the dif- 
ferent pariali churches of the city after 
its oapture by the Genoese. Tho oc- 
tagonal b^Il-tower ia of an early period. 

Sa» QkicaBia di Pre, near the dock- 
yard, formerly the Church of the 
Knighta of St. John, built in (he 13th 
century ; Kmie of the round arolies of 
the original cdiQce are still visible ; tlie 
present oniranco has been cut into tha 
tribune at the 1:1. extremity of the old 
church, at a □ompai'atiTcly recent poriod. 
It was in the rich convent to which this 
church was attached that Urban V. 
resided on hia retom from Avignon. 
Some remains of the ancient cloiaterg 
raa,y bo yet seen, with a bead of St. 
John of tbo litb ceatf. orpr one of 
t6a doors. It »a» ia the pouveat of 



S. Ovieanai that Urban VI. canseii to 
bo harharoualy executed 5 esrilinal* 
of his opponents, mode priaauers at 
the siege of Lucera io 1388 i the siith, 
beiuc an Englisbman, Cardinal Adam 
of Hertford, is said to have been 
spared in conaequeoce of the inteiv 
cession of his countrymen, then ia- 
fiuential at Genoa. In making soma 
excavations years ago the akeletonB of 
these unfortunate martyrs of Papal 
vengeance were discovered. 

Saida Maria di CariffTumo, finely 
situated on a hill, built from the grouna 
about 1552, and endowed by the Sauli 
family. It ia in the form of a Greek 
orosa, with a lofty dome in the centre. 
It was built by Alessio. Two oolossal 
Btstuea by Puget, and two by Daaid, 
ore placed beneath the cupola. They 
represent St. Sebastian, St. John, St. 
Bartholomew, and the blesced Alesaaii' 
dro Sauli. Poin/in^i.— Ouercino, SC, 
Francis receiving the stigmata- — ocMin.* 
ally good, though now damaged ; Pm- 
caccini, the Virgin and Saints ; Piola, 
St. Peter and St. John healing tha 
Man afflicted with Palsy; Catahiaio, 
Three subjeots, of whii'h iJie best is a 
Piet&i Carlo Maralta, The Martyr- 
dom of St. Biagio ; Vatini of A'sftKO, 
St. Catherine receiving the Sacrament i 
JSojeKo, Bishop SaiJi going in Pro* 

A fine view of Genoa is obtoined ' 
from the top of the cupola, which it 
ascended with tolerable ease. Oppo- 
site to the church is a noble bridge or ' 
viaduct, also built by the miinifloence cf ' 
the Saulia, begun 1718, by au aroliiteot 



m atories 

high (adding to the reminiBcence which 
the bridge gives of Edinburgli) ; the 
bridge rises far above their roofs, and 
afibrds a cool and pleasant evening walk. 

Saata Maria diCaBtello,iapxioieA\a \ 
babuiltonthositeofatempleofDianB, j 
The present church ia not very aruiienti v | 
some parts ol it ma.^ s,o \nicV aa Skc iM 
18S0. The mtBriol! consia^a ot e.Vra« 
some nave, BBpora.toii tcWR "Oae (OH 
by 6 rouuA avelrveB, B,ii^^Qt\.BSiJ 



116 



Eoute 13. — Genoa — Churches. 



Sect. ir. 



granite columns with. Corinthian and 
composite capitals, and which formed 
a part of some Boman edifice, possihl^ 
of the Temple of Diana. There are 
some good paintings of the Genoese 
school here. In the Srd chapel on 
the it. a curious specimen by Ludovico 
Breay representing a number of quaint 
figures in the costume of his time ; and 
an Adoration of the Virgin ; — a picture, 
in 6 compartments, of the 14th centy., 
the Annunciation, with Saints on either 
side. The choir contains tombs of the 
GHlustinianis, great protectors of this 
church and conyent, belonging to the 
order of St. Dominick. In the adjoin- 
ing cloister are some early frescoes, one 
signed by a certain Justus deAllemania, 
in 1451. 

SatUa Maria in Via Lata^ on the 
liill beyond the Ch. of Carignano, is a 
yery old church, now desecrated, the 
waUs being of alternate courses of black 
and white marble. It is chiefly inter- 
esting as haying belonged to the Fies- 
chis, and annexed to their palace, which 
ooyered a large space hereabouts, and 
which was razed after the unsuccessful 
attempt of Luca Fieschi, who in the 
celebrated conspiracy which bears his 
name here assembled his followers in 
1336, to subyert the power of the Do- 
nas. 

SafC Matteo, This interesting little 
ch., which has always remained under 
the patronage of the Doi^ias, was foimd- 
ed in 1125 by Martino D., an ecclesi- 
astic of the family : the front, which 
dates from 1278, is a good specimen 
of Qenoese-Grothic, formed of £dtemate 
courses of black and white marble.* 
Fiye of the white courses bear inscrip- 
tions relating to the achieyeraents of 
the family. The pilasters at either 
extremity of the fagade, and on each 
side of the entrance, support the shields 
of G^noa and of the Dorias, the red 
cross on a white groimd and an eagle 



* This mode of construction was confined at 
Genoa to public edifices and to buildings erected 
by the Commune. The four great families of 
IfoHM, Grimaldi, SpinoU, and Fieschi, alone 

JS^tSrJ^" P*^''^*'^'^^* **** ^^^ privilege of em- 



erect. The uppermost of the inscrip- 
tions commemorates the great nayal 
yictory of Scarzola, September 7, 1298, 
oyer the Venetian fleet, commanded by 
Andrea Dandolo, by the Genoese, under 
Lamba Doria, both being tlie most 
honoured names in the mihtary annals 
of Italy. In the ancient Roman urn 
aboye, with bas-reliefs of children and 
dead animals, were deposited the re- 
mains of Lamba Doria, who died in 
1323. Aboye the principal door of 
the ch. is one of the yeiy few mosnic* 
still existing in Genoa. It is in the 
ancient Greek style. The interior was 
splendidly reconstructed at the expense 
of the great Andrea Doria ; it consist* 
of a small naye and aisles, separated 
by 5 arches supported by composite 
colunms of white marble : behind the 
altar is a small choir with a good piet^ 
and saints by Montorsoli, who was also 
the architect of the ch. ; and on each 
side, chapels containing sepulclu'al urns 
of the Dorias, and the remains of Saints 
Maurus, Eleuterius, and Maximus, 
brought here from Istria by Pagano 
Doria. In the crypt beneath the high 
altar is the tomb of Andrea Doria, 
also by Montorsoli. In the adjoining 
cloister, erected in the early part of 
the 14th century, haye been of late 
arranged seyeral sepulchral inscriptions 
of the Doria family, brought from the 
suppressed church of S. Dominick, and 
others ; and all that remained of the 
two colossal statues of Gianetto Doria, 
who commanded at Lepanto, and of 
another member of the famUy, which 
formerly stood before the Ducal palace, 
and which were erected there in 1577 
by the Senate : they were thrown down 
and mutilated by the reyolutionary 
rabble in 1797. In the adjoining 
Piazza are some curious specimens of 
domestic architecture — three palaces 
of the 15th centiuy, oyer the door 
of one of which is an inscription 
stating that it was giyen to Andrea 
Doria by the Kepublic: JSenat. Cons. 
AndrecD de Oria Patrice lAheratori Mu- 
n«« Publicum, Here A. Doria liyed — it 
i was in. tVe MriaXi ao^aax^ wv ^>mkJcl vt 



lioute 13. 



—Churdies — Albrrgo de' I'ov. 



alaeia in 1628, to consult on tlis 
means for driving off tbo Prencli, bj 
■rliom Genoa was tlien beaeiged; it 
•ras in the eli. of S. Matteo that Doria 
deposited the eword aeot to him in 
1535, by Paul III., for the serrices he 
liad rendered in the oauM of theChuroh. 
The door-aidea of the Ca«a Dorio have 
ipmo boautil'ullyscnlptiirBd arabeaques. 
Over the door of one of the neigh- 
boiiring palaces is a, curious bss-relief 
of the combat of St. George and the 
Dragon, in presence of the Virgin and 
of u Doge of Genoa ; and on. the third 
a long Qothio insttription relntire to 
the Tiutoriea gained by One of the 
Doria family, to irhom it belonged. 

San' Sim. The most ancient Chris- 
tian foundation in Genoa, and osso- 
ointed nith important eronta in its 
hiatory. It was originally the cathe' 
dml, under the title of the Bnailica 
rfei Dodici ApotioU, bnt San' Siro, or 
Cynif, an ancient hiahop, became its 
]»tron,' in 904 the episcopal throne 
una banalated to St. Lorenzo. In this 
church the assembLies of the people 
were held. Hers Guglielmo Bocca- 
iiogni was proclaimed Capitano del 
I'opolo in 1257. Hitherto the powers 
of goromment, and ita profits and 
pleoauros also, bad been wholly en- 
joyed by tlie ariBtOiTBi^. This rero- 
lution Brat broke down the barrier; 
and although the office of Capitano 
del Popolo did not continue perma- 
nent, it prepared the iraj for tlie great 
clianges wluch the eonstitntion after- 
ward.' sustained. Here, in 1339, 8i- 
iiiODC UDL'canegra was created the 
first Doge of Genoa, amidat cries of 
" Ilea iljiojialo!" marking the infln- 
■■ncc hy wliich he had been raised. "FTia 
election waa, in fact, the crisis of an- 
other reTohition ; Ihe goTcmment was 
completely transferred from the nobles 
to the people. AH traces of the ori- 
ginal builmng are destroyed, or con- 
cealed by recent adjuncts and recon- 
struotionB. The roof is painted by Car- 
iotii. Thii Cnrloni was bom at Genoa 
in 1694, and died at an advanoed age. 
Some of the other paiatinga aTC—Ber- 
atrnfa Gastfllo, the Saviuar dispiitiiie 
IB theToiaple; Pomnrimcio, (lie Adoi-- 



ation of the Shepherds; Cmtello, Saint 
Catherine uf Simrna. 

SI. Stefimo dtlla Porla, in the Pinsza 
S. atclano, at the end of the Strada 
Giulia, a very ancient edifiise ; the pre- 
sent building docs not date later than 
the 13th ctntury. The only object 
worth notice in the interior is tha 
picture, over the high altar, of tlie 
marfyrdom of the patron Saint, ctin- 
sidered by some to be the joint produc- 
tion of Sopharl and Oiviio Rotaanoi 
Kapbael it is said made the design for 
the whole, and Sniahed the upper part^ 
and Qiulio Eomatio eieouted the re- 
mainder after his deatli. Others at- 
tribute the whole to the latter. In 
its present position (it is concealed 
by an unsightly tabernacle and oandle- 
sticks) the unbounded praise accorded 
to this picture will to many persona 
appear eitravasant. It was aeut to 
Paris by Napoleon, and the head of 
the saint and other parts were thors 
retouched by Girodct. It waa a gift to 
the Genoese republio by Leo X. It 
is said that in 1814 a negotiation waa 
opened for its purchase by an English- 
raan for 100,000 fr. The fee demanded 
for showing it is 1 &. 

The great Altergo de' Poveri h to the 
N. of the city, just outside the Porta 
Carhonara. It woii founded in 1564, 
by Emanuel Brignole, and unites the 
care of the poor within its woUa to the 
administration of many charitable en- 
dowments for their benefit. Thus, for 
eiample, the girls who marry out of 
the hospital receire a decent dowry. 
The house is yery clean, and the pro- 
portion of deaths remarkably small. It 
is a stately palace, extending above 
560 feet each way, and enclosing four 
courts, each about 170 feet square. The 
ranges of buildings, dividing the courts, '• 
form a cross, in the middle of which is 
the chapel, or at least the altar ; the 
different inmates occupying the arms 
during the time of pubho service. It 
boasts a Pietl of Michael Angclo. In 
the chapel is also a statue cjE "A* 
Virgin aacending Vo \iei««b.,Vj t^^i* 
one of hia best wotVa. IVia e».''^SwSj 
raemt -wtII contavn "iSOO ■^etatJaa. j 
I 'Hid Oapedole di Pommalwe *^ 



118 Eoute 13. — Genoa — Hospitals — Theatres — Academy. Sect. II. 



on the W. side of the public gardens 
of the Acquasola. It was originally 
a private foundation by Bartolomeo 
del Bosco, a Doctor of Laws, 1430; 
and was built from the designs of An- 
drea Orsolini. It is a large building, 
and contains statues of benefactors of 
the estabhshment. It has within its 
walls, on an. average, 1000 patients 
and 3000 foundlings, and is open to 
the sick of all nations. The Institution 
for the Deaf and Dumb (Sordi Muti\ 
founded by Ottavio Assarotti, a poor 
monk, in 1801, is celebrated in Italy. 

The hospital for the insane, or Regio 
Mancicomio, situated outside of the 
Porta Romana, is a very extensive 
foundation recently erected, consisting 
of six wings converging towards a 
central edifice; it is said to be very 
well conducted, and contains 700 
patients. 

In and about Genoa there are as many 
as 15 Conservatorie, They are all in- 
tended for females, and all are rehgious 
foundations, and regulated according to 
the monastic system, though none of 
the inmates take vows. Some are houses 
of refuge for the unmarried ; some peni- 
tentiaries for those who wish to aban- 
don their evil courses ; some are schools 
for the higher branches of education ; 
some asylums for girls who are either 
orphans or the children of parents 
unable to maintain them. Of these^ 
the largest is that of the Meschine^ 
founded in 1762 by Domenico Fieschi, 
for orphan girls, natives of Genoa, and 
which now contains about 250 inmates : 
they are employed upon various light 
works, such as lace and embroidery, 
but principally in the manufactiu'e of 
artificial flowers. Half the profits be- 
long to ,the workers; and with these 
they are often enabled, not only to 
reheve their relations, but even to 
accumulate a small dowry. The situa- 
tion of the house, to which large gar- 
dens are annexed, is very beautiful. 
The whole establishment is conducted 
kindly and affectionately, under the 
patronage of the descendants of the 

^a^res.—The Teatro Carlo Felice 
Js the principal theatre, and is an ele- 



gant structure. It was opened in 1828, 
and ranks the third in size in Italy, the 
Scala at Milan and- the S. Carlo at 
Naples alone being larger. It is open 
for operas and ballets during the car- 
nival and spring seasons, for the opera 
buffa in the autumn, and for the re- 
gular drama in the summer and the 
early part of December. The Teatro 
Sant^ Agostino is open during the car- 
nival for the regular drama, the Teatro 
Colombo for Italian comedy, and the 
Teatro Apollo , where a French com- 
pany generally perform during the 
winter : the two latter houses are near 
the Porta dell' Arco. 

The Accademia Ligustica delle JBelle 
Arti was founded by private munifi- 
cence, having been instituted by the 
Doria family. The society consists of 
protettoriy or subscribing patrons, and 
of working academicians. It is situated 
in a large building in the Piazza di 
Carlo Felice, of which it forms one of 
the sides, near the theatre, and con- 
tains numerous schools in the difierent 
departments of art, resorted to by a 
large body of pupils ; it has contributed 
in improving not only the designs used 
in n^anufSeictures, but the architecture 
employed in the nimierous recent build- 
ings erected throughout the city. At- 
tached to the schools of painting is a 
collection of pictures, mostly by emi- 
nent artists oi the Genoese school — An- 
saldOf the Piolas, Fiasella^ de Ferrari, 
Benedetto Strozzi, Luca Camhiaso, 
&c. ; and a large series of casts from 
the finest antique sculptiu'es. On the 
stairs leading to the Accademia are four 
fine coliunns of Porto Venere marble, 
from the suppressed church of San 
Domenico. 

The Fuhlic lAhrary, on the first 
floor of the same building, has been 
formed out of various coUections be- 
queathed to the town and to the king, 
and made over by him to the munici- 
pality, who very liberally provide for 
its support. It contains nearly 50,000 
vols. ; and nowhere does there exist a 
library opened with such liberality, — 
in summer ftOTo. 7 A-.TiI.. to 10 p.m., in 
winter from ft to W. \ta c)taeS. t£\^c^ 
is to contam t\ve moat AxaeWv. mo^^-rcv 



Sotite 13.— Genoa— BiKal Pdace—Slrada (hyli Orefid. 



worts. It ia mnch (requantad in the 
eronings. 

FaUico Dveale. The interior of 
the principal range of tha building, 
irhich contained the iiall of the Benate 
and the state apBrtmentB, wae destrojed 
b J fire in 1777. The praacnt interior 
WBfl reconBtructed by Carloni. The 
veatibuie ia supported hy 80 colmnnB 
of white mirble : a fiue staircaae leads, 
on the rt. hand, to the apiirtmetitB of 
the governor, on the 1. to the hall of 
the senate. The latter ia dacaroted by 
paintings, not of a high order, rcpre- 
aenting eubjcuts connected vrith tJie 
history oE aenoa. Ot these, the best 
are copiea from pieturea of Solimeiia, 
that' existed before the fire, the depo- 
sition of the relics of St. John the 
Baptist, and the diacorery of Aineriea 
by Colurabua. There is also a large 
picture hy 7. Damd, representing the 
Battle of Meloria. The haU also con- 
tained statues of the great men of 
Genoa. These were destroyed hy the re- 
publiuana of 1797 ; and upon occasion 
uf the ffite given to jjfapoleon as the 
restorer of the liberties of Italy, their 
places were aupplied by itatues of 
straw and wicker- work, coated with 
plaster of Paris, which still remain. 
This building was formerly the re- 
sidence of the Dogoa of the repubhc, 
who held oflico for two years ; it \a.s 
been recently made over by the City 
to the QoTeroioeat. The front is 
now well laid open, and the space 
converted into an open piaiia. The 
palace now contains the la w-courtB, and 
several other offieea connected witli the 
public administration. The great dun- 
geon tower, with ita grated windows, is 
the only part of the residence of the 
Doges of earlier times that now re- 

Thfl Arohiepiacopal Palace has some 
good frescoes by L. Cambiato. 

The garden of the Marquis Bfegri 
near the Acquasola is worth a visit. It 
ooa tains some curious exotic plants, and 
commands a fine view over the city. 

In the iaaii Araenal, near the 
Fiikzza A'Acquarerde, am many curious 
obj'eetB. These irere/ttrmeriy deposited 



119, 

in the Ducal Falnce, with othera whiob ' 
ware stolen or dispersed in 1797 : th« ' 
residue was here collected. A rostrum ] 
of an ancient galley, aome aay Koman^ 
othersCarthaginian, found inthe port] ' 



doubted. A canuon of wood bound ' 
round with iron, said to have been 
employed by the Venetians in the de- 
fence of Chioggin, when attacked by 
the Qenoese Beet. A good store of 
halbcrts, partizans, and other neapouSf 
many of unusual forma. 

The Loggia de' Sancki (in the Piaxn 
do' Bnnclu) is aninlercstingmonument < 
of the ancient commercial splendour of i 
Oenoa. It consists of a large hal^ ■[ 
the sidos of which ore supported by . 
sixteen columns, now glazed in, built 
by OateaEEO Alessi (1570, 1596), being , 
about 110 feet in length and 60 ia 
breadth. The roof is skilfully oon- 
stmctcd, the tio-bcams being concealed j 
in the concave of the ceiling; and the 
quantify of wall upon which the rorf 
stte is BO small, that the whole is con- 
iderod aa a veiy bold effort in con- 
tmction. This Loggia ia now used 
as the eichauge, where the merehauts 
meet for business ; in front of it is the 
place of meeting of the com and oil 
merchants, a veiy animated same during 
the hours of buBinoBS at Ctenoa. 

Hard by is the Strada degli Orejiei 
(Ooldsmitlis' Street), being filled with 
the shops of that trade. Before the 
revolution they formed a guild or 
company, possessing many privileges - 
and poBsesBiouB, all of whioh are lost. , 
One rcUo they yet preserve — a pioi < 
he Solv JFmKilff, with the i 
if St. Eloy, the patron saint 1 
of the smitha' craft, whether in gold, 
silver, or iron. It is upon stone, ■ 
tablet framed and glazed, in the middle 
of the goldamitha' street, and suP- 
mounted by a wrought canopy. This 
pictitfe, attributed to Pelltgriiio Piola, 
is of a deep and harmonious colour,, 
and beautifully drawn. It is soiiyMfc 
Pellegriuo was a -gwiyi o'i ^So»)s^ie»ij 
that he waa oiily 2,1 ■jeKia o^ t?? ^"^ 
painted ttds -pirtiMrei, ■K&6. 'Ow*i 



120 



lijiiU 13. — Gt.ioa — Laaco di &» Ghi^. Sect. II. 



excited so mucli envy on the part of 
the master, that he caused his pupil to 
be assassinated. Others say that Felle- 
grino was assassinated by Giovan' Ba- 
t ista Carloni. Be this as it may, two 
things are certain — his violent death 
at an early age, and the extraordinary 
rarity ana excellence of his paintings. 
It id impossible, says Lanzi, to define 
the style of the artist so early cut ofi*; 
he was yet only a student, and a stu- 
dent employed in imitating the best 
models, preferring those which had 
most grace. He tried several manners, 
and worked in all of them with sur- 
passing taste and care. "When Napo- 
leon was here, he desired much to re- 
move this picture to the Louvre. " We 
cannot oppose you by force," said the 
goldsmiths, "but we will never sur- 
render it j" and accordingly he yielded, 
and the picture remains. 

The goldsmiths of Genoa excel in 
a beautiful fine filigree, either of gold 
or silver, which they work into bunches 
of flowers, butterflies, and other ar- 
ticles, principally designed for female 
ornaments. They sell them by weight, 
at a price of about 15 per cent, above 
the value of the metal. These orna- 
ments are very pretty, and are hardly 
to be procm^d out of Genoa; but the 
workmanship is scarcely equal to that 
of Malta, or of Cuttack in Bengal. 
Tliey may be passed at the French 
<;ustom-house at a small duty. Parodi 
in the Strada degli Orefici, and Loleo 
at the Albergo della Croce di Malta, 
can be recommended for their excellent 
assortments. 

The Compera,or Banco di San Oiorgio 
(Bank of St. Gteorge), of which the hall 
is now used as the Long Jtoom of the 
custom-house, was the most ancient 
establishment of this description in 
Europe. It was a combination, so to 
speak, of the Bank of England and 
the East India Company, being both 
a banking and a trading company. 
The colonies of Kafia in the Crimea, 
several ports in Asia Minor, and 
also Corsica, were xmder its admi- 
nistration, and the latter island is 
still studded with towers and block- 



houses upon which the anus of the 
Bank are engraved. The Bank was 
managed with great ability and in- 
tegrity; and most of the charitable 
and pubUc institutions had t^&eir firnds 
placed here at interest, which was con- 
sidered, and justly, as a most secure 
investment. The French passed the 
sponge over the aocounts, and mined 
the individuals and the communities. 
The Bank of St. George was founded 
in 1346, in consequence of the trouble 
which the repubuo experienced from 
the exiled nobles who had been ex- 
pelled from the city. Fortifying 
themselves at Monaco, thej collected 
a nimierous train of others discon- 
tented and banished, having nothing to 
lose and nothing to fear. They plun- 
dered the shores of the republic ; and 
this marauding war&re became so pro- 
fitable, that they were enabled to fit up 
a fleet of 30 galleys, with orews amount- 
ing to upwards of 20,000 men. The 
repubhc, not having the means of 
meeting the expenses of resisting them, 
negotiated with the richest merchants 
for a loan, which WBaAtnded; that is 
to say, the revenues of the state were 
permanently pledged for the re-pay- 
ment. With the money so raised 
the repubhc fitted out a fleet. The 
insurgents abandon&d their position; 
and the result is curiously connected 
with English history. Many of them 
entered the service of Philippe de Va- 
lois ; and they were the Genoese cross- 
bow men engaged in the battle of Cr^, 
whose rout so greatly contributed 
in the accomplishment of the victory 
by the English. 

" Geneva la Superba" appears most 
proudly in this old halL All around 
arc the statues of the nobles and citi- 
zens whose munificence and charities 
are here commemorated — the S|pinolas, 
the Dorias, Grimaldis, Fieschis, and 
others, whose names «re so familiar in 
tlie annals of the repubhc. The statues 
are in two ranges, the uppermost stand- 
ing, the lower sitting, all as laige 
as life ; most of them are of an earhor 
date than the 17th centuzy, some of 
.the 15t\i, ttnOi «h ^c'w «« "Vete >a l\ift 



^iSr 



SouU 14. — Gauoa to Sai-xana. 



18th i rendering tho edifice one of 
the Bneat montunental liajls that ran 
ba imagined. Tha ample, flowing 
dn»a of tlte limes contributsB to this 
magniftcent effect, cumbiiied nitli tlie 
trutli aud Bimplicit; of the attitudes. 
Beneatli each statiiB ia a tablet orin- 
aoription, reeoutiting the aotiona of 
those whom they commemornte : — one 
had founded no hospital ; anotlior had 
bought off a tax upon provisions wlxiph 
pressed heavily upon the poor ; another 
had left rerenuos for endowing poor 
maidens. In this hall was the celebrated 
mediffival group, in marble, of a grifflu 
holding in his claws an eagle and a 
fox (the latter two being allegorical 
representations of the Emperor Fre- 
derio n. and tho citj' of Pisa). Tlia 
insoription, atill remaming, ia — 

" "■"'&' "' "^ *"""■ 
Til tho Braaller aportmenls adjoining 
are other eCatucs of the same dc- 
seription, and some curious ancient, 
though bnrbarouB, pictures vC fit. 
Qeorgfl. In one room is b Madonna 
ofDunenicoPiaZo. 

On the exterior of tho Dogium, 
fronted hj three Gothic arc}iiw, wore 
links of the chains of tho Porlo 
Pisano, long suspeniled here aa tro- 
phies, bnt now restored to Pisa sinci' 
the union of that city lo the eamc 
constitutional monaruhj. All this 
portion of the city is one oontinuod 
monument of the aneicnt Qenoese com- 
jnerce. The loflj houses are supported 
by massive, o^'pt - lilio arches and 
vaulted apartments ; on the other aide 
is the nunpart of the port. 

PhUic I'romeuadea. — The principal 
is the Acqwisola, a large esplanade, 
on the old fortiScations, tlio &vourite 
resort of tho Genoese of all claaaes. 
Tlie gardens are haurlsonielj planted 
and laid out. On eartam days of tlio 
week the military bands play liere. 
The view from the Ai'quaaola, O' ' ' 
valtey of the BzanEno and the 
tains E. of the oitj , is vcrv fine. 

Beyond llie Bisagno 



jy: 



'. Qo\'eri\m 
are built. 



The Genoese, or Liguriatu, froni • 
tho time of Virgil to Dante, and sincp, ' 
have been the subject of vituperation. ' 



it.'snii-i 



But those wlio luive resided here spesik 
■ell of them now ; and the epl^did 
memorials of the obaritj of pnst gene- 
rations raifc a strong presumption in 
their favour, and against the poet's 
appreciation of their oliaraotor. 



] 29 kilometres ;= 80 miles. 

This beautiful road, which, beside 
its connection with the preceding 
route, is the great high road to Tus- 
cany from Turin and Milan, passes 
through a larger proportion of moun- 
tainous scenery tl^n tliat of the Riviera 
di Poneiite, and therefore has less of 
a southern aspect, nor is it so thickly . 
studded with those picturesiiUO town* " 
and vUlagGB viWcb. aiora XSia ^Qrato\i«5'1 
twaen Bice aniV Gkenoa -, 'W.t -AVaa 'Qb( 
some beauties ol ■«\4e-»^teB^'Be,"T»ffl 
over the loveUfitt \aQi tta4. -^^^Kt -,'^ 



122 



Bonfte 14. — Nervi — Recco. 



Sect. IT. 



also finely indented by gulfs and bays, 
affording good anchorage for the many 
vessels which enhven the brilliant sea. 

The road, which is excellent, was 
begun by the French, and has been 
completed by the Sardinian govern- 
ment. Before it was made, Genoa 
was, in great measure, deprived of direct 
communication with Tuscany, which 
perhaps it was neither the wish nor the 
interest of the earlier governments to 
encourage. The best stopping-places 
for persons traveUing post by this 
road will be — in summer; 1st day, 
Borghetto, or, by leaving Genoa early, 
even La Spezzia ; 2nd day, Pietra 
Santa, Lucca, or Pisa : in winter, 1st 
day, Sestri ; 2nd day. La Spezzia ; 3rd 
day, Lucca, Pisa, or Florence, taking 
the railroad at either of the first 2 places. 

The Vetturini generally employ 3J 
days, stopping for the night at Sestri, 
Spezzia, and Pietra Santa, at each of 
which places there are good Inns, thus 
arriving on the 4th at Pisa, in time for 
the second Rly. train to Florence. 
The usual charge for a carriage with 4 
horses from Genoa to Pisa is from 12 to 
15 napoleons. 

There are 2 public conveyances — the 
mail courier, which takes 4 passengers 
in 24 hrs., leaving Genoa about mid- 
day, fare 50 fr. as far as Pisa j and a good 
diligence 3 times a-week, in 28 hrs. 
during favourable weather, leaving 
Genoa at 1 p.m., and reaching Lucca for 
the last train to Leghorn and Florence 
—36, 32, and 28 fr. Both these con- 
veyances, except as regards time, will be 
found preferable to the steamers, by 
which the traveller wiU scarcely be able 
to get to Florence, including the rail- 
way fare, for less than 60 fr. It 
may be remarked, en passant, that the 
fares by the steamers all along the coast 
of Italy are exorbitant, and. between 
no two stations more so than between 
Grenoa and Leghorn; the distance 80 
m., and the charge nearly 4(i. a mile. 

The road begins to ascend soon after 

quitting G^noa; and, from the first 

summit, the view of the city and the 

white housea dotted around and ascend- 

-^^ the lull sides is as lovely a sight as 



can be seen. Hedges of the aloe mix 
with vines, ohves, and fig and orange 
trees. • 

Crossing the Bisagno torrent, we 
arrive at San^ Martino d'Albaro, from 
where the road descends and runs near 
the shore. This town may be considered 
as a suburb of Genoa. The Colle 
d'Alharo is one of the most beautiful 
spots. Here are some magnificent 
villas ; the principal is the Villa Cam- 
biaso, built by Alessio (1557), it is 
said, from the designs of Michael An- 
gelo. It has frescoes by Taormino, re- 
presenting the triumphs of Alexander 
Famese, Prince of Parma, and two 
by Pierino del Vaga, Night and Day. 
The views from Albaro, looking over 
Genoa, are particularly beautiful. The 
Yilla dell Paradiso is in a fine situation. 

Cross the Sturla torrent before 
reaching 

Quarto and Quinto. The names of 
these villages, which follow in succes- 
sion, bespeak their Roman origin,— 
"ad quartum," "ad quintum:" they 
were probably Roman stations. Quinto 
is also one of the claimants for the 
honour of the birthplace of Columbus. 

Nervi; gay with its bright painted 
houses. The gardens around are pecu- 
liarly luxuriant and fragrant. The 
church of San* Siro has much gilding 
and some tolerable paintings. An old 
palace, now in ruins, with decaying 
frescoes on the walls, is a picturesque 
object. There are several handsome 
villas here, that of the GropaUo family 
in particular. Beyond Nervi is the 
village of Bogliase. The village and 
bridge of Sori (a fine andi) are passed 
about 2 miles before arriving at 

19 kil. Eecoo. An additional distance 
of 4 kil. is paid on leaving and arriving 
at Genoa. (Inn tolerable.) Rather a 
handsome little town. The white houses 
and the high campanile of the church, 
backed by the hiUy promontory of 
Porto Fino, which, stretching into the 
sea, forms the western shore of the bay 
of Rapallo, have a charming effects 
Leaving Recco, the road traverses Ca- 
mogli, and tYieij. «sceiida iot «.bou.t 1 
mile, attYie c\i\nmia\ivEL^ ^om\, oi^^K^Oiv 



ffattft'i4— asr. Jififrjftflraa— jyf/paffo. 



it traTeraea tlio tunnel of IiQ Ruts. a1)out 
120 jurds in length, cut tlirougli the 
rock. Here the velturmi etop to dine i 
thcTB are tlirea small Inns, the Hfitel 
de Londrcs, the HOtel . della Gran 
Eratftgna, and the E6tol d'ltalie. Thp 
descent from the tunnel to Rapollo is 
rery beautiful, and, foe a short limB, 
diestnuta take tlie place of olirea, 
figa, snd Tinea. Tho cliffs, of hard 
hpeooia, offer a grent number of pic- 
turesque points of view ; and the short 
trip tr^ water round the promontory, 
from Becco to ItnpaUo, has much 
intoTEst, and can be made easily in a 
sonuner's day. Recco or Camogli will 
bo the beat place to start from, and 
boats may he ohtained at both. 

[At a short distance &om Becco ia 
the little BCtive fishing-town of Ca- 
mogli. Tlie church is gaily decorated 
by the piety of the seamen. 3 m. 
farther 8. ia the Fsmla deUe Chiappe, 
above which rises tho hill of the Tde- 
grajb, 0)6 liighest ptrint of the pro- 
montory (2000 ft. ftboiie the sea). 3 
m. from tlie Cape ia 

San' fVuiuosD, a monastery in a. 
very pictureaquo BOlitary Bite, near the 
sea, at the opening of a deep raTina,and 
at the 8. eitremity of the promontory. 
Palms flourish amongst the aurrounding 
rods ; and it ia auppased that they 
were introduced at a votj early period 
by the monka. Tlie ohnzoh was under 
the Bpeml patronage of the Doriaa ; 
and in a specdes of sepulchral chapel 
in the fJoister are some good Gothic 
torabs of that family. 5 m. farther E. 
is the extreme S.E. headland, behind 
which, in a small landlocked hay, is the 
fialiing-hamlet of Porto Fino, which 
gives its name to the whole promon- 
tory ; and 1 ni. N. of which is 

Ctrvara, anciently Sjlyana, a de- 
serted convent, not far from the shore. 
Sere Francis I., having been previ- 
ously brought to Genoa, was detained 
until the tuTiva! of the gallcya wliich 
eonToyed him to Spain. 

Santa, Margherita, a pleasant villsgo 
close to the shore. Tlie Genoeae coral 
Sahai^ is priacipaify eorriod on by 
Alaeeaa Sttod oat ill thia neighbour- 



hood. There ia a mulo-path from Sth 
MargherltatoBnpallo. Tliis oomplotM 
the lour -of the peninsula.] 

We now rejoin the post-road. 

San' Lorenzo deUa Cotta is new th« 
descent of the road after quitting tha 
tunnel. The church contains a folding 
altarpiecc, attributed to Lvca (T Olaiida, 
representing the MarriBEo of Csoa, the 
Martyrdom of St. Andrew, and the 
raising of l/Szama. 

12 kih Eapello. An extra honS 
between Recco and Eapallo, and cimr 
vend, all the year. Albergo delta 
Posta, a tharonghly Italian Irm. 

An active and flourishing town tt 
9500 Inhah. It spreada beautifulh- 
along the shores of tlie bay, set oEF 
by the ohurdies and a peculiarly 
lofty and slender campanile of maiiy 
open atorics. The housea are oliie^ 
on arcades. On the sca-shoro is a pio- 
turesquc tower, simUar to those on. 
tlie Riviera di Ponente, Probably it 
was erected after the town had bean 
plundered by the eebbrated coraair 
Dragutte, the scourge and terror of 
Italy and Spain, who, landing here in. 
the niglit of eth July, 1B49, surprifled 
and sacked the town and carried off a 
great number of captives. 

The principal ohnroh is coUe^te.; 

one supposed to be a dedication of the 
place hy the Emperor Lewis H. 



8SS. I 



may he looked s 

lioraea. Lace is manuiiictured here. 

Rapallo is celebrated for a festival in 
hononr of the Madonna, which con- 
tinues during the first throe days of 
July. The processions last through- 
out the whde niglit, until break of '- 
day ; the illuniinBtiona extend not on^ 
through the town, but along the ooai* ' 
for an extent of 3 Or 4 milca, the lamps J 
being hung upon stakes fixed into the 1 
sanib. i 

In the vicinity of Eapallo is tha ' 
chapel of MontaUgro, at the dia- ! 
toncB oE about an \«i\rfft'7ii>St-. Ts\aArI 
pleasantly atoaSea. 'ft'jcn. «. \Hi, Wi6 
rounded \r^ fiiva movnAsiro. WMSOBB 
It was fottiided ti\30\&A.Wn,is\'^'^'«' 



124 



Route 1 4 . — Chia van* 



Sect. II. 



of a painting cast on shore from a 
shipwrecked vessel, and to which the 
superstition of the Kappallese at- 
tributed miraculous powers. The pic- 
ture is of Greek workmanship, and 
execrable as a work of art. 

The road from Rapallo to Chiavari 
is exceedingly varied ; sometimes you 
mount long rocky heights, covered with 
firbutus and frequent stone pines. 
Many apparently good and picturesque 
4iouses are scattered high up on the 
iiill-sides, where there is no visible road 
4;o them from below. Churches, with 
white and often elegant campaniles, are 
^frequent all along the road. Towards 
the evening these numerous churches 
«dd perhaps more to the interest of the 
landscape than at any other time, the 
"bells sounding and the light streaming 
through the windows. Sometimes we 
are many hundred feet above the level 
of the Mediterranean, looking down 
Aipon its blue waters ; sometimes you 
pass vast sui-faces of rock sloping down 
"to tlie sea with as even a surface as a 
4rev6tement wall ; and sometimes, as at 
Hapallo, you are on the very level of the 
•shore. There are two short tunnels or 
galleries near the top of the ascent 
between Kapallo and Chiavari. In one 
of the beautiftd nooks lies a most pic- 
turesquely situated village, With its white 
tall houses in the midst of olive groves. 
About a mile before reaching Chiavari 
the road descends into the plain extend- 
ing to Sestri, and in the midst of which 
is situated 

12kil. Chiavari. An extra horse be- 
tween Kapallo and Chiavari, both ways, 
all the year. {Inns: Jja Posta; dili- 
gences to Genoa run from this house 
once a day : the other inn, La Fenice, 
is good.) The chief city of the pro- 
vince, with more than 10,000 Inhab., 
situated in the centre of the bay. It is 
one of the most considerable towns of 
the ancient Genoese territory. It has 
the aspect of an old Italian town ; the 
jiouses generally are built on open 
arcades which skirt the narrow streets ; 
the arches are pointed and circular, 
and with capitals which would puzzle 
an architect by their eimilarity to our 



early Norman, but which are probably 
not older than the 13th centy. Thero 
are several fine churches. In that of 
San^ Francesco is a painting attributed 
to Velasquez, representing a miracle 
wrought for the patron saint — an angel, 
at his prayer, causing water to flow 
from the rock. This picture was re- 
moved by the French to the Louvre. 
Another picture with St. Francis in 
the centre, and the history of his life 
in small compartments around, is 
curious. 

The Madonna deV Orto^ the princi- 
pal church, is annexed to the ecclesias- 
tical seminary. The cupola was shat- 
tered by lightning some years ago. 
The front is unfinished; the portico 
will be upon a magnificent scale, with 
columns six feet in diameter. It is 
said that the work 'will cost 700,000 
francs. Old and picturesque towers are 
dotted about the town. The largest, a 
castle in fact, is now used for the offices 
of the municipality. 

There is the same luxui'iant vegeta- 
tion at Chiavari as on other parts of 
this coast. The aloe, in particular, 
grows luxuriantly, even in the very sand 
of the shores ; and in some points of 
view, when they constitute the fore- 
ground, and the fantastic, mosque-hke 
cupolas of the churches are seen in the 
distance, the scene assiunes almost an 
oriental character. This place is noted 
for the manufactiu*e of furniture, and 
especially of handsome and very light 
chairs, made chiefly of cherry-wood, 
costing 10 or 12 fr. apiece. 

2 m. beyond Chiavari nms the river 
LavagnarOy or " Mume di Lavagna^' 
the Entella of ancient geographers. 

The Lavagnaro winds amongst agree- 
able groves, and the walks along its 
banks are pleasing. The vines throw 
their graceful festoons over poplars 
and mulberries. Along these banks is 
the path leading to the slate-quarries 
of Lavagna, which are worthy of a 
visit. It passes near to the Ch. of 
San Salvatore, founded by Innocent 
IV. (1243-1254), and completed by 
Adrian V. Ascending further, you 
reach tla.e aAate-c^awctvea. T^«i o^-ma* 



RfriffiHF 



Roafe 14. — Sesfri — Braceo. 



1^ 



{i'Om vliiclt the Elate is c^tmE^feJ, 
(liongh not very pietareaque iii form 
or oolour, are itrikiiig from tlieic ex- 
tent. Tlie laminated stmclvue of tlie 
vock eoablBB the norkmeD !□ eomB of 
llieae cavema to dispense -with the 
pillsrs usiuJIf required in eiteiiBlve 
cicsTtttiona. The slate is of a good 
qualitf, and, if the worsen choeo, 
nlBbs might be split of 10 or 12 ft. iu 
length. ; but, for tonTeaience of car- 
i-isge, they splitr them in rogulor Bizea, 
tbe largest Miag about 3 ft. br 4^ An 
argument for the antiqiiitj of the em- 
ployment of tliia material ia found in 
the name uf the TegvUii, the Ligurian 
tribe who inhabited thia part of the 
coa«t preTioiiB to the Roman congiieat. 
Tliere are other qoarriea between La- 
TBgru and Sratri, but nearer the sea- 

We nov reeimie the main road to 
LaTJi^Bj a tbriving and elioer^ town, 
with about 6500 Inhab. The road it 
bordered 1^ tlie slato rock. A strange 
red palaci:, with bartimn towers, is 
here a conapicuons object. The pris- 
dpal cAuToh is amongst the most 
splendid on tho Kiricra di Lerante. 
From the glatea being found about the 
town, thej are radiod in Italian pietre 
di Lavojiaa. From this place the 
celebrated taniiij of the Fiesehi de- 
rired their title of Count. 

Settri Si Levanie, a ton-n on an iath- 
muB at the foot of a wooded pro- 
montoij. (Zniw; Ilfitel de I'Europe, 
good: Albergo d'lnghiltorra.) Soatri 
has the aea on either side, and the pro- 
moutory ia sxipposed to Iuitb been once 
an ialand. In the ohurob of San Pieiro 
la a punting attributed to Pien'xo del 
Vaga, % Holy Family, It ia Baf. 
fueieaque in atjle. A more unques- 
tionable specimen of a good ortat is 
the Descent of the Holy Ghost, by 
IFiatelta, iu tbe ohurcb of the Hatiiity. 
The surrounding scenes ai'e full of 
varied beauties. At the Efltel da 
rEnropo arc machines for aea-bathiug, 
for vrhieh Seatri is well suited, from 
its BicoUent beach and ita delightful 
aituetion. TrareHmg with a rettiirino, 
JOB tlcep the erst aight at Sestri, and 



t Spciia : but although tliB J 
former place is not a post-atation, Iha I 
hotol'keepET will make airangeroents ' 
with the neighbouring poatmaaters for 
traTcUers stepping here, without any \ 
additional charge. 

Soon afler Imvin^ Seatri the rood, 
wliieli runs inland, commences to 
ascend, the island-like promontory 
being left on the rt. liand. It first 
winds through bill a of oliyo-treci,. 



tlie myrtle 
hesdfondK 



grows wild. 

stretching into the sea, and wbit-e bouses, 
and churches dotting the bills, are seen. 
The puss of Bracco, howerw, leadh ' 
above fig-trees and vines, and eveo' J 
above cbertnuta and fic-troBs ; and the. ] 
finely made road, winding smongst- 
suramita of rocka scantily covered with. , 
grass, conlinues to aiicend to 

20 kU. BrtuxB. (From Chiayari tw 
Bracco an raitra horse oU the year.) 
The post-house (1350 ft. above tlis sea^ ' 
ia placed in a comparatively fbrtila 
nook, screened by still higher amn- 
mita, and looking down a long green 
riflttt on tlie blue aen for below. The 
view is eiceediugly Gne, cmbcaoing tha 
bay of Moneglia, Seatri, and ita liigli 
promontory, and the Bay of BapaHo, 
with the headland of Porto Fino be- 
yond. The ascent BtiUoontmues by a 
good ond well-traced road for 3 or 4 
m. bin-ond the Post-house of Bracoov, ; 
until it attains an elevation of about ., 
2100 ft. above the sea, at the Col or 
Pass of Velva ; here all cultivatioifc ' 
nearly ceaaea ; the views both towards 
the aea and inland are very flne from 
this elevation ; a well-managed descent , 
loads from the Pass to Matarana. 

[The gBologiat will find much to ii 



whore ho will be able to eiamina one 
of the fineat eruptions of serpentine in 
Italy. Oil the ascent the serpentina 
may be seen piercing through the beda ] 
of calcarcoua ahite, of the agfi of our I 
British clialk. Some good sections ms.5 ] 
be obseryed neav \.V6 ^saa-. m-Ows (s*<j] 
tmgs Toada for tVe ■poA-llsA "Oi* w* 






126 



Route 14. — Levanto — Monterosso, 



Sect. II. 



not only forming veins or dykes in the 
limestone, but in each other : the 
country E. of the Velya Pass is cut 
into deep ravines, and wherever the 
serpentine shows itself it is character- 
ized by the bareness and desolation so 
characteristic of this rock in every part 
of the world.] 

12 kil. Mat ar ana is a poor village, 
1600 ft. above the sea. (From Bracco 
to Matarana an extra horse all the 
year.) The women here wear their 
hair in nets, hanging on their backs, 
and often a folded cloth on their 
heads, which at Spezia is super- 
seded by a httle straw hat, placed on 
the top of the head, and only used as an 
ornament. The road winds along the 
steep sides of the valley on descending 
from Matarana, the hills around being 
thinly clad with chestnut- trees ; a 
low pass near the village of Beruviana 
(where there is an interesting con- 
tact of the serpentine and secondary 
strata) leads into the ravine, near which, 
at its jimction with the Yara,is situated 
the village of Borghetto. 

12 kil. Borghetto (between Mata- 
rana and Borghetto an extra horse 
both ways all the year) . There is a fair 
Inn (H6tel de I'Europe) at the neigh- 
bouring village of Pogliano, which the 
vetturini make their dining-station. 

The road hence lies for a time near 
the bed of the Yara, a tributary of the 
Magra, and, after ascending the Kecco 
torrent to San Benedetto, ov La Foce 
di Spezia, a long descent, during which 
the traveller will enjoy many beautiful 
peeps over the subjacent bay and 
the distant mountains of Carara, leads 
to 

23 kil. La Spezia. (Between Bor- 
ghetto and La Spezia an extra horse 
both ways all the year.) 

[The coast-road from Sestri to La 
Spezia possesses equal interest, but is a 
mere mule-path j indeed the principal 
means of communication between the 
different places is by sea. 

Moneglia^ a town of about 2000 

Inhab., with remains of its mediseval 

fortifications and battlemented wall on 

the hill to the W, Farther on are the 



towns of Deiva, Framura, and Bona' 
sola. 

Levanto y a large but du'ty town 
of 4600 Inhab., surrounded by over- 
hanging tills. To reach it in any car- 
riage you must go through Bracco. A 
road strikes off to the rt. from the post- 
road to Spezia at La Baracca, the 
highest point of the mountain, half way 
between Bracco and Matarana. In the 
ch. of the Minor Friars is a painting 
attributed to Andrea del Castagno, 
one of the first who practised oil-paint- 
ing in Italy. The subject is St. George 
and the Dragon, and the action is that 
for which Pistrucci was so much criti- 
cised in his design on the sovereigns of 
Geo. III. The spear is ^broken, and 
St. George is despatching the monster 
with his sword. The picture was car- 
ried off by the French, and the Louvre 
numbering is yet upon the frame. The 
principal churchy which was conse- 
crated in 1463, is after the model of 
the cathedral of Genoa; and is still 
a fine building, though sadly mo- 
demised. Several of the houses bear 
marks of antiquity. A smaR district 
below the headlands of Mescolo and 
Montenero, belonging to five villages or 
communities, Monte Bosso, Yemazza, 
Comiglia, Manarola, and Bio Mag- 
giore, known by the collective name 
of the Cinqtte Terre, is remarkable 
for the beauty of the scenery and the 
primitive simplicity (at least in out- 
ward appearance) of its inhabitants. 
Much wine is grown here, the vine- 
yards in some places overhanging the 
sea. The "vino amabile" of this 
district had anciently a very high 
character. From Yemazza came the 
Vemacciay quoted by Boccaccio and 
Sacchetti as the very paragon of good 
liqu<». The present growth, however, 
seems to have declmed in quality. 
Oranges and lemons grow here in great 
perfection j and the fan-palm and the 
cactus opuntia flourish with tropical 
luxuriance. 

Monterosso. ThJB church, built in 
1307, is also after the Genoese model. 
Near Monterosso is the sanctuary of 
the Madonna di Somore,T!Vv^TcoOiL\v^Qw 



Rnnxttii:, 

whicli it Btands coiouuuids a most 
extensive proepPtt, fOBching to the 
island of Corsica. The anuual fi^af of 
the Vir)!iu> held on the 15th and 16th 
oZ August, is attended by gnat num- 
bers of countiy puopla froui tUo ad- 
joining ports. The ooast hetween the 
Capes of MonfCTosso and Porto Teoerc 
is oibremelj bold and arid, without 
any pin™ of iraportaupc-l 

Oulf of Speda. Bj the aucienta 
the Cmlf of Spezia was known as the 
Ghilf of Luna. Its situation is bmu- 
rately described by Strsbo aa i* goo- 
grapheTj and its ohmat^ hy PersiuSj 
who found a retreat on its Ghoree. 

Cor juiwt har &111I, pottquam dfitmult me 



^nd> 14.— O^fy ^etia-^^^etia. 



^ 



shore, opened by the brothers Lenxi, 1 
with Bnth-houso, and ercrj accom-H 
modation for aea-bathers ; eleau and 
comfortable. — HAtel d'Odcssa, a largo 
neiT hotel outside the town, and 
oloae to the sea). Of lata years, Xa 
Spezia having beoome a mueh-fi'e^iuented - 
wotering-placo, the bathing being excel- 
lent, the inna and lodging-houses ara 
ly improved. FamiUea coming ■ 
for the bathing ecason may man 
nrrangcmentB on equitable terms fixr 
board and lodging at the two prin* 
cipal hotels. Spezia has about 10,000 






P»iiM. vi. 



WSera the h«M oliffJM imple front dfapisv. 
And, det-'p vithin, TBcedes the at?lU'rinf bay. 
Tfm part i^ Lttaa,/HrniU, is ww** ifoar note. 

Ilermiridlihiuelf ptoin Qubitni it the tail.' 



Kot less remarkable for it 



hcauh- 



of ootitaining all the deeta of Suropo, 
and posees^iug &om nature more ad- 
vantages than the art of man could 
possibly bestow. Hence Napoleon, in 
the triumphant stage of his career, in- 
tended to render it, the naval station 
of his empire in tho l^editermnean. 
The plan, it is said, was frustrated by 
the intrigues of the French ministry, 
joaloua of tho injury which would have 
resulted to Toulou. The Sardinian 
goremment has now in contemplation 
to remove the Naval Arsenal &om Ge- 
noa to La Spezio, in order to increase the 
Bccpmmodation for the rapidly increas- 
ing trade and shipping at the fiiriner 
place ; but there ara strong objections 
to this, arising front its position, close 
to the oitromB frontier of the kingdom. 



hmnehes of the Apennines, advancing 4 
into the sea. There is some com.- ! 
merae in wine, and oil, which is pnj- ' 
duced abundantly from tho olive-clsd I 
hills around ; afao in thick slabs at ', 
marble for paving-stones, like thorn | 
of Oonoa. Oranges and lemons aM , 
exported to the porta of the Slack Beau | 
Steamers ply twice or three timog a j 
week bcttreeu Spezia and Genoa, en:- J 
ploying, OB they are small, about 10 < 
hours, and starting in the evoningt 
There is a British Consul, Mr. Levsr 4 
(Harry Lorrequer), at Spesia. 

To thosa who are inoliuod to boat- 
ing amusement at Spczio, the brothers ' 
Moscova can be recommended as boat- . 
men. They apeak good Italian, and ' 
are iiiteUigent and civil fellows. 

All around Spaiia the country is 
beautiful. It is studded with vilhii, 
each in its own thicket of luxu- 
riant foliage, intermingled with the , 
olive and the vine. The town has not t 
any prominent odiCoes. An ancient , 
istle or tower, upon which tho , 
biseia," or viper, of tho Viacontis , 
yet to be seen, and a round cita^ J 
del built hy tho G-euocso, oro con* . 
objButa. Tlie church hu 1 
notmng remarkable. ■Whatever im- j 
portiQce ia poasessed by Spczia results 4 
from tlie Genoese, who acquired it ia j 
1276 by tho tlien not unusual meona ] 
of purchase from Nioolo de' Fioachi, i 
Coimt oi liMftgna, kV *. Casi*. Ssitv 
tance from fce aiiOTe, ^ ftift ^. ^ 
o Spciia, lUo ■«a\.m (>l 'Cvva igi^ «W 



128 



EoiUe 14. — NeiffhhourJiood of Spezia, 



Sect. II. 



the remarkable phenomenon called the 
PoUa, resulting from the gush of 
an abundant submarine freshwater 
spring. It occupies a circular space 
26 ft. in circumference, and sometimes 
rises above the adjoining sea-level. On 
the surface, at least, it is however not 
sufficiently fresh to be drinkable. Va- 
rious contrivances have been suggested 
for conducting the water to the shore, 
or otherwise enabling vessels to fill 
their casks. 

Neighbourhood of Spezia. — The 
beaut&l scenery of the gulf of Spezia 
can be best seen by coasting along its 
shores in a boat. The road on the 
western side is very good, and affords 
a beautiful drive as fer as Porto 
Venere. 

There are seven fine coves on the 
western side of the gulf. Beginning 
at the northern end near la Spezia, 
and proceeding along the shore to the 
southward, they occur in the following 
order :^-l. Gala di Mare, in the mouth 
of which rises the FoUa spring : 2. 
¥ezzano: 3. Panigaglia, where Napo- 
leon wished to make his dockyard: 
4. Delle Grazzie : 5. Varignano, where 
are, the quarantine ground tor vessels ar- 
riving at Genoa, an extensive lazaretto, 
and fortifications : 6. La Castagna : 
7. Porto Venerey 2200 Inhab., at the 
extremity of the S.W. promontory of 
the gulf of Spezia, one of the most pic- 
turesque places on the coast. The 
temple of Venus, from which this town 
is supposed to derive its name, may, as 
antiquaries suppose, be traced in the 
dilapidated Gbthic church of San 
Pietro, which boldly overlooks the sea, 
and from which there is a magnificent 
view. Another church worth notice is 
that of San Lorenzo. The marble of the 
rock upon which Porto Venere stands, 
black, with gold-coloured veins, is ex- 
ceedingly beautiful. The Genoese ac- 
quired Porto Venere in the year 1113, 
and encircled it with walls and towers, 
of which some portions remain. Four 
of the then most illustrious famihes of 
G^noa — De' Negri, Giustiniani, Dema- 
rrn^ and De* Poman — were sent to 
■ru/e the colony; and it is probable 



that they were accompanied by others 
of inferior rank, the dialect of the 
inhabitants being still pure Genoese, 
whilst in the vicinity another dialect is 
in use. 

Immediately opposite to Porto Ve- 
nere is the island of Palmaria, a mile 
across, and S. of it the two still 
smaller ones of Tino and Tinetto. In 
it are quarries of one of the most highly 
esteemed varieties of the Genoese 
marbles, called Portor, which has bril- 
liant yellow veins on a deep black 
ground, Uke that of Porto Venere. 
Louis XIV. caused a great deal of it 
to be worked for. the decoration of 
Versailles. The beds dip about eight 
degrees to the N., or a Uttle to the E. 
of N. The island commands fine views 
of the gulf of Spezia. 

Palmaria contains but one house, pro- 
perly so called, which, for several years, 
was tenanted by Mr. Brown, British 
consul at Genoa, and his family. Upon 
Tino is a lighthouse, the persons having 
the care of it being the only inhabitants 
of the island. 

On the eastern side of the gulf is 
Lericif anciently belonging to the Pi- 
sans, who fortified it against their 
rivals both of Lucca and of Genoa. 
Upon the principal gateway an inscrip- 
tion was affixed, remarkable as being 
one of the earhest examples known of 
the lapidary apphcation of the " Hngua 
volgare." It was to the following 
effect : — 

" Scopa boca al Zenoese, 
Crepacuore al Porto Venerese, 
Streppa borsello al Lucchese." 

The wit, if it can be so called, is clumsy 
enough ; but it produced the effect of 
annoying those against whom it was 
directed; and when the Genoese won 
Lerici in 1256, they carried off the 
inscription in triumph; but tliis was 
not enough : they rephed iu their 
turn by some strange rhyming Leo- 
nines of rather a higher tone, which 
are yet existing upon one of the towers 
of the castle. This castle is pictu- 
resquely situated on an advancing 
point, w\^cVi, ft\ie\\-cr«\^ >i>wi \\V>i\ft ecssti 



E.v 



Houte 14..— La 3 



behind it, forms the harbour. It 
at Lorici that Andrea Doria traimferred 
Ms eerricBB from FratieLB I, t« Charles 
v., and thus gaya that preponder- 
ance to the inflnenee of the houBB oi 
Austria in Italy which has nlTactcd 
tbe political aitaatioQ o( tho country 
lip lo the present time. The tflrrora of 
thetJd eornhhe roalia from Lerici to 
Turhia are alluded to bv Dante in hiB 
Purgatorio, when, speaking of tlie 
niify of ascending lie rocV, he saj; 



There is a road connpcting Lerici 
ititli that leading trom hi Spezia am] 
ganana, and which falls into it neai 
the ferry over the Magra. 

The eitreme 3.E. point of this bean- 
tifnl gulf ia Punta Bianca, or White 
Objw, being; formed of wliite marble, 
A little within it ia the Fiuita del Conn 
or Cnpo CnwH, although one aide of it 
is white, being formed of the same lime- 
stone. The entranea fo tho gulf 
guarded by forts, one upon the Funtii 
di Santa Teresa, N.W. of Leriei, 
two on the W, aide, tho bstteri 
Peasino and Santa Mario, near the 
Laaiaretto. A very beautiful eliart of 
this gruat linren lias been recently 
published by the Preiioh DepOt de la 
Marine. 

The LigurisD commentators ui 
raously nminfain that the well-known 
description in Virgil of the gulf 
which ^neaa took refuge after tho 
Blorm was suggested by the gulf of 
Spezia. But that deaoiiption is closely 
imitated from the Odyssey, and ei- 
cepting the island, whieli TirgU has 
added, the ^If of Spuzia resembles 
Homer's harbonr quite as much as 
Virgil's. The two passn^a are JEn. i. 
15!)-169, and Odyssey, N. 06-112. 

The road from Speria runs along a 
rising gromid at the head of the buy, 
ascending gradually the ridge of hiUa 
that separates it from the valley of tho 
Magra, and descending to the river 
near the vSliigg of Vm^sbo, which A 



lad from the ierry (o Lerici strikes off 



CroEs the itagra, now on a iiaa 
bridge; its eonstruttion was attended 
with much dillieully, owinj{ to the ii>> 
stability of the foundation for the pien., 
The Magra, tlie Macra of the Komani,. 
divides the territory of Liguria frtan 
the Lunigiana, and the ancimt Ligurioi 
from Etruria, as it did in more modem 
times the Genoese from the Tuscan 
posaeseion^. 

On the rt. of the Magra, just be&n» ; 
croasJDgit, thotowiiof -Jreoio.perchej ! 
on a mountain, with a high tower and 
fine walla, and Trebbiaaa, equally wett < 
situated a little lower down, are attrac- ' 
tive objects to the traveller, if he haa 
time to Ifnve the beaten track. 

The province of the Lunigiana, 
which wB now enter, belongs geogra- 
phically to Tuscany, though poiiticaJly 
separated from il. It was unequarf|r 
divided between Sardinia, Massa, and 
Carrara (united until lately to the poff- 
sessions of the Duke of ModenaX. 
and Parma i but tho charaoter and 
lineage of the inhabitants continue to- 
mark it as a distinct province, and to 
connect it with ita ancient history. 

lit HI. Sanana. From Spezia to Sar- 
lann on extra horse both n-aja fromNor. 
ItoMay 1. (lam; Albergo diLondra. 
Tho Bibolini, father and son, of the 
Albergo di Londra, arc dso the post- 
LTB. TheHi5teldeIhiNuovaYort, 
V hotel on the ramparts, is kept 
by a brother of Bibolmi the port- 
-laster.) This city, which is the capital 
f the province of Levsnte, oautains 
DOO Inhab. It appears to have risen 
lit of the decay of Luni, from wheno) . 
the bishopric was removed. Its ancient J 
government, which siihsisted till the ,1 
French invaaton, was rather remark.- 1 
able, being veaWA. 'nv kci. »s»aBMq,i 
cHlletl t,\iB " ■PaiXBraowUi;'' litj^,, 'SMj 
the pDrVaittenVo ol "SVswmoji, «• '^ 
mary or iemocvrATO tr.i^^^B.'f,, ^fw! 



130 



JRoute 14. — Sarzana, 



Sect. II. 



mixed aristocratic representative body, 
composed of nobles, artificers, and 
peasants from the district included 
within the jurisdiction of the munici- 
pality. All these constitutional forms 
were swept away by the republicans ; 
and when the Sardinian government 
was restored, the French forms of 
administration were substantially re- 
tained, as in most other parts of the 
kingdom. 

The Duomo, built of white marble, 
begun in 1355, but not completed till a 
century later, is a fine specimen of the 
Italian-Gothic. In the centre of the 
west front is a good and unaltered rose 
window. The feu^ade is remarkable 
for its simplicity. The interior has 
been much modernised, but the tran- 
septs contain two rich and florid Gothic 
altars. There is a Massacre of the 
Innocents, by MaselUty sumamed Sar- 
zona, from this his birthplace. In 
the fagade are three statues, one of 
which represents Pope Nicholas V. 
(1447-1455), Thomas of Sarzana, who 
was a native of this town : his mother, 
Andreola de' Calandrini, is buried 
within. Though bom of poor and 
humble parents, he was entirely free 
from the weakness of nepotism. He 
was the munificent protector of the 
Grreeks when driven into Italy after 
the fall of Constantinople; an event 
which, as it is said, he took so much 
to heart, that it hastened his end. He 
was also the founder of the greatest 
literary repository of Italy — the Vati- 
<5an Library. It was also from Sar- 
zana that the reigning family of France 
appears to have derived its origin, as 
shown by the curious researches of 
Signor Passerrini, the director of the 
Archivio della Nobilta at Florence. 
The name of Buonaparte, a kind of 
sobriquet in its origin (as Malaparte 
was in the Gherardesca family), became 
the patronymic of a junior branch of 



the Cadolingis, Lords of Fucecchio, 
which had settled in the province 
of Lunigiana, and neighbourhood 
of Sarzana, where, as proved by con- 
temporary documents, a certain no- 
tary called Buonaparte hved in 1264. 
It was the chief of this branch who 
emigrated to Corsica (Ajaccio), and 
from whom descended the family of 
Napoleon. The genealogy of the 
Counts of Fucecchio can be traced as 
far back as the middle of the 10th 
centy., so that the Imperial family of 
France may boast of an origin almost 
as remote as that of their Bourbon pre- 
decessors on the throne of that coun- 
try. The Buonaparte family of S. Mi- 
niato was of Siennese origin, and was 
supposed generally before Signor Pas- 
serrini's researches, and by the first 
Napoleon himself, to be that from 
which the Imperial house derived its 
origin. 

The castle and the ancient fortifica- 
tions of the city form an extensive mass 
of buildings. 

In this neighbourhood the peasant - 
girls wear hats which would not be too 
large for a full-sized doll, and are whim- 
sically placed on the crown of the head. 

Sarzanetta, a " rocca,'* or fortress, 
built by Castruccio degli Antelminelli, 
the celebrated Lord of Lucca, for 
the purpose of defending the territory 
against the Malaspinas, from whom 
it was won. It is a finely preserved 
specimen of ancient mihtary architec- 
ture, with its commanding keep har- 
monising with the fortifications of the 
town. 

12 kil. AvENZA. (See Rte. 76.) 

The distance from Avenza to Lucca 
is 52 m., passing through Carrara, 
Massa, and Pietra Santa (Rte. 76) ; 
from Lucca to Florence, by Bly., 48^ m. 
(Rte. 77) ; from Lucca to Pisa, 17 m. 
(Rte. 78) ; Leghorn to Pisa and 
Florence, 68im. (Rte. 79). 



SECTION III. 

LOilBAfiDY. 

I jPaaaporfa, Potting. — 3. Motwy. — 3. WeigUt, Meamret.—i. Territory.— 
B. ifaftn-e of the Couviry, AgricuUvre, Froductioits. — 6. Lanyuarje.— 
7. Fh>e Aril ofZomlardy. 



-.0 Calonde to Milan 

18. Laveno to Vareaa and Cania ■ 

19. Como to LeecB and Bergamo 

20. Leocu to Milan - - - l^'i 

21. ComotoJKfao.byJHbiiio — Bail 153 

22. TWjUti to Tarcae, by Saronno 208 

23. Mfln n to Genoa, by Pbbio - 30i) 
2i. Milan to Piaciniza, by Mele- 

ynano aad Lodi - - 210 



14,1 25. M;iiuito.lfaiiiHa,byCVemona 2231 
112 I 37. MUanto theAiistrian Frontier 
160 ! at I'eBcliierB, by Trmiiylio, 

133 1 Bergamo, Sresaia, Sol- 

- " ■■ 



i, Milan 



f the 



fe- PRELIMDfARY INFORMATION. 

H § 1, PisflroBTs.— PosTma. 

~ Tbe regulations as to passports nte on the same libpral ejstem as ia 
Piedmont. The Sardinian meaaureB of distances, and niloB us to poat-hocBOB, 
nrc now adopted on the &w roads of Loiubardy near ivhich railway troTeUinj; 1 
has not Tet penetrated. i 



Money calculations ai'e ratlit 
made in three ouirencios — in 
Italiane. The Lira Italiaaa i 



that u 






all ofBcial and c 



The Lira Milanese ia a nominal coin : it is divided into 20 soldi, and each 
soldo is divided into 13 denari ; its average value is 77 Prcnch omtJoieB. The 
Lire AusCiiaca is the svianstyer of the German provincea of Austria, being the 
third part of a florin, and containing, therefore, 20 lu«nt£ers, or 100 cantenmis 
ton oonteaimi are sometiniei caBed a soldo, and in Yenetia a piece of S oen- | 
tcBimi, which is equivalent to the kreutier of Qermany, ia ooilEd a carantano ( ] 
but this name is hardly known at Milan. The Lira Italiana is of the same j 
value and subdivlBions as the French fpauc ; in feet, tho coina caswBi. M"^ — ' 
■thu uanie ore tlio francs of France, Savilhiio, and awtttccVatii. 






132 



§ 2. Money, 



Sect. III. 



The following are the comparative average values of these coins i — 

1. 



Lira Italiana, or 
French Franc. 



Lira Austriaca, or 
Zwanziger. 



Lir. 

1 
o 

a 

4 
5 

10 



Cent. 



Lir. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
11 



Cent. 

19 
38 
57 
76 
95 
90 



Lira Milanese. 



Lir. 

1 
2 

4 

5 

7 

14 



Soldi. 

8 
16 

4 
12 



II. 



. 


L. Austriache. 


L. Ital. 


L. Milan. 






Lir. 


Cent. 1 


Lir. 


Cent. 


Lir. 


Soldi. 




1 


1 


~. 


84 


1 


4 






2 




1 . 


68 


2 


8 




( 3 




2 


62 


3 


12 




1 ^ 


— 


15 


36 


4 


10 




5 




4 


20 


6 








10 


' 


8 


40 


12 1 >- 

i 





III. 



Milanese. 



Lir. 

1 
2 
3 
4 

O 

6 
7 

8 

9 

10 



Soldi. 



Den. 



Austrian. 



Italian. 



Lir. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
7 
8 



Cent. 

88 
76 
64 
52 
40 
28 
16 
4 
92 
80 



I<ir. 


Cent. 


— 


77 


1 


54 


2 


31 


3 


8 


3 


85 


4 


G2 


5 


39 


6 


16 


6 


93 


7 


70 



At present the currency of Lombardy, being tlie same as that of Sardinia, 
consists in gold, of Napoleons, and 40 and 80 franc pieces, and in silver of 5, 
2, 1, and ^ franc pieces. 
The Napoleon at the money-changers' is usually worth from 23j to 24 Lire 
Aiisfriaehe, 



S3. Weiffhts— Measures. §4. Terriloiy. 



^H § 3. WEISBTB.— MlABITBEB. 

^^~ Veightf. — Althaugt the nietrical diriaion is the only recognised slandard, 
*■ ^fcere are (eveml load weielita and nieaaurea whitili it is importnnt to Itnow the 
equiyalents of. Thoec of LombBrdj are citreniely ynrious and confused. Until 
witliin a few jeore there were in use, H units of raoney, 100 of linear measure, 
120 of Buperlicial measure, imd a still greater number of meBsures of capacitj'. 
Some clei^eas lias been gained by tbe use oi, and by reference to, the Frendi 
Tnetrieol ^tom, vhieh in still ui>cd in some of tlte govommont transoetionE. 
Some of the most commonly oociirring rocasureB are here given. 

The libbra jdeeola, the brdinu^ commorciHl weight, is divided into 12 
once, 388 danari, and 6013 grani, and equals 6041 English grains, or 0'32679 
'-■' J3S. Thus 1001b. of Milan = 72061b. avoirdiipoie, or 33-68 tilo- 



The lihbra groMa is equal to 38 once, or 3-33 of the lihbra piceola. Hence 
3 libbra grossa equal 7 libbra piecola, and 100 libbra groBsa equal 168-21b. 
UToiidnpois, or 76'35 kilogrammes. 



Land or Saperfcial Meiuiires. — "SVe Fertica pi 
' .and is equal to 733 square English rards, utiiI It 

Fl PeHica is Bqufil fo - - - 1^ Roods. ' 

1 English acre equal to . - - 6^ Pertiohe. t 

Metuuret of length. — The hraccio [a dirided into 12 oiice, 14,4 p\Htti, and 
172S atoou, and is equal Co 23*42 English inches, or 1-95 feet, or D'5949 of a 
French m&tre. 

The Lombard mile contsins 3000 iraceia da legname, and is wjual to 1952 
English jarda, or 1 mile and 190 yards, or 1784 ra^tres. 

The Italian mile, which is sometimes used, la the some as the geographical 
or nautical mile, and is equal to 3026 English yards, and 1853 m^res. \ 
Eight of the Uilanese or common Lomtuird miles make a post. Aa the poet 
is reckoned and eliarged not merely in reference to the length of the road, the 
iber of posts doe? not afford a satisfactory indication of its length. 






.-, TEEniTORY. 



The ancient kingdom posBosscd by the Longobardi, or Longieardf, extended ', 
from the Apennines and the Po to the Alps, eicepting Venice and some few j 
border districts. Erom this great and opulent territory largo portions vrai* j 
detached at various times by the Venetians, constituting nearly the whole- J 
of their terra Jimta dominions. A oonsiderablo portion was taken by the dukei I 
of Bavoy on the W. Mantua, Modena, P^ma, Piacenis, GiiaetaDa, all were I 
diamemberod from Lombardy, and erectad into Imperial or Ett^«.l Safe. '^'*J 
Swiss approprihtad the TaltdUna ; and the XteUim Saffiftf.'s lA ^wft-ireSisioSg 
now the ouitoD Tiemo (wliicli still retains bo ma.07 fea.\\aes ol a.wivBi&'V^ 
banfy), resulted from this ttpquiailion. The icpixtaUc o?T!(i:\lKii\«KWfia «*«! 



134 § 5. Nature of the Country. Sect. III. 

to the lordship of Matteo Yisconti I. in 1288. The Yiscontis gained a great 
extent of territory which had belonged to the other Lombard repubUcs ; and 
their domains were erected into the " Duchy of Milan" by the Emperor 
Sigismund, in 1395. Milan, when acquired by the Spanish branch of the House 
of Austria, was thus reduced within comparatively narrow bounds. The treaty 
of Vienna, in 1814, restored to Austria all the possessions enjoyed by that 
house before the wars arising out of the French revolution, and also gave a great 
deal more — ^Venice, and the whole of the "Venetian terra firma, the ValteUina, 
and some smaller districts. These possessions were erected into a distinct 
kingdom, and still possess a national character widely different from the rest 
of Italy, which continued to be possessed by Austria until last year, when 
Lombardy was ceded to France by the Treaties of Yillafranca and Zurich, after 
the disastrous campaign of 1859, and by France transferred to Sardinia. 

The population, according to the last census, amounts to 2,949,000, divided 
into seven provinces : Milan, including Crema and Lodi, 800,000 Inhab. ; 
Brescia, 453,000 ; Como, 432,000 ; Bergamo, 410,000 j Pavia, 400,000 ; Cre- 
mona, 350,000 ; Sondrio and the Yaltelline, 104,000 : each province having at 
its head a Qx)vernor, and the subdivisions Deputy G-ovemors or Intendentes. 



§ 5. Nattjee op the Cotjntey. — Ageicultfee. — Peodfctions. 

In the earhest times of the history of Italy, the whole of that rich country 
which now bears the name of Lombardy was , possessed by the ancient and 
powerful nation of the Tuscans. Subsequently numerous hordes from Gaul 
poured successively over the Alps into Italy, and drove by degrees the Tuscans 
from these fertile plains. At about the beginning of the second century before 
Christ it became a Koman province. Large tracts of country, which, from 
l)eing swampy or covered with forests, were uninhabited and unfit for cul- 
tivation, were now drained and levelled, and the whole assumed an appearance 
of prosperity and opulence which was not surpassed by any part of the 
Empire. The splendour of Yerona may be traced in its remains ; yet 
Verona was less celebrated than Padua, Milan, or Ravenna. But from the 
areign of Tiberius the decay of agriculture was felt in Italy. In the division 
and decline of the Empire the country was exhausted by the irretrievable 
losses of war, famine, and pestilence. St. Ambrose has deplored the ruin 
of a populous region, which had been once adorned with the flourishing cities 

, of Bologna, Modena, Regium, and Placentia. The barbarians who took posses- 
sion of Italy on the faU of the Western Empire were compelled by necessity to 
turn their attention to agriculture, which had been long in such a state of pro- 
gressive but rapid depression, that the country could not ftimish the imposts 
on which the pay of the soldiery depended, nor even a certain supply of the 
necessaries of life. After the occupation of Northern Italy by the Lom- 
bards, and the restoration of a tolerable degree of security and quiet, agri- 
culture gradually improved. In spite of the constant warfare of the neighbour- 

• ing cities during the existence of the Italian repubhcs, both the towns and 
country advanced in population and wealth. Though the greatest territorial 
improvement of Lombardy took place, perhaps, at an sera rather posterior to 
that of her repubUcan government, yet from this it primarily sprang, owing to 
the perpetual demand upon the fertility of the earth by an increasing popula- 

^'on. The rich Lombard plains, still more fertilised by irrigation, became 
a garden, and agriculture seems to have readied t\ie eit.ceii\sii(» N?\iki\v \t ^till 



^ 



IjOMBAHDY. § 5, A'atwe oftlie Country — AgriaMure. 135 

retftinB. ThougK lombardy vts eitremelj' populous in the tliirtwuth aud 
fouftceijth ceiiturieB, she exported large qiuuititiee of com. Man; csiidIs nere 
cut ; the Na'mglui Qrande wna ctnainenced in 1177, and completed in 1273 ; 
that of Favio, though oalj rccontl; brought into its present coiDplot-e state, wa* 
begun in 1359; that which runs through Milan, in 1*40, and finished in 140?! 
those of Bereguurdo and the UartesDua were begun in 1457 ; and that of 
Paderno in 1318. TlieBe oan^ ftud the gonaral ohBracter of the land, give to ( 
the districts of the plain a considerable similarity to Flanders. 

At the present time this fertile section of the Sardinian Idugdonx, situated 
between the nortliem and the maritime Alps, and stretcliing from the Cottiam < 
and Pennine Alps to the Mincio and the Adriatio, eomprisca the most generally i 
prodoctire part of Italy. It is distinguighed for its mulberrj-trees and silk, its i 
rice, Indian com, wheat, and cheese. Tha yino, olive, chestnut, and a great i 
variety of fraita are raised. Potatoes and various vegetables are also grown j ' 
aud the peaaimtiy are in a better condition than in most parts of the Pi^ninsula. 
The iarm-housea are often large, but inconveniently and scantily furnished, and, 
genemlly apeating, there ia a great absence of completeness about the dwellings 
and in the implements of husbandry : many things arc ibiuid out of order t 
Mid we seldom iail to observe a previdenco of the make-ihifl system in agri- 
culture. 

There is, however, a great yariet j in the pursuits, as well as in tie habitations, , 
of the people. Those in the moimtain or hilly regions live and work very 
differently from those in the low countries of Lombsrdj and Venice. The flat . 
countries derive their fertility &om the mountain regions which fill those grent 1 
subalpine roservoiia the lakes of Maggiore, Como, and GsTdtt with the water i 
which is carried downifards by the rivers, and serves to flood the lajids of the 
plain requiring irrigation. 



heights of the Alps consist of woodland and postures. The trees are ohieQy 
fir, larch, birch, oaks, aud chestnut ; the pastures in the mountain slopes ! 
and valleys. The herds nj^eend with then: jamdies, horses, and cattle to 
great elevations on the Alps during summer, and descend gradually, as in 
SwitieclMid, when winter approaches, to the valleys and low country. Culti- 
vation is attended to with great labour on the southern docliritios of the 
mountain region; the ground being formed in terraces, and the earth ire- 
quontly carried up to supply what has been washed away by the raina. Iho 
vino is oultivateii on the slopes. Walnut and mulberry trees are also 
grown. Common fruits, some hen^> and flax, barley, rye, Indian com, buck- 
wheat, potatoes, common and kitchen vegetables, are all cultivated, though not 
in ijrent abundanee. Wai and honey are eolloctod ; the latter, especially that 
of iionnio, is delicious. 

2. Meii«(>jMi.fi^ioii (that bordering on the lakes) conyjrehenda tlio districto i 
of Gravedontt, Dongo, Bellaggio, Menaggio, Beliano, and Lecco, in (lie jmivinoe | 
of Como ; Lovera and Samico, in Bergamo ; and Iseo, Gargnano, Mft, and | 
DeEeozano, in Brescia. ' It belongs to the elevated region, and forms the sides J 
of high mountains, which shelter it in a great measure from tlie cold winds. J 
It is enpoaed to the warm air from the 8. and from the lakos ; it ia raiTot^ j 
subject to frost OT snow j aud in these diatricla Ihe c^ima^B ia -oia^ -a«i« 
temperate than on the iaUa and pliuns Bito&tad Bit aV>Niei\BS&. Tiib'\r 
is caUiraled in a &fr pituxs, not oijy fov ornament, 'touLt fere S!la trii*.. 



146 § 5. Nature of the Country — Productions, Sect. III. 

These districts produce much wine and silk ; the country is covered with 
villas and gardens, adorned with cypresses, magnolias, or acacias. 

Properties are much divided on the Lake of Q^trda ; a few yards of ground 
set apart for the cidtivation of lemons suffice to maintain a whole family. The 
peasants there, are, properly speaking, gardeners. In this district are produced 
15 millions of lemons, and 40,000 lbs. of oil from the berry of the laurel. The 
lemon-trees are covered in winter by sheds. This region is chiefly dependent 
on the neighbouring mountains for timber. The cidtivation of the mulberry is 
greatly extending, and that of the olive decreasing. 

It must be noticed that for several years the mulberry has by degrees sup- 
planted the oHve, because the product of the mulberry-tree is more constant, 
and the time of crop less distant, whilst with the oUve there are alternate years 
of abundance and scarcity. The olive crop is gathered towards the end of the 
year, and remains long exposed to accidents. In the province of Brescia, 
within these last 36 years, the production of silk has greatly increased ; that 
of oil having diminished. 

3. Hilly ^ or Subalpine Megion. This region, forming a rather narrow belt of 
country, immediately N. of the low countiy, extends along the upper parts of 
the provinces of Milan, Como, Bergamo, and Brescia. 

The chief productions of the hill country are the finest silk, wines, maize, 
millet, chestnuts, fruit, and vegetables. 

The properties are less divided than in the mountain region ; still they are 
often spHt into small farms {Massarie), of the value of from 15,000 to 20,000 
fruncs. 

Few peasants are proprietors ; the greater part are simple tenants, and pay 
in kind. Tliey keep cows and oxen, but milk, cheese, and butter are scarce : 
part of these articles are introduced from the mountains, and part from the low 
country. 

The inhabitants attend principally to the cultivation of silk, and with 
the money gained from this they provide themselves with the necessaries 
of life. The houses in general are large, well aired, and clean, which they 
owe chiefly to the use these rooms are put to in rearing silkworms, as the 
worms are always more healthy in well-ventilated apartments. Here, as 
everywhere in the Lombardian provinces, the abodes of the peasantry are built 
of brick with tiled roofs. 

The climate is salubrious, mild, and free from fogs. Hail-storms are frequent. 
In this region there are often clear days, when the adjacent flat country is 
enveloped in fog. 

4. The upper flat country comprehends part of Somma, Gtillarate, Busto, 
Cuggionno, Saronno, Barlassina, Desio, Monza, in the province of Milan ; Ver- 
dello, TrevigUo, Martinengo, and Eomano, in Bergamo j Ospitaletto, Castiglione, 
and Montechiaro, in Brescia. 

This region is traversed by gentle undulations which branch from the hills ; 
th6 soil is in many places diy, and not of natural fertihty. The districts to 
which irrigation does not reach are often to a great extent covered with heath. 
There are still some forests of oak, pine, and chestnut trees. 

The subterranean waters are very deep, and the wells, for the greater part, 
are some hundred feet below the surface, as in the environs of GaUarate, 
Saronno, and Desio. The peasantry, when they have not some water-course 
in the neighbourhood, are obUged to collect the rain-water in tanks, caXLedfoppey 
or large square ditches embedded with a clayey stratiun, which contain the 
rain-water for the use of the cattle, and which in dry weather becomes green 



"EOHBARlir, .5 5, Naiure of the Country — FroSuctms. 13T^ 

and unwlioleHomc. The ground la cultivated in wheat, rve, Indian pom (wliicli , 
lost BulTers much from the drought), a. little buckwheat, millBt, mulons, and, 
above all, in mulberry and fruit trees. 

In aituations near the water tha apple-tree QouriaUes. Meadow land u 
obtained by means of artiRcifil irrigation. Tho pvaaanta are lesa optive, len 
cordial, and lesE cleanly thaa in the hilly eountry. Inataad of inmaarie, or atew- 
Brdflhipa, oa in the hilis, it ia cuabemaiy to have tonajitfl who pay a mtontfy-rent 
for the house, and a rent in kind for the ground. When in want of fodder" 
for the esttle, the deficiency' ia mode up b; an abundant supply of lupins and 
Ueath, which latter substance is collected for this purpose i it is out from a 
portion of heath-ground, and given aa au appendage to a certain quantity of I 
cnltivBtEd land. 

B. 77(e loiojlai souairg comprehends Holhito, Goi^onKola, STdIzo, Melegnano, 1 
and Corsico, in Milan; the provjnees of Paria, Lodi, Crema, and Cremonu) j 
Orsi'Ii'ovo, Terola-nuova, Sagnolo, and Xjono, in that of Sreseiaj Marraria-, 
Boiiolo, Sabbioneta, Viadana, Sorgo Forte, Mantua, Oetiglia, Lazarra, Goniaga, 
BSrere, and Sennide, in Mantua. 

A grayelly soil prevails also in this region ; but the aamc aridity does not 
exist aa in the upper Bab region. !RiBs of good water are easily formed liy 
digging a very moderate depth. Foaianili, or ArteEian wells on a email scale, 
ore circular eicavalions dug in the earth, in whioh are placed long tuba, from 
the bottom of which bubble up copious streama of wati^r. The water flows from \ 
X.'iiefoiitanili into a canal or ditch, along which it runa to irrigate the lields. The , 
Jbntauili abound rhicQy about Milan. 

Wat«rualao drawn from the rlvera by canala. The amaller canals, cavi and 
ngie, are innumorahlc, and were out at different times. They often encroach 
on each other, mixing their waters, or avoiding them by means of bridges, 
csmila, or by syphons, called sails digatto. 

The watara are diligently meaaured by rules deduced from the hiw of hydro- 
statics, whioh have paased into an habitual practice. The canals are provided 
with graduatfd sluioes (iitcaslri), which are raised or lowered according aa 
tliB oa«e may be. The measure is coUed oncio, and corresponds to the quantity 
of water which passes through a aquare hole, three Mihmese inches high (aa 
oneia of Milan equals two inches Engliah} and four inches wide, open one inch 
below the surface of the water, which, with its prraaure, detemnnes a given j 
Telocity. The value of a property depends on the command, the convenienoy, ) 
and tlie goodness of the water. Hence the distributiDn of Iho watera is the , 
object of local statutes, of diligent care and keeping. i 

The best u-rigation ia that in the low lands of Aulan, Lodi, and Pavia. 

In the country between Milan, Lodi, and Pavia, the cheese colled in the ' 
country Grami, and by ua Pamicaon, is made. The proviuoes of Lodi and 
Pavia are the chief seats of its production. 

In the eastern part of Lodi and Crema flax is largely cultivated, and ex- 
ported to foreign countries 'by woy of Venico and Glcnoa, In tlic morshy dis- 
tricts of the provincea of Mjlon and Cremona the cultivation of rice is on the 

In the more elevated parts of the Oreroonese country, where irrigation la 
imposaible, the cultivation of various kinds of grain, flax, mulberry-trees, and 
the vme la followed. In the low parts, along the Po. towards Casal maggiore, 
wine is the principal production. 

The inhabitants of the low country are leBa \Tvol\ivBii. Va \ie \-a4.'0ft'is\H<a,_ 



138 § 6. Language, — § 7. Fine Arts. Sect. III. 

countries manufacturing industry is greatly restricted. Nevertheless, in 
the Cremonese territory much linen is manufactured about Yiadana; and at 
Pralborno, in the province of Brescia. Some classes of the peasantry, and 
chiefly those who tend large flocks, often change masters, and show a little- 
settled disposition. 

In the Milanese districts the rich cheese called Stracchino is made from 
cream and unskimmed cow's nulk. The best is produced about Qorgonzola, 12 
uf. E. of Milan. 

SilJc. — ^The culture of the mulberry, and the rearing of the silkworm, have, 
in commercial value, become the most important branch of Lombard industry. 
The white mulberry grows chiefly in rows, surrounding grounds imder other 
cultivation, over «, great extent of Lombardy. In most places it is pollarded, 
and is a dwarf thickly-leaved tree. When allowed to grow naturally it attains 
a tolerable size. 

All things considered, Italy ranks higher for her silk than any other country. 
She suppUes her own manufactures, and exports largely. In thirty years the 
production has grown from a small value to the enormous amount of 300,000,000 
Austrian livres (more than 10,000,000Z.). In 1800 the whole produce of the 
Lombardo- Venetian kingdom did not exceed 1,800,000 lbs. of silk ; in 1856 it 
reached 2,512,500 lbs. avoird., valued at 3,333,000/. sterl. The value of the 
silk exported fi^m the whole Lombardo-Yenetian territory amounts to nearly 
6,000,000/. sterling. 

In Lombardy it is not found advantageous to raise more than one brood of 
worms during the year. The eggs are hatched in May, before the beginning of 
which a supply of leaves cannot be reckoned upon. The reeling the cocoons 
takes place in the autumn. A woman seated at a caldron containing hot water 
prepares and arranges the cocoons, while a girl turns the wheel on which the 
silk is wound. Considerable skill is required to manage the reeling. It is 
usually carried on in large buildings, with machinery adapted to the purpose, 
and is a very animated spectacle during the autumn. 



§ 6. Langfage, 

The Lombard dialects are, perhaps, the harshest in all Italy. The sound of 
the French u is generally found in them. It is not merely imknown, but quite 
unpronounceable, beyond the Apennines; andYerri, the able historian of Milan, 
supposes it was left behind by the Ghiuls. 



§ 7. I^NE Aets of Lombaedy. 

For painting we must refer our readers to Kugler's Handbook of the Italian 
Schools, ed. Eastlake ; for Architecture, to Mr. Fergusson's Handbook of Archi- 
tecture, Mr. Street's Marble and Brick Architecture of North Italy, which is 
specially dedicated to a class of edifices almost peculiar to Lombardy.* 

• Kugler's Handbook of the Italian Schools, 2 vols. 8vo., edited by Sir C. Eastlake, P.R.A., 
1855. Fergusson — The Illustrated Handbook of Architecture, with 850 Illustrations on wood, 
2 vols. 8vo., 1855. The Marble and Brick Architecture of North Italy during the Middle Ages, 
ify 0, E. Street, 1 vol. 8ro., 1855. 



XOMBABITT. § 7. -R'ne Ajis ofLoTJiiarify. 139 ^ 

Of anoiciit simlpture little has been found in Lombftrdy, Bipopt at Bpesein. The ■ 
eariieat apeciuiene of the sculptiue of the middle ages are reniBriisbl; rude ; fully 4 
as coarse as those of our Saxon BncestorB ; of wUch the haa-reliefa of the Forlft ' 
£omKnH,at Milua, exeaateil about the jeor 1169, immediately after the rebuilding 
of the citVj are a ^triiting ap^cimeJL About A hundred jean aftenvarda aoulpture | 
produixd a class of ligiLrea almoat peculiar to Lombardy . These are frequently ' 
colossal, of liona and othor oninialaj enpporting the pillara of the portala of tbe 
churahea, or Bspulchral urns. lu the 14th century several Tuscan sculptors 
ware called in ; but there appear to have been also many Lomhards, though 
ferr of their namea have heeu preserved, as they do not seem to have adopted 
the custom, bo muck pnielae&d in other parts of Italy, of inacribing tltem 
upon their works. The records of tlie Certosa of Favia, begun, in IITS. suddenly 
afford us ample information respecting tlio artiata employed upon that splendid 
building — Amadeo, BHoschi, Ellore ^Alia, Anlonio di Looaie, BattUla and 
Sfefcmo da Setlo, J?iontello, Sana, Agrate, Fnaina, Solari, and others ; hot 
without giving us the means of distiaguishing, at least in this hnilding, the 
parts upon which, they were aererally employed. They have, however, one 
uniform cbaraoter, eitraordiiuiry delicacy of fimah in the details, and a piclorijll 
nuLUagemcnt of their figures in bas-rulief ; so that it ecema as if the works of 
MantegoH, or Pietro Perugino, were transferred to marble. Many of tliese 
sculptors were also architfcta, and in estimating tlie works of Uiis school it must 
be recollected that sculpture was seldom used % them aa a, detached ornament, 
but was alwaya attached to some arehiti.'ctural structure. j 

The pride, however, of Lombard sculpture ia Agogiino StisH, also called i 
Sambaja, Samiara, or Zarabaja, who iloimahed in the eai'ly part of the 16th ( 
L-enturj'i and by whom the cinque-cento style, or that of the Honaiasunce, was 
carried to perfection. The minute omamenta in which he excelled ore usually 
arabeaijaes of elegant invention, intermiied with fanciful ornament — animala, 
weapons, pieces of armour, flowers, inaeota, Buati is suppoaed to have died 
about the year 1540. BramMlla, who worked some time before the death of 
Susti, has much of liis character. The coloasal ttrma of the Soctora of the 
Church in Milan cathedral, supportiug one of the great pulpits, are by him : 
his minuter ornamraitB are aeatooly inferior to thoae of Buati. The great 
and interminable work of the cat liedral of Milan, by furnishing constant employ- 
ment, has maintained a achool of sculpture of eonaiderable merit, which sab- 
eiats U} the present day, A majority of the workmen and artists have alijvayB 
been from the neighbourhood of Como, where the profession has been liereditary 
in families from the time of the Lombarda. In recent times Maraheii and 
the Monti fiuuily have given a well-deserved reputation to the Milanese achool 
of sculpture. 

The monuments of Roman architecture in the territory of ancient Lombardy 
are not numerous. Few of them are in accordance with the rtUes of olas- ' 
Bicdardhilcoture: the sculpture and the omamenta are indifforeiiti most of 
them belong to (he lower empire, and have what may be considered a provincisJ 
character. 

In mediiBval architecture Lombardy offers much, both in civil and eooiesias- 
tical buildings. The town-halls are interesting : thoy usually stand upon open 
nrchoa ; and above ia the Siaghiera, or balcony, from which the magiatrate* 
addressed the people. | 

Military architecture also esiats in great variety— the rude toner of the I 
periods of Queen Theodolinda or King Berengnriua ; the oaatolWei ^iasft A * 
the Signori, in the ages of the Italian republics ; fltii V\ie Ti^^jSm ^oftuSictJwlBif 
which, inn'iiterl in Italy, lisvo become univowal t\irovig\iQw.\,'£'oaii\ie. 



140 



§ 8. Fine Arts of Lombard^/. 



Sect. III. 



The earlier Lombard cliiirelies exhibit a very peculiar character, allied to 
that which we find in many of those of GJermany, especially near the Rhine. 
It is vei^^ marked, and will be found to exist in almost every structure of that 
class. Of Pointed architecture there are two distinct" styles : the one simple 
and bearing much analogy to the Italian Gothic of Tuscany ; the other florid 
or highly ornamented and introduced from Germany : to the latter belongs 
the Duomo of Milan. 

Many of the Gothic and some of the cinque-cento buildings are of moulded 
brick, to which are added terra-cotta bas-reUefs. This kind of work has been 
carried to a degree of excellence which can only be appreciated in Lombardy. 
The colour is a shade lighter than that of our Tudor buildings ; the durability 
of the material is such as to be nearly as lasting as marble. In the style of the 
Renaissance Lombardy excels. Tlie works of Bramante and Solari are fuU of 
imagination and effect. In later times Palladio had comparatively Uttle influence; 
in civil architecture, the palaces of MHan, Pavia, and Cremona, are inferior to 
those of Yicenza or Gtenoa. At present the most eminent architects have been 
formed, either directly or indirectly, by the French and Roman schools. 

In the middle ages Lombardy was the great instructress of Christendom in 
civil law and in medicine ; *and in modem times science has been cultivated 
hCTe with success ; while, in imaginative hterature, Monti was one of the most 
elegant of modem ItaUan poets, and the name of Manzoni is an honour, not 
only to Lombardy, but to the Italian tongue. His historical novel, the Pro-* 
messi Sposi, should be in the traveller's hands in his excursions in and about 
Milan. It is a real guide-book both to the scenery and the history of that 
lovely land. 



ROUTES. 



ySOM THE LAaO MAaGIOEE TO 
MILAN. 

As a great number of persons who 
visit Northern Italy arrive by way of 
the Simplon, the St. Gothard, and the 
Bernardino passes from Switzerland, 
they will find it convenient to ex- 
amine the shores of the Lago Maggiore 
before entering Lombardy, either by 
stopping at Baveno, or at the Isola 
Bella, where there is now a very fair 
inn (the Delfino), if they have crossed 
the Simplon, or at Bellinzona if they 
have come over the St. Gothard. We 
wi2] suppose thereiore that the tra- 



veller, after having visited the great at- 
traction of the Lago Maggiore, the Bor- 
romean Islands, wishes to proceed into 
Lombardy: for this purpose he may 
choose between two routes, by Sesto Ca- 
lende, or by the far more agreeable one 
through Laveno, Yarese, and Como ; 
by adopting the latter he will be able 
to visit the Lake of Como and its 
magnificent scenery. 



I/JJIBAUUV. 
^17 ^ Austrir 



nuale 17.Si<slo CaUnde to Milai: 



I4i 



4] Austrian pojta^=40 m. 

d &om Hie Sunplan to Scato 
Calenda is deacribed in tha Matidbooh 
/or 3aiilztrla»d (Rte. bS). Biiilivsy 
(rora Aruiut to Borgo Ticmo (cmploj- 
ing ^ hr.), from wMcli an omnibua 
runs to the ferrf-boat at Seato. Since 
tha opening of the riy. from Novara to 
Milan, it will afTortl the moat expedi- 
lioua meaoa of reaching the Lombard 
-capital from the eborBS of tiie Logo 



There are three linea of stdamers dailj' 
ascending and dBBOendlng tlio Xaiie, 
all in porrraipondence with the riy. trains 
&om Milan, Genoa, and Turin ; bnt as 
their hours of starting laiy with the 
season, the traveller must havo tb- 
coarse to the local time-tables for the 
necesaary information. The boala be- 
long to the Sai^liniBn Oovemment and 
are well appointed i that which leaves 
Afagadiao at 5'50 A.if . calls at Larcno 
«nd leola Bella, arriving at Arena at 
11'50, in time for the trains to Milan, 
Oonoa, Bobgna, and Turin. The boat 
that leaves Scatoat 515 A.u.,aiidAroua 
&t 7, oaUa oleo at Lavono ahout 9^ a.ii., 
andreacheaMflgadinoatllA.u. Nearlj 
all tlie boats, both in ascending and 
denceoding, stop aS the Borromean 
lalaoda to land passeugere. 

Seato Calende. {Isa; La Posta, vsr; 
indiSrent.) Public conveyances start 
for Milan on the arrival of each steamer, 
Hiid a regular diligence at midday. The 
distance, about 40 Engliiih mUes, re- 

'rea at least 6 hours, and in rnioj 
ither longer; but es the same dis- 



^Km^e 



tanco oan be performed in 3J hr». ^ 
paasiDg by Norant, (Ids road ia now ad> j 
dom naed bj travellers. £icept tlie| 
luediceval ehuroh of l^an Douato, thero ] 
is uuthing to detain the traTellcr at < 
Seato. 

On leaving Sesto the road orosse* : 
the plain of the Tieiiio by a very gr«r h 
dual rise to the foot of tlie hills ot Im ' 
Somma, oa 'we approach which large ' 
deposits of erratic blocks are aeon on ' 
either aide : the village of Soiama is ' 
situated on the top ot tbia ridge, 500 
feet above the Lago Maggiore. Th* ' 



and during the ascent from Sesto, is ' 
magnificently grand. TlierD is a ms- 
diseral castle bearing the arms of tha , 
Viscontis at Sonuna ; but the object 



Iff IS a 



oy. 



press-tree, so old as to be said to dats ' 
from the time of Jidius Cresar. It ii , 
in an angle formed by the bend of the 
road, which Napoleon is said to have 
caused to be diverted from its straight 
courae in order to prevent the deatruc- 
tiou of the tnse, at first decided on by 
his engineers. It was in this neigh- 
bourhood that tookplaoe the battle 
between Scipio and Hannibal, wherein 
the latter vas victorious. 

Somum ia situated at the top of a 
ridge pai-allel to the courae of tlie Ti- 
eino, consisting of sand and gravel, • 
with huge boiJdora, and which, from 
ita elevation, cannot be irrigated. IJa 
many parts it forma a waste, covered 
with heath, and known aa the Snt- 
^nt'fruof SommaandCtaUoratc. Efforts . 
have been made at different times to 
bring it into cidtivation, but to little , 
purpose, A plan lias been recently 
brought forward to convey A canal M { 
irrigation from the Lake of Lugano, tha ( 
only one of the groat Alpine reservoirt J 
whose superior level woidd allow of ita j 
waters reaching here. 

li Oallarate, a large town on the ! 
eastern aide of the Somma hills, at ths | 
commencement of tlio fertile rogion. ; 
that pitenda lo lltOuMv ■, ^wsi to^ 
branch oK irovn \wTe Mi "^ atfaa lya 'flS 



142 



jRoute 18. — Laveno to Varese. 



Sect. III. 



N". and to Busto Arsizio on the S. A 
vei7 rich district, cultivated in Indian 
com and midberry-trees, extends from 
Oallarate to * 

J Cascina Buon Jesu, a short dis- 
tance beyond which the road descends 
to the Olonna, which it crosses at Cos- 
teUanza^ around which there are some 
large villas. From this point it follows 
at a short distance the 1. t)ank of that 
river as far as Milan. At Busto, 1 m. 
firom Cascina, are some frescoes by Or. 
Ferrari, in a church bmlt from the de- 
signs of Bramante. 

1 J Mho, near the confluence of the 
Liira and Olonna. There is a large 
church here, designed by Pellegrini, and 
only recently completed. From here 
the country is one continuous garden of 
mulberry-trees, maize-fields, and mea- 
dows, until at the termination of a fine 
avenue we arrive opposite the Tri- 
umphal Arch of the Simplon, close to 
which is the gate by which Milan is 
entered. 

li Milan (see Rte. 21). 



ROUTE 18. 

LAVENO TO VAEESE AND COMO. 

30 m. 

This route may easily be performed 
in a day, enabling the traveller to visit 
Varese and Como, or in two, to visit 
not only the town of Como, but its 
Lake, and to reach Milan by railway on 
the second evening. By persons press- 
ed for time Milan may be reached from 
Laveno in 7 hours, as expeditiously 
as by the preceding route, whilst in 
every respect it is more agreeable and 
equally economical; leaving the Bor- 
romean Islands or Baveno by the 
steamboat, which calls at the former 
about 8 A.M., and lands its passengers 
at Laveno at 9, from which a good 
public conveyance starts for Yarese and 
Como, and for which places can be 
secured on board the steamboat. As the 
steamers do not generally embark car- 
riages from the Borromean Islands or 
Baveno, it wiU be necessary for those 
who have arrived at the ktter place 
by the Simplon road to send them 
round to Fallanza, or Arona, or to 
embark them on board one of the 
large lake boats, which will generally 
make the passage across in 1^ hr. 
The advantages of this over the pre- 
ceding route are that it traverses a very 
beautiful country, and will enable the 
traveller to visit Yarese, to make a diver- 
sion to Lugano from Como, to examine 
its lovely lake, and to see Monza before 
proceeding to the capital of Lombardy. 

The distance by water from the Bor- 
romean Islands to Laveno is about 4 m. 

Laveno (Inns : La Posta, very fair ; 
il Moro), the principal town on the 
eastern side of the Lago Maggiore, 
is situated on the shores of a small, 
well-protected bay ; it had of late 
years been selected as the naval sta- 
tion for the Austrian war steamers, 
and had been fortified by the erec- 
tion of two strong redoubts and an 
extensive casemated barrack, Laveno 



IiOMBAilI)T. 



Jioule 18, — Gavirate — Varese. 



143 



IB Bappoaed to ocpiipj the Bite of t!iB Bo- 
iDBHstation ofLabienum. The distance 
from LavBno to TanraB ia 13 m., and 
is performed in about 3 hrs., althougli 
for a part of tliB waj tho road con- 
stHDtl; BaBends. Leaving tlie toirn wo 
Bkirt the iiase of the mountain of La- 
TCQO, or Monte BoBcero, which forms 
so fine bh object in Ihc landBCiipe from 
tbe BEntral parts of the Logo Mag- 
giore, rifling graduaUj to (Javirata; 
halfway between these toiniB a road 
up the Vftl Guvio branches off on Ibo 1. 

&aeirate is a large village on arising 
ground near tlie W. eitremitj of the 
Late of Tareso, oyer which the view 
from here is very beiutiful. A great 
deal of silk IB prodnced bepeabouta, and 
in the neighbourhood are iguarries of 
tho varietj of marble called martito 
majolica b; the. Milanese, eitensivBl^ 
naed fbr ornamental purposes : it is a 
variety of compact limestone of tlte age 
of om- lower English. chalt-bedB. Be- 
tween GJavirttte and Vareae, 7 m., tha 
road ftsoends aa far as Coiaeno, where 
it ottiiina an elevation of about T50 (t, 
abovo tlio Lago Maggioro, passing 
through Ltiinate in a charming poai- 

paBt oyer the Lakes of Comniahbio, Mo- 
nate, and Tanse ; there are some liand- 
BomB villas about Comeria ; a gradual 
descent of 3 m. from hcra biinga as to 
Vureae, passing on the 1., but at some 
distonBe, the Mil on nhichia situated 
tho Sanotuaiy of the Madonna del 
UODte, or the Sagro Monte of Tarese. 

13 m. Vaekbk. ZBtwv Za Stella and 
r Angela, both bad, and tho less the tra- 
■vdler has to do with them the better ; 
persons, however, who may wish to 
visit the Sagro Monte will be able to 
do ao, and on their return procood to 
Oomo, or to arrive at Camerlata in time 
for the last train to Milan. The public 



traveller to go 

Ooaohea leave Vareee for Camerlata 
(the Stat, of the Oomo and Milan 
Sly.) and Coma 3 tirnea a day, at 4 
and S-SOA.Jf. and S'io P.M., pBrfonn- 



ing the journey in about S lire,, &re 3 
lire ; and othera start regularly for Lo- 
veno and Luino, corresponding with 
the calling at these places of the ateaiu- 
boats on the Lago Maggiore. A public 
eonvejance, but of an inferior descrip- 
tion, for Milan, by the way of Saronno, 
in 5 hrs. 

All round Yareso ore numeroui ' 
villas of the wealthy Milanese, of whom 
many reside here during the autumn, 
Varese is a city of 8000 Tnhnb., and 
liaa an hospital, schools, a theatre, 
and several factories for the winding 
of silk from the cocoons. The prin- 
cipal church, St. Tiftors, was built 
from tho designs of JPellegrim .■ the 
facade was completed in 1791, by 
Folaek. It contains frescoes, and a 
Magdeieue, by Morasioae ; B 8t, 
George by Cerano. Tlie adjoining oc- 
tagoiud baptistery ia in the Lombard 
style. 

Tho chief object of attraction here 
ia tho celebrated Sanctuaiy of the 
Yirgin, oalled Ia Madonna del Monte, 
which is situated on a loily hill about 
S TO. to the H.W. of tho city. It 
is said to have been ibunded in 397 
by St. Ambroae, to conunemorate a 
great victory, — not in Brgument, but in 
Bnna, — gained by him on tlds spot over 
the Arians. The slaughter ia said to 
have been so great that tho heterodox 
party wepo exterminated. It was dedi- 
cated to tho Tirgin, and her atatue, 
which was consecrated by St. Ambrose, 
is atiU preserved. At the end of the 
IGth eenty. Agagnari, a Capuchin 
monk, built, out offiinda raised by his 
cxortions, the 14 cliapels which stand by 
the side of tho road wliioh loads to the 
church on the summit, A good road 
leads to RobareUo, a vUl^e about 
2^ m. from VarBsB, where ponies or 
sodan-chairs may be lured to make the 
ascent. A pony costs 1 fr, BO c. j a 
chair i fr. The walk up will be, to moat 
people, easy. The entrance to the | 
road ia through a speeies of triumphal 

The fourteen c\vB.ye\a tB^twsCTi. ■C«^ 
mysteries ot flie KQaarj ■, "Ota ^aSl 
five rcpTeeent the mjsteneft 'i'i- Vs^i''^ 



144 



lloute 18. — Co'iiw, 



Sect. HI. 



second five the mysteries of grief, 
the last four the mysteries of glory. 
They contain coloured statues in stucco, 
like those at Yarallo and Orta (see 
Swiss handbook), and firescoes, by Mo- 
razzone, Bianckii NuvolonCy Legnam^ 
and others of the painters of the Mi- 
lanese school of the 16th century. Over 
the fountain, near the last chapel, is a 
fine colossal statue of Moses, by Gaetano 
Monti, Connected with the church is 
a convent of Augustinian nuns. There 
are several inns at the top, the number 
of pilgrims being very considerable. 
Those who are not tempted by the 
religious objects may be perhaps in.- 
diMoodi to visit the Santuario by being 
told that the ascent affords the most 
magnificent views of the rich plain of 
Lombardy as far as the Apennines, of 
the higher and lower chains of the 
Alps, and the lakes of Yarese, Comab- 
bio, Biandrone, Monat«, Maggiore, and 
Como. 

■ Five roads branch off at Yarese : one 
to the S., which joins the Simplonroad 
at Gallarate ; a second, 13 m. to 
Laveno, where the Lago Maggiore may 
be crossed to the Borromean Islands, 
and to Stresa, and Baveno on the Sim- 
plon road ; a tliird to Como, hilly, 
about 17 m. ; a fourth by Arcisate to 
Porto on the lake of Lugano, the last 
very interesting to geologists ; and a 
fifth to Milan by Saronno. (See Rte. 
22.) 

On leaving Yarese for Como we pass 
through the suburb of Biume, which 
contams several handsome villas of the 
Milanese aristocracy, and soon descends 
into the pretty valley of the Olonna. 
After crossing the river a steep ascent 
brings us to the town of MalnatCt on 
the edge of the escarpment which 
bounds the valley on the E. ; a gradual 
ascent during the next 6 m., as far as 
the village of Olgiate, leads to the 
highest point of the road, about 730 ft. 
above the Lake of Como. The scenery 
on the L towards the Alps is very fine ; 
a deep depression marks the site of the 
Xjake of Lugano, through which may 
A^ descried the church of San Salvatore, 
which £rom the summit of its dolomitic 



peak towers over the capital of the 
canton of Ticino. As we approach 
Como the road runs near the foot of a 
lower range of subalpine hills, at the 
E. extremity of which is the Monte 
Baradello, remarkable for its fine ruined 
mediseval castle, and close to which is 
the rapidly-increasing village of Camer- 
lata, where the Stat, of the Como and 
Milan Ely. is situated. Travellers 
proceeding to the latter place will stop 
here, whilst those going to Como wiU 
continue by a steep but a well-managed 
descent of less than a mile, entering 
the town by the new gate behind the 
cathedral, after passing through the 
long suburb of S. Abondio. 

Como, 20,000 Inhab. {Inns : the 
Afigelo, kept by Sala, has been greatly 
improved of late, and is now excellent ; 
charges moderate — bed-rooms 1^ and 
2 fr., very good table-d'hot« 3 fr., and 
breakfasts Ij fr. ; it is pleasantly situ- 
ated on the edge of the quay, on the E. 
side of the little port. On the oppo- 
site side of the harbour is the Albergo 
d^ Italia^ tolerably good. The Corona^ 
outside the town, second-rate. Fami- 
nes who wish to remain some time at 
Como may make an economical arrange- 
ment, during their stay, at the Angelo. 
There is a very comfortable hotel, with 
moderatQ charges, the Albergo delta 
Regina d* Inghilterra, near the Yilla 
d' Este at Cernobbio, about 3 m. from 
Como, and in a delightfid situation ; 
attached to it are baths, large pleasure- 
grounds, and a water-cure estabUsh- 
ment ; an omnibus runs between it and 
the rly. stat.) 

Steamboats leave Como at 8 a.m. and 
5*30 p.m. for CoUco and the different 
places on the lake, and return to Como 
at 1 and 8*30 p.m., performing the 
YOjAge each way in 3 hrs. Other 
steamers leave Como on market-days, 
Tues., Thurs., and Sat., at 1*30 p.m., for 
the several villages on the lake, and at 
early hours on Sat. for Lecco, return- 
ing in the afternoon — the latter will 
afford the best opportunity for seeing 
the Lecco branch of the lake. 

Diligences, A coach leaves at 2*30 p.m. 
I daily, for Lecco m ^ Ya%,, T«X.\!cnKccv^ 



■JSwfe 18, — Vomo — GoffeffraJ. 



14S 1 



every morning ai 10. To Tureeo 3 
timeB a day, in 3 hrs., fftro 3 franca. 

Bailwaff ia mia*. The station ii at 
Oamerlata, about a mile 9. of Comii, 
for whiuh onmibusaa start to meet 
every train (3 or 4 a day), iara 60 
centimes; but an eiorbitiint cliarge U 
made for lag^age, one-half the amount 
charged for its conveyance by riy. to 
Miiau. 

Plena ure-boats for eienrsions may be 
hired opposite the Angelo : there is no 
tariff; 3 fr. on hr. is tlie understood 
ohnrge, but by burgaining muy be re- 
duced to 2. 

Como, situated at one end of the late 
called by the anejeuts the Lacus La- 
rii, was andently a tonn of consider- 
able importanee. A Gtreei colony 
having heen settled in tliis district by 
PompcLuB Strabo and CorneUus Scipio, 
and subsequently by J. Ciesar, CotnHiN 
wan inaile tlie chief seot of this colony. 
It hail hitherto been an inconaider- 
nble pla^, but from that time it rose 
to a great degree of prosperity under 
the name ra Comum Novum. It 
gjpears from the lottera of the younger 
Phny, who was bom at Comum, that 
Itis native city was, in Ms time, in a 
very Hourishmg stale, and in the en- 

i'ojmCQt of all the privileges v'li'^ti ^ 
onged to a Boman titwtieipiiiiH. There 
ore tnh-es of tliiB Groeli colony in the 
names of many places on the lake, 
e.ff. Nesao, Pigrs, Lenno, Dorio, &o. 
Como does not Sgiiro in history after 
the fall of the Empire till the year 
1107, about which time it became 
an independent city, and engaged in 
wars v<\i\\ Milan, which ended in its 
total destmetion in 1137. It was re- 
built by Frederio Barborossa in 1155, 
and four years aftarwards was for- 
tified. It remained a republic for two 
centoriea, until it fell under the do- 
time Como has followed the fortunes 
of Milan. 

Oomo ifl a place of considerable 
trade and industry. Its eilk fabrics 
fonUBriy stood ncnt in rank to those of 
Milan. ITio BtutfB known by tlic 
names of mantmi and amorelle iiad a 
jr. Tio^—IBBO. 



■wide reputation. Time was when the 
number of looms at work nt Como 
exceeded those of Lyons. Como has J 
manufactures of silke, woollens, cotton, 
yam and soap. It trades from its port tya \ 
the lake ohiefly with Switierland. It \ 
exports rice, com, and other Rgricul- i 
turaJ produce for the mountain dis- 
tricts, and hirge quontiliea of raw silk 
in transit through Swilsorland, for 
Germany and England, by the routes 
over the Splugen and St. Qothard, 

The view of Como from the N, is 
peculiarly striking, the city beine 
spread out on the undulating shore irf 
the lake ; and in the background is 
the ancient picturesque tower of the J 
Saradello, connected with one of the 1 
most iitiportant psssagee in the liistory 
of Milan. Hgo Foscolo used to say 
that it was impossible lo study in the 
neighbourhood of Comoi forthebeanty 
of the landscape, always temptina you ^ 
to the window, quite prevente*! jou 
from giving proper attention to your ' 



id solidity of tlie material used i 
its construction. It is of marble. 
A long series of architeota, of whom 
Lorenzo d^ Spaii was the (Irst, from 
1396 to the last century, have been ^ 
enga^d upon it, and henee a corre- 
sponding variety in the style of its 
different part*. The fa^de was be- 
gun by LHCchino di JUila'Ui, in 1460, 
and completed, between 1467 and 
1526, by IbUHWo BodiMio, of Ma- 
ro^ia. This architect was also a 
sciuptor, and an excellent workman. 
Many of the statuea were eieouted by 
his own hand. But ho was criticised ■ 
by a fellow artist, the celebrated CWt- ] 
tojbro SolarOt nicknamed Ii Qoibo, . 
or the Hunchbook; by whiae advioe 
the designs for the other Wirta were 
altered, perhaps improved. The ottpola, 
ordome,wns completed about 17M, by , 
Juvara. The fa^o is Dothio with | 
the exception oC "the tivKK wAtso.**! 
floors, wliiiAi Bfe tOMni^ta&sft., wiA A 
the riclieal 'LoTnlaaiiS. al-j^o ■- '^'s 'i*'?™ 



146 



Eoute 18. — Como — CatJiedraJ. 



Sect. III. 



is divided by slips, or pilasters, with 
statues all the way up, enclosing a most 
magnificent rose window, and studded 
with rich tribunes and canopies; ele- 
gant trefoil corbels circulate round 
the cornice and pinnacles, the centre 
of which chiefly presents a circular 
temple of small columns on brackets, 
rising from a tall pedestal and sup- 
porting a diadem of lesser pinnacles, 
and is unique." — Hope. The lower 
portions of the pilasters, and of the 
fa9ade, are covered with curious em- 
blems, some mnsonic, some religious, 
interspersed with texts and inscrip- 
tions in beautiful Gothic letters. 
Many of these bas-reliefs are types; 
€. g. a foimtain, a vine, a Hly, a church 
upon a lull. Amongst the larger 
bas-reliefs, the Adoration of the Magi 
in the arch of the door should be 
noticed ; but the most remarkable or- 
naments of this front are the statues 
of the two Plinys, erected by the 
Comaschi in the 16th centy. to their 
" fellow citizens." They are placed 
under canopies in an ornamental 
style by Rodario. The younger Pliny 
was much attached to Como, and 
he resigned a considerable legacy in 
its favour, founded a school, built a 
temple, and fully deserves commemora- 
tion as a benefactor. Yerona has also 
claimed the honour of being the birth- 
place of the elder Pliny ; but aU the 
ancient authorities are in favour of 
Como, where the Plinian family was 
long established. Of the younger 
Pliny, there is no doubt that he was 
bom here. Yery many inscriptions 
have been found at Como relating to 
the family: one, much mutilated, is 
bmlt into the wall of the S. side of 
the Duomo, relating to a Caius Pli- 
nius Csecilius Secimdus, who may be 
(though some doubt has been raised 
by antiquaries) the individual of whom 
Como is so justly proud. 

The other sides of the exterior are 
in the style of the Renaissance. The 
lateral doorways, particularly that on 
the northern side, with angels and fan- 
ciful colmnns, are elegant. Both these 
doorw^s were executed by Bodario. 



The arabesques are interspersed with 
birds, animals, serpents, and children. 
The 3 windows of each aisle are splen- 
didly ornamented with arabesques and 
portraits, in relief, of illustrious men, 
in the best cinqueeento style, and the 
buttresses between them surmoxmted 
by elegant pinnacles. The cupola is in 
the complicated and overloaded style 
of the IVench architecture of the 18th 
century. 

In the interior of the Duomo the 
nave and two aisles are Italian Gothic^ 
with finely-groined vaults ; the transepts 
and choir are the Italian of the Re- 
naissance. The choir is circular, with 
5 windows on two tiers, each separated 
by Corinthian pilasters ; around are 
placed statues of the patron saints of 
Como. The painting of the vault of 
the choir and nave has been recently 
restored. The large wheel window over 
the W. door, with those on each side 
containing stained glass paintings of 
the patron saints in three tiers or com- 
partments, produce a very fine eflTect, 
especially with the evening sun shining 
through them. 

Paintingsy altars^ and monuments. — 
Luini. The Adoration of the Magi, in 
distemper. In this painting the artist 
has introduced a giraffe, drawn with 
tolerable correctness. This seems to 
show that the animal had then been 
seen in Italy. — St. Jerome, or rather 
the history of liis life, in compart- 
ments. — The Nativity, also in distem- 
per. In this painting Luini' s sweet- 
ness of conception is exemplified in the 
expression of the Yirgin mother. — 
Another picture, St. CMstopher and 
St. Sebastian, attributed to Luini^ is 
probably only a copy. Gaudenzio 
Ferrari. The Marriage of the Yirgin, 
a fine and unaltered specimen of this 
master. — The Flight into Egypt, in 
distemper. Some of the altars and 
chapels are worthy of notice. 

The Altar of Santa Jyucia, by To' 
maso di Rodario, who has inscribed his 
name, 1492. The smaller statues at 
thjs altar are beautiful; so also are 
the candelabras, which, however, are 
partially and injudiciously concealed. 



XOMSiiflfi; 



fi&Ms ■**— :«»«— OriR*fra3-^SMfoHo. 



«t^ 



^//or of St. Ahoadio, third Bishop 
of Camo i lijs statue iu the centre ; 
Jifa miradea in oompirtments itrouiid. 
Aflar of Santa ApoUoma, erected hj 
Ludovioo di Montolto, a caoon tif the 
Cttthadra], io the bbhib rich and sin- 
gular style. Altar of Sa*i' Ambrasio, 
erected ,in 148S, b; John de Viiludino, 
aiiotlier canon. Mlor of the Vergine 
deW Asgelo, a fine ftltorpieoo, repro- 
eentisg St, Jerome, St. Frsnols, St. 
Carlo, and St. Anthony. Id &Dnt, 
the C^OQ Btumundi, by wliDm it waa 
presented. 

Chapel of tie Ferine delV AsaaiUa, 
cnlled the Altar of the Marcheee Gallo. 
The Baldachino of marble is splendid. 

A modem alt-arpiece, faj l^archeH. 
St. Joseph and our Lord as a child) 
onnsidored as one of the best vrorlcs 
of tills artiBt. Allar of the Mater 
Buloarrom — AU of Ihe Cenacola — 
both with flue sculptures : the first 
has an Entombment over it. 

Totttb of BUhop Boniface, of Hie 
14th oentuiy. The statue of the 
bishop, filoopiog in death, is atriting. 

Monument or Benedetto Biovio, the 
Lijtorian of Como. Benedetto was 
the brother of the more celebrated 
Paolo QioTio. He was the Srst eiaet 
arclisologist who appeared during the 
revival d" letters. One of Ilia moat 
important works, yet in manuscript, 
is a Thegiiunti of Boman insoriptions 
found in this country ; and it ie said 
that not one spurious inscription has 
been detected In these collections. Ho 
died in 15W, and was buried here 
with great soleiunity. This tomb nas 
ereoted by his brother in 1556. 

In the SacrUtff ie a fine picture by 
im'ni— a Vo-gin and Child, with SS. 
jBrome, Augustine, Anthony, and Ni- 

Thore are two organs ( one biiilt in 
1596, but afterwards much improred ; 
tlie other, in 1G50, by Father Her- 
mann, a QwTuan Jesuit. The former Is 
rather out of repair, the tone of the 
latter is exquisite. Just as you enter 
tiie Duomo are two animals, neither 
lor tigers, but something be- 
eapporting the tiisins ibr lioly 



1^' 



water. These, without doubt, are 
remains of tlie porch of the original 
cathedral, and supported Its coiiunns. 

Tlie eircukr Battisterio, on the L 
of tlie entrance into the cliuroli, is 
attributed to Bramanto i it cOtisistA 
of 8 Corinthiau columns of Bn'ccia 
marble, with the font in the oeutre^ 
but, hating neitlier dome nor cupola, 
hasanunliniahedlook. The ornaments 
exliibit the last gradation of the Be- 

The Bishop of Como has an taten- 
sive diocese, extending over a great 
portion of Italian Switzerland. The 
DuoTOo wits wholly built by voluntary 
contributions, the Comaaahi taking 
great pride in this chief ornament 
of their town and diocese, and ths 
manner in which the edilice was begun 
by the people is recorded in the inscrip- 
tions upon it. 

By the side of the Buomo stands 
the Broletto, or town-hall, built of 
alternate courses of black and wtiite 
marble, and with ono entire courso 
and a few red patcliee. Tliis build- 
ing, completed iu 1216, is interest- 
ing as a memorial of the ancient 
days of the independence of the Ito- 
liau republics ; as such a Broletto is, 
or has existed, in every Lombard city. 
Tlie lower stoir is a Loggia upon 4 i 
open arches. Above is a floor with largo 
windows, wliere the chiefs of the mu- | 
niinpality assembled ; and from the 
middle window projects the " ringki- 
era" from which tliey addressed the 
crowd of citiiions convened iu parlia- 
metU belawi for, in the oonstitutionol 
language of ancient Italy, the parlia- 
menlo was the primary assembly of 
the democracy, irom whence the 
powers of government originated, and 
to which the ultimate appeal was to 
be mode. 

The lower arches liere are pointed, 
the upper circular. , 

Como possesses some other curious ' 
mediffival antiquities, — none more re- j 
markable than the ohnreh of San Fe- | 
dele. Tliis building ift atmavissmji. 
be of llio emi o! ftie "Ui^iM "" ' " 
aTid tlie eiWrior ia ^vwiA'j 



148 



RovJte 18. — Como — Pvblic BvMings — Port. Sect. III. 



It was for some time used as a cathe- 
dral before the erection of the present 
one : it has a triangular arch with 
straight sides over the entrance, oc- 
tagonal cupola, and round apsis, small 
galleries outside under the cupola, 
and a triforium or gallery inside for 
the women. The style is not unlike 
that of the oldest churches of Co- 
logne. It contains some very rude but 
remarkable imagery ; e. g. & conflict 
between a dragon and a serpent, flank- 
ing a doorway (itself most singular) 
at the N. side of the apse. The in- 
terior has been moderhised. In the un- 
altered parts serpents and Hons abound. 
One monster sustains the basin for 
holy-water. There are some good fres- 
coes here by Camillo Procaccini. 

Ch. of St. Abondio. In the suburb 
of the Annunciata, and "on the site 
of the ancient pity, at a short distance 
from the present one, is the church of 
San Carpofero, first Bishop of Como, 
reckoned the oldest of the place, with 
a round apse and square tower. The 
church was first dedicated to St. Peter 
and St. Paul, and after the death of 
St. Abondius, third Bishop of Como, in 
469, to that holy prelate, buried within 
its precincts. It was the cathedral of 
the old city, presents single round- 
headed windows, with small pillars and 
arches, again enclosed in broad flat 
borders of the richest arabesque and 
basket-work. Though small, it has 
double aisles, and of the outermost 
range the pillars are smaller and the 
arches lower than of the innermost." — 
Hope. It contains the tombs of several 
of the bishops of Como. In the apse 
are some curious old frescoes, repre- 
senting ficenes from the life of our 
Lord. This church now serves as the 
chapel of an ecclesiastical seminary. 

Tbe Theatre^ standing behind the 
Duomo upon the site of the old castle, 
is a handsome building. 

The lAceo Imperiale e JReale, recently 
completed. The front is adorned with 
busts of the great men whom Como 
has produced. It contains reading- 
rooms, a bust of the celebrated singer 
Mad&me Pasta,, a coUection of natural 



history, a laboratory, &c., and is well 
organized and conducted. 

The Piazza Vblta, so called from the 
eminent philosopher, whose statue, by 
Marchesi, stands in the centre of it, 
opposite the house in which he lived. 
Como gave birth to Piazzi the astro- 
nomer, the discoverer of the planet 
Ceres, and to Volta, whose discoveries 
seem to pervade the whole system of 
physical science. Alessandro Yolta was 
bom at Como, February 19th, 1745 : 
he was intended for the law ; but hie 
first work, pubUshed in 1*769, and 
which treated upon electricity, sufii- 
ciently announced the direction which 
his mind had permanently received. 
He died in 1819. 

Palazzo Oiovio, still belonging to 
the family, contains a number of Ro- 
man inscriptions and other antiqidties 
— a collection begun by Paolo G-iovio. 
Later times have added several interest- 
ing relics from suppressed churches and 
convents. The library contains several 
of the inedited works and papers of 
Paolo Giovio and of Benedetto the 
historian. 

The gateways of the city are fine 
specimens of the military architecture 
of the middle ages, and add much to 
its picturesque appearance : that which 
opens towards Milan is the most 
perfect. 

The little Port of Como is formed 
by two piers, each ending in a square 
pavilion, the view up the lake from 
which is pleasing. dElie lake aboimds 
with fish. Of these the most numerous 
are the trout, pike, perch, and the 
agone^ a species of clupea. The agoni 
migrate periodically from one end of 
the lake to the other. 

The plan of the city of Como has 
been assimilated to the shape of a crab, 
the city being the body, and the two 
suburbs of Vioo and St. Agostino being 
the claws. Vico is on the N. : it 
abounds with pleasant walks and 
handsome villas. The Raimondi or Odes- 
calchif Visconti, and Rezzonico Ttllcts 
are amongst the most splendid, and 
farther on the Villa d* Este, long inha- 
bited \>y Q,ueeii Caio^ixie oi Hiigland* 



SoulB 



— Como — Subvrbs. 



"Sear here ia the Gallia, supposed to 
be upon the Bite of one of Pliny's villas. 

Tlie Borgo di St. Agostiim ia tbe 
manulaoturiiig suburb of Como. The 
chucok oud the Ciuta Oallietts., con- 
taioing some tolcnible pictures, are its 
principal objects of note. In tho bill 
above is tbe grotto of SI. Sonalo, muoh 
Tiaited b; pilgrims ; ajid still higber is 
B-nmaie, tiao a place of fond dufotion ; 
the object of popular veuemtion being 
an oncieat, uncouth image called tbe 
Seala Ougtieimiaa, on English princess 
uuknotm to bistorf, and who, tljilng 
from liar native home, beuHjne a recluae 
and died here. The peassjil wonieu 
beUeve that bj her intereeasioD tbe; 
obtain help in nursing their ohildren. 

Tile inhabitants of Como and its 
ricintty ham bean ixJebrated as masons 
ever since the days of the Lombards. 
In tliB laws of Botbar, one of tlie 
earliest uf the Lombard lungs, mLmtion 
is made of the " Mugistri Comatini," 
who travelled tbe country as masons, 
which tbay eontinuu to do at the pre- 

There is a cbarmiug walk &om Como 
to Blevio, on tlie E. shore of the 
Uke. 

Above Camerlaia, about a mile to 
tbe S. of Ck>mo, upon a saudttone roi^k, 
stands tbe loiiy tawoc of Baradello. 
Some ascribo tliis building, whose cos- 
tellated walls run down the abrupt 
sides of the steep, to tbe Louibard 
kings. It is more probably of the age 
of Barbaroasa. It is interoatlng as 
the monument that witnessed tho faU 
of the first of the dynasties wMoh suo- 
cessivBlr tyrannised over Milan. This 
oily, one of the first which asserted its 
inuependeooe, was the first amongst the 
Italianrepublica toloBoit, Hurfreedom 
dates from the peaoe of Constance in 
1183 J her Ihrsldom from 1346, when 
Fagana delta Tom, tho chief of that 
once powerful family, was inaugurated 
as tbe proteftoroftherepubUo. In the 
hands of tbe Torriani the power con- 
tiuued until the accession of Napo- 
leone dcllo. Torre, who, creatEd Asziano 
Ferpeiao by the people, and Viow of 
phe Empire fySodolph of Hapeburgh, 



governed with absolute authority. Tlie i 
nobles whom ho liad exiled, giiidud by 
Ottone Viscanti, were in possession of 
the city of Como, and on the 21st of 
January, 1277, Napoleone and his troop 
fell into the power of their enemy. The 
victors spared the Uves of Napoleone 
and of all the members of bis famiiy 
whom they captured ; but the prisoners ' 
wore put in sep arate iron cages in tbe 
Baradello. TVIiat ultimately became 
of the others is not known j bnt ITapO' 
leone, after lingering aeveral years, de- , 
voured by vermin, and flufibring tba 
most extreme misery, probably mod- ! 
dened fay it, ended loa captivity with 
his life by dashing bis bead against ' 
the bars of his prison. Upon the fall 
of tho Torriani arose the power of the 
Viflcontis. 

Great numbers of erratio blocks ore ' 



) be s 



1 the D 



Tbe materia! of these boulders , 
ia usually granite or fcneisa. Many 
are found in the mountains between 
Como and Leooo. One of the most 
celebrated la on the mountain-pastures 
of San Primo, wMoh stands above 
the bend of the lake, near Carvagnana 
and Nbbso. This boulder is 59 ft. long, 
394 ft- "iiJe, and 26 ft. high. There 
ia another at a sliort distance from 
it, smaller, whloh the country people ' 
call the SasBo della Luna. Mtuiy have 
beenbrokennpforbuildmg-stones. Tlie 
pillars of the church at Yalmadrera, 
near Lecco, which are 4S\ tt. high, and 
3 ft. 8 in. iu diameter, were cut from an 
erratio block found upon Mount Val- 
madrera at the lieigbt of 1065 ft. above 
the level of the lake. Tbe geologist 
Curioni observed a mass of granite of 
about 710 cubic ft. some bunded yards 
above Caninago, 2 m. to the eastward 
of Como. 

[Although few now trflvol otherwise 
than by the KaQway, it may suit per- 
aons traveUing with vetturino or Uieir 
Own horses to continue along tbe old 
poat-road S5 m. (there are no longer 
post-stations upon it), which posses by 

Fino, Tbe comAT^\\BTOWftftift%ii. 
obaracter ot tiio ^Xavn ol \iCni4!«A'5— « 
level, exoeedin6\j foitie, esA. 4ji*IB 



150 



Houte 19. — Como to Lecco and Bergamo'. Sect. III. 



with yillas: maize and millet are the 
prevailing crops. The road is often 
bordered by rows of trees, and mulberry 
trees are interspersed in the fields. 

BarlassitMy a town of some ex- 
tent. The church which belonged to 
the suppressed convent of Dominicans, 
is now converted into an ecclesiasti- 
cal seminary. The convent annexed to 
it was founded upon the spot where 
St. Peter Martyr was slain, as com- 
memorated in Titian's celebrated pic- 
ture. About 2 m. further on the road 
is CesanOf belonging to the Borromeo 
family, who have a large villa on the 
outskirts of the village. 

About 3 m. beyond Barlassina, near 
Bovisio, and on a sUght eminence about 
a mile on the rt. of the road, stands 
the Villa of Mombello. It commands 
a fine view of the plain of Lom- 
bardy. Here Napoleon established 
himself after the fall of Venice. '* Ne- 
gotiations for a final peace were there 
immediately commenced; before the 
end of May the powers of the ple- 
nipotentiaries had be^i verified, and 
the work of treaties was in progress. 
There the future Emperor of the 
West held his court in more than regal 
splendour ; the ambassadors of the Em- 
peror of Germany, of the Pope, of G-e- 
noa, Venice, Naples, Piedmont, and the 
Swiss republics assembled to examine 
the claims of the several states which 
were the subject of discussion ; and 
there weightier matters were to be de- 
termined, and dearer interests were at 
stake, than had ever been submitted to 
European diplomacy since the iron 
crown was placed on the brows of 
Charlemagne. Josephine there received 
the homage due to the transcendent 
glories of her youthful husband ; Pau- 
line displayed those brilliant charms 
which afterwards shone with so much 
lustre at the court of the Tuileries j 
and the ladies of Italy, captivated by 
the splendour of the spectacle, hastened 
to sweU the illustrious train, and vied 
VFith each other in admiration of those 
warriors whose deeds had filled the 
world with their renown. Already Na- 
poleon acted as a Bovereign prince j his 



power exceeded that of any living mo- 
narch ; and he had entered on that 
dazzling existence which afterwards en- 
tranced and subdued the world." 
MILAN (see Eoute 21).] 



ROUTE 19. 

COMO TO LECCO AKD BESaAMO. 

This route, whilst it passes through 
perhaps the most lovely country in 
the N. of Italy, will enable the tra- 
veller who has visited the lakes to pro- 
ceed to Venice without passing through 
Milan. As we have already remark^, 
most travellers who now enter Northern 
Italy from the side of Switzerland do so 
by the great Alpine passes of the Sim- 
plon and the St. G-othard; to those 
this route may be preferable, as enabling 
them to continue their examination of 
the subalpine region and of the other 
lakes on the southern declivity of the 
Alps before proceeding to Venice. We 
have already described in the preceding 
route the first part of this subalpine 
region between Laveno and CJomo. 

The distance firom Como to Lecco is 
17 m., the road rather hilly, but in 
every other respect excellent. A good 
public conveyance leaves Como every 
day at 2*30 p.m., arriving at 7. Here the 
traveller will find another on the fol- 
lowing morning for Bergafto, at 7*30, 
from which the Rly. is now open to 
Venice. 

Leaving Como by the Porta Milanese, 
we soon begin to ascend the hills on 
the "E. oi thfi toNiTCLj \ai^ VJcka x'a^iS^ 



LOMBABDY. 



el9.- 



attains rta luglioHt Wei oppOBita tbe 
viUage of Taeeriwrio on the 1., betoro 
which it posBUS wsar Camiiago, in 
the modest church of which ia the 
tomb of Ihe oelebrated Volts. Fur- 



ther I 






the 



s the 



K 



pointed ridga of Monlorfa 
will well repuj the geologist for visiting 
it (It oonsista of stnta of n ualcnrtious 
breccia of the Eocene period) ; the Tie w 
from the suumut is splendid. Conli- 
nuiog our rood, ws pass through the 
viUagea of C'aaaano and Atbeae; at the 
entraniiT of the former, on theL, iaa cu- 
riouB loaning bell-tower. Second Albese 
we soon reach the top of a ridge, from 
which the panomma over the Piau 
d'Erbn, the Lakes of Aleerio, Fuaiano, 
and Anone, bauked by the serraWd Al- 
pine peaks of Ouuzo and of the E«eegoae 
di Lecuo, ia estraoiel; beautiful. A 
^ndual descent of 2 m. brings us to 
Mrha, one of the largesl; towns of tlie 
district, and which gives its name to ii 
the Kan <PErba, renowned as th 
most fertile in the upper or hill; n 
gioQ of Lombard^ : there arc several 
handsome liitas here, eapecially tlie 
VtlU AinaliOj celebrated by Forinj, bora 
the grounds of which the view over the 
Sriimza is incompanible. There is a 
Tory fair inn at £rba, where the 
tourist not preaaod for time can take 
up quarters and make excnrsioiis, 
amongst which the most interesting, 
especjollj to the geologist, will bo to 
the cavern called the lluuo del Piombo, 
3 m., eicavHt«d in tha secondary 
oolitk' limestone j to the Pi " " 
Fiimo, celebrated for its hug 
blocks; and in the opposite direction 
to the beautiful villas of S ' ' 
Jnverlgo, the latter the masl 
the Marquis Oagnala, the celebrated 
architect ; Ui Zho'iki, with its tall Lom- 
bnrd eampaitile, on the site of tlie S,o- 
man Forum Licinil ; and to Camo, and 
even to Bellagio on the Lake of Como, 
ascending the vetj picturesque ViUaa- 
■siita. Two m. bi'jond Erba the Lam- 
hro torrent, which Boon afterwards 
ipties itaeif into the Lake of PusinDO, 
crossed, the road approaoMng the 
Ajjd that o£ AuOQc, pa^ifltf 



igh the villages of Cesanu am) 
Suello, and afterwards over a gcntla « 
sing ground ; it follows from Miencd i 
le Britorto stream, the natural emio- 
Liy of the Lake of Anone, to Malgrat* ' 
opposite to Leoco. A road of about 
' "I. down the rt. bank of the Adda, 
la to the bridge at a short distance 

7 m. LtL-co (iTHjg.- Leone d'OrOj- 
Crooe di Malta), a town of SOOO Inhab. 
on the 1. bank of the Adda, where it , 
emerges from the lake at the foot of an,<, 
eleyatad range of mountains called tha| 
Reaegone (saw), from its serrated sum- . 
luit, and which forms bo pieturesqiMI 
an object in the landscape of tW| 
Brian^a and Pion d'Erbu. Lecco u 
situated on the shores of the lake, wbiidt ' 
<melimes inundates its streets: it ial 

Jhuie of considerable trade in Bilk - 
iron, of whiotiit has manufactures. : 
The market ou Saturdays is a buar; 
I, and in the Vdlogiatora season U ^ 
the place of rendezvous of the ridx 
Milanese Sunilics from their villas m. ' 
the neighbouring Brianza and Piaa . 
d'Erba. The branch of the Lake of. 
Como at the extremity of which Lecoo 
is situate is muoli wilder than tha- 
W. arm, and offers little to attract 
the tourist. A steamer traverses it ■ 
once s week, on Saturday, arriving. ' 
&om Como eorlj far the market, and;] 
returning in the afternoon. Diligenceci 
start dailj to meet tlie rlj. at Monia. I 

Tbe distance irom Lecco t 
is about 16 m., and, as both ti 
post stations, travellers with their OWU 
carriages will have no difficulty in.' 
getting on. A bir public conveyance : 
leaves here every morning at 7-30, ax- \ 
riling in 4 hre., in time for the r£y. 
train tliat reaches Brescia at 2'3(^ 
Verona at O'lS, and Venice ot 10-30 vnA 

Leaving Lecco, the road follows tbaj 
L bonk of tbe Adda, wlucb here widen*] 
so as to form a narrow lake called thu 
Iiogo di Olginate, and the river itsalfl 
for 3 m. fui'ther, from wheneo it runii 
in a more eaalerly direotiDu through tJfr, 
gano, close to l:\uaWg,Bt V-Kia^a cS. C»b 

Crossing ft \o-w Xtffl,^ eiyi:[*.rj , ^ 



lo2 



Eoute 20. — Leoco to Milan, 



Sect. m. 



eastern continuation of the Brianza, 
beyond the Adda, we reach Ponte San 
PietrOy on the Brembo, a stream which, 
rising on the S. declifity of the high 
alpine ridge that bounds the Valtel- 
lina on the S., empties itself into the 
Adda near Vaprio after a long course 
through the Val Brembana : 4 m. be- 
yond P. S. Pietro we reach tlie lower 
town of Bergamo (see Rte. 28), 



ROUTE 20. 



LSCCO TO MILAN. 



32 m. 

Lecco. (See Rte. 19.) 

The road which connects Lecco with 
Milan is called the Slrada militare, 
being a continuation of the great mili- 
tary road across the Stelvio, which is 
carried along the eastern shore of the 
Lake of Como. (See Handbook for 
South Oermany^ Rte. 214.) There are 
diligences at 5'15 a.m. and 215 p.m. 
to meet the rly. at Monza. On leaving 
Lecco, the road crosses the Adda, by a 
bridge of 10 arches, built by Azzo Vis- 
conti in 1335. The riyer is here flow- 
jng^m theLake of Lecco into the Lake 



of Olginate, or Pescate. About six miles 
from Lecco, a little to thert. of the 
road, is the village of Greghentino, 
which gives its name to the neighbour- 
ing valley, Not far from this place, in 
descending to the Lake of Olginate, 
may be seen an enormous assemblage 
of erratic boulders. A geologist has 
described the spot by saying that it 
looks like a battle-field in the war of 
the giants. 

The road all the way from Lecco 
to Monza skirts the district which is 
known by the name of La Brianza^ 
the last elevations of the Alps, or 
what may be called the Subalpine 
hills, towards the great plain of 
Lombardy. Its boundaries are not 
exactly fixed, but generally the Bri- 
anza is held to include the hilly coun- 
try between the Adda and the Lambro, 
from Lecco and Valmadrera, down to 
Monza, and on the W. of the Lambro, 
from the neighbourhood of Arosio to 
Como, and the foot of the mountains 
lying between the Lakes of Como and 
Lecco. These mountains enclose the 
head valley of the Lambro, called the 
Yallasina. The Brianza- is celebrated 
for its richness and beauty : its inteUi- 
gent inhabitants are masters of the art 
of cultivating the mulberry and rear- 
ing the silkworm, as well as in the 
preparation of the raw article for manu- 
facture. Tlie finest silk in Lombardy 
is produced in this district. 

1^ Carsaniga. To the eastward of 
this hes the Montorobbio, which pro- 
duces the best wine of the Milanese. 

Arcore, There is a fine villa belong- 
ing to the Count Q-iov. d'Adda here. 
The chapel near the park gate is a hand- 
some modem building in the cinque- 
cento style : in it is a beautiful monu- 
ment to a young Countess d'Adda, by 
the Swiss sculptor Vela, and a fine 
Madpnna over the altar by the same 
distinguished artist. Before reaching 
Monza the road nms along the vice- 
regal park on the rt. 

1 Monza. See Rto. 21. 

The Strada miUtare for half the 
distance to Milan runs nearly parallel 
to, and at a «k\iott dc^\«Ckce ^oftcv, >OfikSi 



LOMBIBD!. 



Route 21.— Como h Milan by Moir. 



o Milui it 



rsilroad. Halfway 
it, and from thanca nina in a atraighlT 
line to Loreto, where it faUa into the 
Bergamo and Bmsua rood, which enters 
Milan by the Porta Orientalu. The 
old poat-road eiitera Milan bj the 
Porta Nuora, running during the ladt 
two miies dose by the aide of the canal 
of thcMartamna. Tothert.oftheroad, 
about two miloa afttn- baring crossed 
the railroad, is La Bicocea, whore the 
French, under Lautrec, were defeated 




^^kiregn. 











GunMi»j 


















29niU 






laiiway 


iwn Lam 


laanea 


Como 








a day 


statioi 




a Lamnago 


rtgno, Dmio M 




and 



Milan : the distance. 30 m,, is per- 

foraiiid in an huiu: and a half; the fares 

md 3-90 A. 1. An omnibus loaves 

no t« meet every train, by whinh a 



the 1 



nthe 



convey pi 
Briania, 

The old post-road ia more agreeable 
and varied than that hv Barlassina, and, 
although nearly parallel to the railway, 
may, fn>m ita more beautiful scenery, ba 
preferred by many. The roote of tlia 
Alpa eitend in succeasive ranges boforB 
us ; and the foregrounds, especially 
near Como, are beautiful. The yagetiw 
tion ia luxuriant, and, like all in the 
neighbourhood of the lake, mOTesmUltem 
than that which the traveller will Snd 
at Milan. Mulherry-treea abound, tha 
district being celebrated for ita silt ; 
ami the eiotics, naturaliaed by the mora 
wealthy inhabitants, who delight in | 
their gntdens, flourish in the utmost 
luxuriance. The Calalpa is very com- 
mon. Leaving Camcrlata, the Blwy, 
runs through a beftutiful country, eo- ' 
vered with rioh vegetation, to 

61 kil. Oujcioffo Stat., about 2 m. (m ' 
the L of which is 

QiaW, in arioh district of the BcianM, 
Tlio bell-tower of the church, vritH ' 
ita projecting battlements, is alendsr 

id taU. In the middle Bgea it woi i 






1 beacon, corresponding with * 



the Mont« di Baradello, 
'I'he fires blaziug on the summit havo, J 
often announced the advance of thflr ] 
Milanese against the Comaschi during . 
their Sequent wars ; and the Bara* ' . 
dello, equally by its fires, gave notics^ 
of the approach of any enemy on tha , 
side of the lake. ] 

Galliano, near Cantli, has a ouriouf j 
Lombard church, now a barn. Ita 
contains Christian inscriptions of (ll*! 



by order of Arimbert, the oelebrate^T 
Archbishop of Milan. They oontaittvl 



154 



Route 21. — Monza — Dttomo, 



Sect. in. 



giinda. The baptistery is remarkable. 
The building was sold as national pro- 
perty during the French occupation. 
From Cuociago the rlwy . follows the 
Seyero torrent as far as 

10 kil. Ca/mnago Stat. At Meda^ a 
short distance on the L, are the ruins 
of an extensive monastery. 

7 kil. Seregno Stat. 2 m. on the 1. is 
the village of Ca/rate^ on a rising ground 
above the Lambro j an agreeable excur- 
sion may be made from here to Inve- 
rigOy the beautiful villa of the Marquis 
Cagnola, a fine specimen of his archi- 
tecture. The view from the top of 
it commands the entire region of the 
Brianza. 

2 kil. Desio Stat. Here the Torriani 
were entirely routed by the Viscontis 
in 1277. The Villa Traversa, with a 
fine garden, is the principal object to 
be visited in Desio. It contains some 
curious Boman inscriptions. 

7 kil. Monza Stat, at the S. extremity 
of the town. (Inns : II Falcone, tolerable ; 
I'Angelo.) This city, the ancient Mo- 
doetia, is divided into two nearly equal 
parts by the Lambro. It has a Fop. of 
16,000. 

The SrolettOj or town-hall, is attri- 
buted to Frederick Barbarossa: some 
say it was a portion of a palace built by 
him. It is of Italian Gothic, with a 
Minghiera between two handsome win- 
dows on the S. side. Annexed to it is 
A fine and lofty campanile, with forked 
battlements. 

The Cathedral or Ihtomo* " On the 
spot where this building now stands 
Theodolinda erected, in 595, a splendid 
temple in honour of St. John the Bap- 
tist. The church of Theodolinda was 
not on the Latin plan, but on the Byzan- 
tine. It was an equilateral cross, sur- 
mounted by a dome. For above 600 
years this building remained unaltered. 
At the close of the 13th centy. Matteo 
Magno Visconti, Lord of Milan, with 
the assistance of the oblations of the 
people, imdertook the reconstruction of 
the church upon a larger scale. But 
he left his work unfinished ; . for the 
&f»de wad not commenced till the year 



J396. In that year the celebrated ar- 
chitect, Matteo di Campione, was em- 
ployed to give a design for the faQade 
and he constructed it in the form which 
it exhibits at present. This fa9ade is a 
curious specimen of the cabinet style 
prevalent in Italy at that period ; a 
style which attempts to please the eye 
rather by a subdivision of parts, and a 
variety of patterns, in marbles of dif- 
ferent shapes and colours, than by the 
form of the building itself. In the in- 
terior some of the capitals of the pillars 
are ornamented with barbarous figures, 
and must be older than the 14th centy. 
Frisi is of opinion that they formed no 
part of the Lombard church, but had 
belonged to some 11th centy. building, 
and were removed from thence to their 
present situation." — &, Knight, 

The PalliotOy or front of the altar, of 
silver-gUt, perhaps of the 10th centy., is 
entirely covered with Scripture his- 
tories, inlaid with enamel and coarse 
gems. The Cantarie, or galleries for 
the singers, on either side of the nave, 
are of rich Grothic work, and are worthy 
of attention, as well as the Gothic wood- 
work of the choir. In the chapel in the 
adjoining cemetery is the shrivelled 
corpse of Ettore Yisconti (a natural 
son of Bemabo), a partisan, who be- 
came, for a short time, one of the 
leaders of Milan. Expelled by Duke 
Filippo Maria, he seized the Castle 
of Monza, where a shot from a springall 
broke his leg, an injury of which he 
died (1413) : he was buried in this ba- 
silica ; and his body having been acci- 
dentally disinterred, it has remained 
above ground. 

Theodolinda, whose memory, like 
Bertha in Switzerland, or Elizabeth in 
England, was cherished by the people 
beyond that of any male sovereign, 
Charlemagne liimself scarcely excepted, 
and whose beauty, wisdom, and piety 
were all equally transcendent, was the 
daughter of Garibold King of the Ba- 
varians, and became the wife of Au- 
tharis King of the Lombards (589). 
Upon the death of Autharis, which 
happened bvx. -jeaare «J&«t \Jcl«« xaaw* 



LOMBABDY. 



Hoate 21. — Mtiiza — Ihiomo — Rclks, 



155 



liage, the Lombarcls offered the 

to TheoJoiindH, with th« 

tlwt whomsoever she would euleet for 

hep husband they would ttotnowlodgo 

BB thrar Bovereigu. Sha chose Agelul- 

phua (sometimes OBllad AstolQ Data of 

"■ * . Taliaot and ambitious, he — 



tliia enterprise. She thus earned the 
gratitude and the friendsMp of Pope 
Gregory the QreKt, who dedicated his 
Bialoguea to her. 

The SacrUty of the DMomo is one 
of the most curious of medisv&l 
TnuaeuiDH. It has been much plundered, 
especially during the republican rule at 
the endof tholostoenly. The following 
are some ofthemore remarkable objects 
widdi it still contains : — TlteodoUitda'* 
fan, orjtaie/itnn, of painted leather, witli 
a massive, meti^He, unamelled handle. 
Her eomi, ornamented with gold filigree 
and emeralds. Her croam, a plain 
diadem set with coarse gems. Theodo- 
iiada't hen latd lAickeiu, a species of 
traj of silver gilt, upon which are the 
fignres of Ihe CHoiicia, or Chscki/, and 
ber seven chickens. The hen's o;es 
are uf rubies. It is said by uitiqna- 
riana to tjrpify either the areh.pnest 
and ohaptor of the church of Monia, 
or the seven provinces of the Lom- 
bard kingdom. The probiibiKtv is that 
this gift of the Queen was in feet onlj 
B plateau or ornament for her banquet 
table. TAs list of rtlicB gffiri by Pope 
Oregory the Oreat to Theudalinda, 
written upon papyrus ; sorae say it is 
his autograph. The celebrated anti- 
quary Moffbi calls this the " king of 
pa[Ffri." One of these relies consists of 
drops of oil takenfrom the lamps burning 
before the tombs of the martyrs in the 
catflOOniba. TheodoUiuia's EvaagelUla- 
ritwn or Oonpel-ioek. The bindmg is of 
gold and silver gilt, rudely set with rough 
stoaes, glass [iJaced over coloured foU, 
and fine ancient intaglios, oharacteristic 
oftheageof transition &om the Roman 
to mediievnl times. A erase, given 
the Queen by the Fope upon the 
of tbc baptiam of lior eldest 



child M 



1 now worn by the arch-priest 
on certain great occasions and festivals. : 
Itiscoinposed, infront, ofrockcryst^j ' 
the back is worked in gold filigree. , 
TheodoUnda't cup, said to be hoUou-ed ■ 
out of a solid sapphire. It is about 
three inohes in diameter. The colour 
of the material (probably vary fine glass, 
Uke the catino of Genoa) is eieeedjngly 
rich. The Qothie setting bears tlia 
date of 1190. 

In a curious bas-relirf over the centra 
doorway of the church T&eodoliada i> i 
re^ireaented offering her gifts. 

The Crou, or peetorol, employed m 
the ooronation of the kings of Italy, 
and which it was the custom to haiw 
round the neck of the sovereign. R 
is maasivB, and richly deoorated— not 
merely with uncut stones, but trilh 
ancient engraved gems ; amongst others, 
there is appended to it an amethyst, . 
eshibiting a Diana, of eieellent work- - '- 
manship. 

The Saeramvaiarii of BerengarUia ' 
Kiag of Italy. This monarch is soma- 
times reckoned as Berengariua I. 
amongst the Bflman emperors. The ' 
son of Everard Duke of Friuli, Be- 
rengarius obtained his authority upon ' 
the division of the empire wldch took 
place on the death of Oharles tha . 
Fftt, in 888. The coverings of this] 
book are of pierced ivory, plates of-' 
gold placed beneath shining between • 
the intepsticea. On one side are seroUa ; 
interlaced, springing from birds ; on 
the other too runic knot«, elaborately 
interlaoed, springing from a centri 
ornament composed of foiu- grotesque , 
animals, &om whose mouths the root , 
of each knot is seen to issue. These , 
singular carvings are olear^ Teutonic ; ■ 
for, eicepting a greater dohcaoy in Cha , 
workmajiship, they are erautly ' " " " 
are found upon auaodinavian 
ments. The services which the botJt ■ 

by Pope Gregory i and in it may bo \ 

found the oollecta of our own Liturgy, j 

Another very curious volime » tfcja 

EBOTineii«taTitMii ot KfCoeA *« ^"sSw 



J 



'•\ 



156 



Eonte 21. — Monza — Duomo — Iran Crown, 



Sect III. 



Tliree ivory diptychs, of much better 
workmanship than is usiially the case 
with sculptures of this description. 
The first and most curious represents, 
on one leaf, a poet or a philosopher in 
his study ; on the other a muse striking 
the lyre with her jpUctrum. The whole 
is finely carved. Claudian and Auso- 
nius are both candidates for the por- 
trait. Antiquaries give it to Boethius, 
upon conjecture. The second repre- 
sents two figures in consular robes, 
with the Soman eagle, and other in- 
signia. The original names have been 
effaced, and those of Pope Gregory 
and David substituted. The third is 
remarkable for the boldness of the 
reUef, The principal figures are an 
emperor with the paludamentum^ and 
a female in rich attire. 

The celebrated Iron Crotvn is no 
longer here ; it was -removed by the 
Austrians to Mantua in May, 1859, 
and since then to Vienna. Formerly 
the sight of it was conceded only 
to persons of high rank ; an exact 
model of it has been retained, as well 
as some pieces of the true cross, 
of the sponge, of the Holy Sepul- 
chre, and of the reed held by Christ ; 
and one of the thorns of the crown. 
The thin plate or fillet of iron which 
lined the diadem, and whence the crown 
derived its name, is supposed to have 
been hammered from one of the nails 
employed at the crucifixion ; and hence 
the crown is also called Ilsacro Chiodo. 
It may be readily supposed that there 
is not the shghtest foundation for the 
belief in such an origin, and the Church 
of Milan opposed the tradition; but 
their objections were overcome by the 
congregation ^^dei sacri rifi" at Rome, 
by whom the rehc was pronounced 
to be authentic, and, when it was ex- 
hibited, tapers were lighted and much 
ceremony observed. Tlie workman- 
ship of the outer crown, which is of 
gold, with enamelled flowers, is plain, 
but very peculiar. The traditions of 
Monza relate that this crown was given 
by G^regory the Great to Queen Theo- 
dolinda; j^et nothing is really known \ 



respecting its origin, nor was it regtJr 
larly used in the coronation of the kings 
of Italy, Henry VII. (or Henry of Lux- 
emburg) is the first who is known with 
any certainty to have worn it, 1311. 
The crown was carried for that purpose 
to Milan, in spite of the remonstrances 
of the inhabitants of Monza. Charles 
V. was the last of the later emperors 
crowned with it; and the crown re- 
mained quietly as a relic in the Tesoro, 
until Napoleon, anxious to connect his 
dignity with the recollections of the past, 
placed it with his own hands upon hia 
head, disdaining to receive it firom the 
Bishop, and using the words, " Di^ 
me Fa donne, gare a qui la touche!^ 
It has been since used at the corona- 
tion of the two last Emperors of Aus- 
tria, and formed part of the royal in- 
signia of the Lombardo- Venetian king- 
dom, until its recent removal. 

A curious has-relief in the chapel of 
San Stefano represents the coronation 
of an Emperor. The six Electors as- 
sisting are the Archbishop of Cologne, 
as Arch- Chancellor of Italy ; tlie Duke 
of Saxony ; the Archbishop of Treves ; 
the Landgrave or Count Palatine of 
the Rhine; the Archbishop of May- 
ence; and the Elector of Branden- 
burg. The seventh Elector, the King 
of Bohemia, is absent, and this circum- 
stance shows that thq bas-relief is 
earher than 1290, when he was ad- 
mitted into the Electoral College. It 
will be noticed that the crown which 
the Arch- Priest of Monza is here re- 
presented to place on the head of the 
Emperor is not the Iron Crown, but 
one decorated veith fleurons. This 
bas-reUef seems, from its inscription, 
to have been put up by the people of 
Monza as a memorial of their right to 
have the coronation performed here, in 
preference to Milan. The chapel of S. 
Maria del Rosario contains some cu- 
rious frescoes, representing events in 
the history of S. Theodolinda, by one 
Trosi of Monza, bearing the date oi 

The only other ch. of Monza worth 
notice, and V\^ dea^scr^Xfed^ Sa Saiilc 



^k 







J-OMBARIiY, 



Route 21. — MSan — Inns — Fiacres. 



157 



Maria in Strada, remnrkttblo for its 
reiT elnborat« W. front In terru^otta, 
and fine rose window. 

The Palace of Motiia is an eiteosiye 
edifice, but baa notliiiig in or about it 
(eiccptiug the aim of tha apartments) 
above a oountrj mansion. The park 
ii large, ireU laid out, and abounds in 
game. The gardens are tbtj rich fn 
eiotiu plautB. It wiu in fornier times 
the country reaidenCB of the Viiioroy, 
and is now accasioiialiy that of tho 
Tfit^P of Sairdinia. 

TJie RiiilrmtA has rendixvd Monza 
almoft u suburb of Milan. Traiua run 
ta times a day in 20 minutes. 

6 kil. SetlO Stat., in a yory fortilo 
plain, with many count rj'-scats around. 

8 kil. MrtAM.— The Railway Station 
is outsiik- thePn^sNuova. Omnibuses 
and haokiiey coaolies are in attendance 
onthearriyal ofeverytTain. Thafarefor 
each person from Uie station to his hotel 
in the former is 85 u;ntime8, including 
a moderate qUBatity of luggage ; but as 
these omnibuses are generally ^ery 
crowded, and take a circuitous route, 
depositing passengera on their way, the 
travriler will Bnd it much more com- 
fortablf^ mpaditioua, and nearly as 
economical, to hire a liaekiicy cab ; the 
fares of which are I fr. ^5 cent., includ- 
ing luggage. 

HoleU. TheHflleldclaTillc, kept 
by Bfl6r, in the Corso Franccaco, tho 
beet siLuatron In Milan, open and airy, 
is an eiffiillent houae, and handsomely 
fitted up i it affords eyery cleanlinesa 
and comfort. A good tablo-d'hdte at4 
&anDB^ coffee and reading room, Inastor 
and wniteni speaking English ; and 
baths m the house.— The Alhergo Kcale, 
in the Contrada dei Tre BS, kept by 
Bruaehotli, is also a first-rate hotel, 
clean and quiet, with a ycir obliging 
landlord and a good tnble-il'hdte. 
Brosehetti ia also a dealer in pictiirca, 
artiolesofyertn,m^olica; hehasalarge 
galleiy of paintings, and speaka English 
BswellashisscryantB. Boththeaehotcls 
are well suited to Etigliabfaoiiiiis. — La 
Gran "BrvOgmi, in the Contrada (lella 
Biiii, in the eentee of the city, im- 



proyed of late, is cpmrorlabic— Tlie 
Hfltel Reicbomt., in the Corso di Porta 
Bomaua, is much frequented by Ger- ' 
mans and commereinl travellers, but , 
inferior to the two first, mid without 
their eoniforts, although witii as high 
charges. — The Albergo diil Marino, in 
a central Bituation near La Seals 
theatre, is well spoken of for its clean- 
liiiess and cuisine. La Bella Venena, 
La Pension Suisse, and Stm Maro^ 
all three comfortjible, fri^quimted more 
by Italian families : the latl«r, wbish 
is near the post-office, is well spoken 
of. It has a good table-d'hAte at 8 te. 

Good Vetturini, for all parts of Italy 
and SwitEerland, may be found at 
Milan. The innkeepers can be tnuted 
to negotiate the bargain. 

Carriages may bo hired for tho day 
or job. A good carriage for half a 
day for about 12 fr., and the drink- 
money of 1 fr. to the di-ivor. 

Fiacres are very ^ood. Lists of tbe 
fares are plaopd insiile ; 1 lira a course^ 
and X\ an hour. 

Omnibuses. There are numerous 



walls. 

Uurine tlie sumroer tlio fnahionable 
evening drive \a in the Corso di Port* 
Orientale, and along l)ie BoiilcvMd ba. 
tween it and Porta Nuova; partioulai'ly 
on Sundays and Thursdays, thegroat^et 
Corso being on the first Sunday in Lent, 

This city ia the ocntre of busineia ; 
and all pecuniary tramtactions oan be 
well managed here ; such as ob^ning 
further letters of credit, and the like. 
The CtHubiaMiMete, onnoncy-changeTS, 






■ tho 



Duomo, As the monetary trajiaaetions 
at Milan ore eiteusivc, this is a yery 
lucrativo buaineas. The raluo of fo- , 
reign eoina is printed diuly, with tho | 
rates of eiohange on different countries, 
so that the traveller ruiis htlle risk of « 
being cheated. 

The Post-OfflcB, from whidi tho 
Government diligeucea start, is vi^ , 
the CoDtrado. Aoi "B,Ba\.TK»:\, i«»« 'Cw|j 
Duomo. It QipenB M, ft K.i«..,-'iV'ST\VN!wf*' 
are ddiiered, anil a" 



anil ab.\tt,6 b.\. ft ■E:ia.\ J 



158 



RoiUe 21, — Milan — Conveyances — History. Sect. III. 



Sundays dt 3. The mail which carries 
the English letters (through Paris) is 
that by Turin : it leaves daily at 2 p.m., 
and arrives about midday. Between 
Milan and London a letter takes 3 
days. Prepayment is not absolutely 
necessary, but unpaid letters to the 
diflferent parts of Italy are charged 
double on delivery. 

The principal Pvhlic Conveyances are 
the following : — 

Lucerne, by Bellinzona and the St. 
Gothard. By rly. to Camerlata near 
Como, at 6 a.m., and from thence by 
diligence. Places may be secured at 
Milan or Camerlata. This goes on 
direct, and arrives at Fluellen on the 
Lake of Lucerne in 25 hrs. 

Chiavenna, Coire, and Zurich, by the 
Rly. to Como, at 6 a.m. and 2*30 p.m., 
from thence by the steamboat to CoUco, 
whence the diligence starts by Chia- 
venna and the Splugen Pass — Dili- 
gence daily at 6 a.m. ; by BeUinzona 
and the Bernardino Pass every day. 
The latter diligence, like that to Lu- 
cerne, now starts from Camerlata. 

Geneva, To Arona by rly., and 
from thence by diligence by Domo 
d* Assola, the Simplon, Vevay, and 
Lausanne ; the coaeh leaves Arona at 
1 P.M., corresponding with the rly. 
train of 8*37 a.m. from Milan. 

Piacenza, Parma, Modena, Bologna, 
JRome, by Lodi. — Diligences to Pia- 
cenza every morning and evening at 7 
a.m. and p.m., and from thence by rly. 
to Bologna. 

The rly. trains to Monza run 6, and 
to Como 4, times a-day. 

The railroad to Venice is now open 
all the way, by Bergamo, Brescia, Ve- 
rona, Padua, Venice, and from the 
latter to Treviso, Conegliano, and 
Udine. There are two trains daily, 
which leave Milan at 6*10 and 11*15 
A.M., reaching Venice at 5*55 and 
10-30 P.M. 

Physicians. — There is at Milan a 

physician who has lived in England and 

speaks Enghsh — Dr. Capelli j he lives 

in the Corsia del Giardino. This gen- 

tleman ia stated hy those who have con- 

Bultedhim to be woHhy of confidence. 



Apothecary imd chemist, Monteggia, 
Corso Francesco, opposite the H6tel de 
laVille. 

Mestaurateurs and Cafes, Canetta 
(successor to'Cova), Contrada San Giu- 
seppe, near La Scala Theatre, is the 
best ; this cafe is well* supplied with 
newspapers. Martini, La Colonna. 
Cafe Reale and delV JEuropa, in the 
Piazza del Duomo. . St„ Carlo, in the 
Corso Francesco. 

Booksellers. — Artaria and Co., in 
the Via Santa Margarita, No. 1110, for 
Guide-books, maps of the Austrian Ord- 
nance Survey, engravings, &c.; Messrs. 
Artaria are obli^ig, and weU supplied 
with all works necessary for travellers in 
Italy and Switzerland, Handbooks, &c., 
and are agents for Sinigaglia's photo- 
graphic views of Milan, perhaps the 
best, and for Santi's of the drawings of 
the old masters which are preserved 
in the Brera and Ambrosian Libraries. 
Dumolard fr^res, in the Corso Fran- 
cesco, J^encA dooAr^Z^tfr*. Meisnerand 
Son are good foreign hoohsellers in the 
same street, nearer the cathedral, and 
Laenger in the Galleria di Cristoferis. 

The traveller will find at Mannioi's 
shop imder the Arcades of the Piazza 
del Duomo an assortment of Italian and 
foreign jewellery, English and French 
articles, &c.,j and a great variety of 
jewellery in the shops of the Stada 
degh Orefici, &c. 

The Pop. of Milan is now about 
187,000. 

Milan, founded by the Insubrian 
Gauls, became, in point of splendour, 
the second city of Italy, filled with 
temples, baths, theatres, statues, and 
all the structures required for the dig- 
nity and luxury of a great capital. 
Ausonius, who flourished under the 
Emperor Gratian, towards the end 
of the fourth century, assigns to it 
the rank of the sixth city in the 
Empire. He describes it in these 
Unes : — 






" Et Mediolani mira omnia,— copia renim : 
InnumersB, cultseque domos, fecunda viroram 
Ingema, akxvtiqva taQite&. Tmxq. duplice muro 



Soule 21.— Milan— ffistory. 



gmctftqa 
■[■nliiqii 

KuceUun 



mnpU. PlatinMDe artfiv^opaleBRqae 






LU Jimclft premit vkinia Re 



ProcopiuB, a century later, apeaks 
of Medialimuiii as oue oC ttie first 
cities of Hie West, and inferior only 
to Rome in population imd oxtLiit. lis 
ancient edificBs and monumenta have 
all disappeared, saTe one portiBo (see 
San Lorenzo) i a column {aee dant^ 
Anibrogio) i a piece of massivB waU, 
formJD); part of tlie Uonastcrio Msg- 
giore; two tather dubious heads, oiJlEd 
Quintus and Bufne, in the arches of 
tlie Coraia di Porta Nova ; and, lastly, 
the Dbflw di Fietnt, or in Milanesa 
JSamin de Free, now inserted in the 
wall of a house in the Corsia de Survi, 
bftwcen the first and second stories. 
So far as can be judged, ho is a Boman 
of the lower empire. 

The paucity of Soman nmiDinB at 
Milan must be attribnted to the cala- 
mities which the city has suatained. It 
was sacked by Attila, aj>. 452, in the 
invasion which oecaaioned the founda- 
tion of Venice. But the great destruc- 
tion was elfected after the Hurrender of 
Milan to Frederick 1., 1163 ; wlien bis 
vongeanee. Co-operating with, or rather 
instigated hy, the jealousies of the sur- 
roujididg cities, Pavin, Cremona, Lodi, 
Como, Novara, rased it to the ground. 
On Palm Sunday, in that fatal year 
when the Emperor dcpartedin triumph 
for Piivio, the site of the great city was 
to be peoognisBd only by the Basilica 
of Sant' Ambrogio, and some other 
churches, which were left standing in 
the midst of the rulna j aud the in- 
habitants being dispersed iu four ad- 
joining Tillages, the name of Milan was 
effai^d fnxta the Lombard community. 
But this erent was followed by the 
great LomlMipd league, the confederacy 
BgMnst the imparial authority i and in 
the diet, or parliament, heldat Fontida, 
1167, the d^uties of the combined 
cities determined to bring back the 
ilHaneae to their ancient sout, which 
OH Oie^m Apnl, 1167, n-as effected 



159 

by the combined forces of Cremona, 
Broacia, Bergamo, Mantua, and Ve- 
rona, and the ci^ speedily rose again 
with unwonted energy and power. 
Tliis remarkable event was ooumiemfi- 
raled in the coeval bas-rehcfe of thfl 
Forta Eomaim, a venerable gateway . 
which stood till 1810-12. 

These Bcnlptur«! have, however, 
bceu preeerred by being let into the ' 
walls of a house (near the bridge) 
erected on the site of the gate, anil 
am curiona as illustrating one of the I 
roost memorable passages m the ohro* ' 
nicies of mediteval Italy. The Mi--' 
lanese around, on foot and on horse- 
back, are seen proceeding to liie re- 
erected city, with an inscription 
pointing ont that there they ace to 
make their stay. " Fata vetant ultra 
procedere, stabunus ergo." The cities 
of "Cremona," "Briiia," and "Bor- 
gamum" axe represented 'by turretcd 
gateways, out of which como forth their 
allies. — "Pra' Giaeobo," thus written, 
bears the banner of Milan. The artist 
" AnselmuB " has also represented him- 
self, adding an inacriptioo, in wluoh he 
either assumes to himself the ajyella- 
tion of DjBdalus, or ascribes to hmisolf 
Dffidahan skill; a whimsical vanity, 
the sculpture being of the rudest kind. 
In another part is a figure in a coiuulae 
or magisterial robe, surmounting a 
strange monster with a huge grinning 

B and hats' wings, which, accortt 



a tradition of Milan, 






nts the Emperor Frederick Barbs- 

This Porta Romana Btood in the lino 
of walls erected hy the Milanese when 
ibes rebuilt the city. 

About eighty years after the rebuild- 
ing of the oi^ commenced the rule of 
the iamily of ddla Torre, by the elec- 
tion of Fagano, lord of Vail Assina, as 
protector! and then followed that of 
the Viscontis and Sforzas, During 
the later part of this period Milan 
attained a state of great prosperity, 
and became ce\c\iT»feA^ '*« -mKOMSaii- 



160 



Boide 2'i. — Milan — Extent — Citf/ Gates, Sect. III. 



Milan then set the fashion to the 
rest of Europe j hence the word milli- 
ner. After the extinction of the family 
of Sforza, Milan fell, in 1535, under 
the power of the Emperor Charles V., 
who, in 1549, fixed the succession to 
the duchy of Milan in his son Philip 
U. It remained under the government 
of the Spaniards until the death of the 
last King of Spain of the Austrian line, 
when it became an object of contention 
between Finance and Austria, and was 
finally given to the latter by the treaty 
pf Utrecht, 1713. In the hands of 
•Austria it remained, until May, 1859, 
"^th a few interruptions, the principal 
pne of which was the occupation of 
Milan by the French, and the esta- 
blishment of the kingdom of Italy, of 
which Milan was made the capital. 

The extent of Milan, when it was 
rebuilt after its destruction by Fre- 
derick Barbarossa, is marked by the 
canal, which, entering on the N. 
side, runs nearly round the central 
part of the modem city. The wall or 
rampart, called the bastione, which 
now encircles Milan, except on that 
eide which was protected by the Castle, 
was built by the Spaniards in 1555. 
The greater portion of the ground be- 
tween this wall and the canal is occu- 
pied by gardens. All round, just out- 
side this wall, runs the road called 
the Strada di Circonvallazione, The 
circuit .of the modem city is about 
71 m. 

Certain wider streets which radiate 
from the centre of the town are called 
" corsi;^* the continuations of these 
beyond the bridges which cross the 
canal to the present Une of wall 
generally are called horghi. The 
streets, in many places which run pa- 
rallel to and immediately within the 
canal, retain the name of terrazi^ or 
terraces. The Piazze or squares before 
the chiu'ches are in Milanese called 
"pasquee" (pascua), and some open 
spaces, where several streets meet, are 
called " carobbio " (quadrivium). 

The averagfe height of Milan above 
tiie Bea is 450 feet. 



N. side is the Porta Comasina, 
erected in 1826-1828 by the merchants, 
from a design ofMoraglia. 

Next to this, towards the E., is the 
Porta Nuova, built in 1810, from a 
design of Zanoia. The view of the 
Alps from the rampart near this gate 
is very fine. 

At the N.E. angle of the rampart is 
the Porta Orientate^ begun in 1828, 
from a design of Vantiniy the architect 
of. the Campo Santo at Brescia. 

Near the centre of the E. side is the 
Porta Tosa. 

At the S.E. angle of the rampart is 
the Porta Itomana, built by the Mi- 
lanese, from a design of Bassi, in 1598, 
to welcome the arrival of Margaret of 
Austria, the wife of Philip III. of 
Spain. Just within the gate is the an- 
cient emporium (sciostra romand) for 
merchandize coming from Cremona and 
Piacenza. 

In the S. side of the rampart, next 
to the Porta Homana, is the Porta 
Vigentina, so called from the village 
of Vigentino, which lies on this road, 
at a short distance. This gate will give 
an idea of the architecture of all the 
others a few years ago. 

The gate situated nearly in the centre 
of the S. side of the rampart is the 
Porta Ludomca^ so called from Ludi- 
vico il Moro. 

Near the W. end of the S. face of 
the rampart, and to where it forms an 
angle with the S.W. face, is the Porta 
I^cinese, the gate leading to Pavia, and 
by which Bonaparte entered after the 
battle of Marengo, whence for a short 
time it was called the Porta Marengo. 
Its Ionic portico was built in 1815, 
from a design of the Marquis Ca- 
gnola. 

The Porta Fercellina^ at the W. ex- 
tremity of the city, was built in great 
haste, with materials fi^m the Castello, 
from a design of Canonica, to receive 
Napoleon when he came to assume the 
iron crown. 

Porta Tanaglia^ the N.W. gate lead- 
ing to the Simplon road, received its 
1 name trom a iorlVS^^^ ^otV^ %o celled^ 



Milan has now ten gates. On the I wMch once stood tie«t '\\.. 



jOi«BAiU)r. Mmiti 21. — SUlaii — Area d 



w 

^^ ■ fetwecn fho Porta Tuiaglia and tlio 
Porta VetneUina there is no ram]mrt, 
tile <atj hnviiig been pruteuted on tliis 
ude b; the Cattello. Here alfflid ths 
unoient ducal i»etle, built bj Galeazzo 
VJSL-oiiti II. in 1358, to keep the 
Ujlanesti in flubjectioQ. Upon bia 
death tliej ineiated on its demolition ; 
it wna, LoweTer, rebidlt with increased 
atrengtb bj Qian Oaleazxo. Thus it 
remained till the death of the Duia 
Filippo Mario, when the Miianose rose 
(Aug. 30, liii7), and, having pni- 
clairaed the '^ Aaren respablica Aat- 
bnuiana,' 'deatmyedtheeastle. Itwna 
soon rebuilt b; Franceaoo Sforza, for 
the ornament (he siud) of the eitj and 
its snfety against enemiea ; tuid he pro- 
mised that ild governors should be 
aliraje Milanese. This is the building 
noTT atanduig. lu the interior is a 
keep, where the du^es often resided. 
Remains of pointings have been dis- 
covered under the whitewash in the 
stables. Pliilip II. added rerj ci- 
tensire mtKlern fortifications, and cut 
down nil the btU-towera which over- 
looked them. The adraneed works 
reached to the edge of what is now 
open space. The cattle was taken hj 
the French in 1706; andogoinin ISUO, 
when Napoleon ordered the fortifica- 
tions to be rased. It has since been 
converted into a barrack, the ap- 
proaches to which were strengthened 
after the outbreak of 1848, when a 
large Austrian force was obliged to eva- 
cuute it. A strong lunette mounting 
6 guns defends each ga1« : there are 
two half-moon batteries, loop-holed, 
and mounting 6 guns, on the 3.E. 
and N.E. : the four round lowers 
Kt the angles have been altered, in 
doing which the fine marble shields of 
the Sfoniad have been mutilated; and 
a line of looplioled defences has been 
carried nearly all round the castle, and 
the squuru in which it is situated con- 
siderably oponed. During the govern- 
ment of Kugeno Beaahamois a Doric 
gateway of giiinit«, with a portico or line 
pf arches ou each side, and in the same 

^^A^ was erected on the N.W. side. 

^H^^B BpaeB gained b/ the demolition 






161 



of the fortifications wns meant to be 
covered by splendid buildings and mo- 
numents, for wliioh Antolini prepared 
a design in 1B04. Two onl; of the 
edifices planned have been erected-^ 
tJie Arena and the Arco della Pace, 
The apace on which it was intended to 
erect a fonun bos been converted into 
a I^azza d'Armi, for the purpose of 
eiercisiug the miUtarj. 

Area della Fane. A triumphal areh 
having been erected with wood and 
canvas, in 1806, at the Porta Orientals, 
from a design of the Marquis Cagnola, 
upon the marriage of the Viceroy Eugene 
with the Friiioess Amalia of Bavaria, it 
was BO much admired, (hat the muni- 
cipal councU resolved that it should be 
executed in white marble &om CrevoU, 
on the Simplon road, the eipenae to 
be de&ayed out of 200,000 fi«iics as- 
signed by Napoleon fur adorning the 
city. It was begun in 1S07, but, on 
the &1I of the kingdom of Itol; in 

1814, hod not risen above the impost 
of the smaller arches. The works wera 
resumed in 1816 and completed in 
1838, in which year the arch was in- 
augurated at the time of the corona- 
tion of the Emperor Ferdinand I. It 
was originally intended to have beaa 
called the Arch of the Simplon, and 
to have been embellished with a statue 
of Victory, in commemoration of the 
battle of Jena, and with bos-rehela re- 
presenting the events of Napoleon's 
campaigns. When it fell into the hands 
of the Austrians its name was changed 
to that of Arch of Peace, and the sculp- 
tures underwent a transfonnation to 
make them ftpresent the events which 
preceded the general pacification of 

1815. On the top of the arch is 
a bronie figure of Peace, in a one 
drawn by sii horses. Tour figures 
of Fame, one at each angle, announce 
her arrivsl. Tliese latter ore by Qio- 
tyaniii PhI.U, a Bologneso. Tlie central ■ 
group is hv Sav^orgio, The subject; J 
of the sculpture and the names of tha J 
artists are as follows: — Side towards i 
tha city. TVw ooVsiwi ftgjs* *» "Cm^ 
1. of the insonptimv T<B?te»ra** ^ 
riTer Po, tliB-t oil. fa* rt.ftie "^laas^ 



162 



Boute 21 . — Milan — Arena — Dy/omo, 



Sect. III. 



both are by Cacciatori, The subject 
of the bas-relief on the 1. side inunedi- 
ately below the entablature . is the 
battle of Culm, by G. Monti. The 
large bas-relief below this is intended 
to represent the entry of the Em- 
peror Francis I. into Milan ; it is 
by Cacciatori. Below this is the ca- 
pitulation of Dresden, by C. Pacetti. 
On the rt. below the entablature is 
the passage of the Bhine. The large 
bas-relief below this represents the 
foimdation of the Lombardo- Venetian 
kingdom, and the lowest one the occu- 
pation of Lyons; these three are by 
Marchesi, Each of the pedestals of 
the columns has an allegorical figure 
in half-relief: — ^they are Hercules, by 
G. Monti; Mars and Minerva, by ^. Pa- 
cetti; Apollo, modelled by jPJz«i. Under 
the great central arch, a large bas- 
relief on the rt.-hand side represents 
the conference of the three allied sove- 
reigns of Kussia, Prussia, and Austria ; 
it is by G. Monti. A corresponding 
one opposite was begun by Ac- 
quisti, and completed by Somaini^ — 
Side towards the country. The colos- 
sal reclining figure to the 1., above the 
entablature, represents the river Tag- 
liamento ; the one on the rt. the Adige : 
they are both by Marchesi. The 1ms- 
relief immediately under the entabla- 
ture, on the 1. hand of the spectator, 
represents the re-institution of the 
order of the Iron Crown. The subject 
of the large bas-relief is the Congress 
of Vienna; both these are by G. B. 
Perahb. Below is the occupation of 
Paris, by A. Acquesti. The upper bas- 
relief on the rt. was tilgun by G. 
Susca, and finished by bis son ; it 
represents the entry of the allied 
sovereigns into Paris. The large bas- 
Jelief below this represents the Peace 
of Paris; and the lowest one the 
entry of the Austrians into Milan in 
1814; these two are bv G. Monti. 
The four pedestals of the columns 
on this side represent Vigilance, 
by Pizzi; History, Poetir, and Lom- 
bardy, by Acquesti. On the east- 
^rn Bank of the building is the bat- 
£/0 of Leipsig, by Marchesi} on the 



western that of Arcis-sur-Aube, by So- 
maini. The key-stones of the arches 
are ornamented with allegorical busts. 
The grand firieze all round was modelled 
by Monti and Marchesi. 

The total cost, including the lodges 
on each side and the iron railing, 
was 142,839/. ; the bronze car and 
figures on the top 40,000^. alone. An 
easy staircase in the interior leads to the 
simimit. The bas-reliefs' have been 
much and justly criticised for a pe- 
dantic adherence in the costumes to 
classical models. 

The Arena is an amphitheatre de- 
signed by Canonica. It is an ellipse 
whose greater diamet^ is 780 ft., and 
lesser 390, and is capable of containuig 
30,000 spectators. It is surrounded 
by ten rows of seats, arranged in the 
manner of an ancient amphitheatre, 
and which were intended to be of stone, 
but for economy were made of turf. 
At one end of the greater diameter are 
the Carceres, flanked by towers, at the 
other a triimiphal Doric gateway of 
granite, of which the design is good. 
At one side of the lesser diameter is a 
portico of eight Corinthian columns of 
polished granite. The arena can be 
flooded for aquatic exhibitions. It was 
commenced in 1805, and opened the 
following year. The Portico, Gate- 
way, and Carceres have been added 
since. The first races took place the 
17th Jime, 1807 ; and in the following 
December there was a regatta in the 
presence of Napoleon. Baces, balloon 
ascents, rope-dancing, and fireworks, 
take place here frequently. 



Chubohss. 

The JDuomo. The present building 
is the third, perhaps the fourth, re- 
edification of the original structure, 
which St. Ambrose, in his letter to his 
sister Marcellina, calls the great new 
Basilica. The primitive cathedral was 
destroyed by Attila. When rebuilt it 
was burnt by «<3cident^ in 1075, and 
again destToyed ^yy lET^ensV \. yd^ 



LoMBAitDT. SoiOe 21. — Milan — Duomo — Eeterior. 



163 



1163 i but tliia demolition wae, it is 
»aid, only partinl, being pouiod by the 
fall upon the church of a lolly bell- 
tower, which w«8 duatroyed in ordur 
to prevent its boing used ai a fortresa. 
Lastly BTDBc the present Btructure. 

Tha first stone of the present Du- 
omo waa laid by Oian' Gsleazzo 
Vifloonti, in 1387. Some historians 
say that the tmdertaking was in fnl- 
filmeiit of a row ; otbers ascribe it 
to a wish to encourage the arts. It 
was beyond the AlpB that the Duke 
sought an architect. Ho had re- 
couiBe to the freemasons of Qermaoy j 






that 



sought to impugn the 
lilniiuH of Sawi/A Akrier of GmatuLeii, 
or " Enrico di Baiaodia," the Italian 
rersion of his name. To hiin, between 
tlieyeors 138S-B9, were asaoeiated other 
brethren &oni Gtermany, Paris, and 
Normandy, from Friburg, Ulm, and 
Bruges. ' Italians were aftcmtarda called 
in I amongst others, the celobrated 
Brunelhjechi of Florence, But Ger- 
nuuiy alill continued to be considored 
aa the scliool of the arduteetd of 
the cathedral i and as late as I486 
Oian' Oaleazzo Sforza addressed let- 
ters to the magistrales of Strasburg, 
requesting them to SL-nd him the master 
mason of their Bomldrche, Hammerer, 
for the purpose of adTising upon some 
diDlDullies which had been appre- . 
hendsd in the cunatructiop of ttie 
central tower. 

The building has been oflen inter- 
rupted, and haa, when resumed, been 
often carried on slowly, and it is 
yet unfinished itk some of its de- 
tails. The octagon cupola was vaulted 
by the Omodei (Biihor and son), 
1490, 1533; tlie three western divi- 
sions or arches of the nave wcru left 
nnGnished after the extinetiou of the 
Sforza dynanty, and not completed till 
1G85. The ctmtral tower end tlic spfre, 
of groat beauty, which crowns it, were 
completed in 1772, from the designs of 
CroBe I and the gable and upper range 
of windows of the front, as well as Tory 
man/ of the battresaea and ptunaeles, 
byjtmati, Zimqja, and others, between 



1806, when the worlia were resumed 
hy order of Napoleon, and the pre- 
sent time. In this long suL'cessjon 
of years many of the first artists of 
tills ftivoured country, amongst whom 
may he named Brav^ile, Leonardo tia 
T-'iHci, and OiiUio Somani, gave their 
advice and assistance. The dates only 
of some of the principal cxmstructlons 
are here noticed; but, since the first 
stone was Laid, the eoitfolds have al- 
ways been standing on some part of the 
edifice. 

It seema that the original designs 
for the fa^'ade bad been long lost, and 
the portion of the nave, as areeted, 
wanted three of its arches. A iagade 
of black and white marble, built con- 
siderably within the line of the prvsent 
structure, curtailed the nave by one- 
third of ita just length ; and, as fiu* ao 
this liad berai raised, it was unfinished, 
and inelegant. Pellegrini was em- 
plojod in 1560 by St. Carlo BorromPO 
to complete the front, and he designed 
an Itatian (agodc upon a niaguificent 
scale. San Carlo died i Pellegrini was 
summoned to Spaui by FhUip II. 
to paint the Bscurial, and the work 
was carried on very leisurely by other 
hands, amongst them by CatteUi and 
Fraaoeaco SmoUoo, who, altering the 
designs of Pellegrini, gave to the So- 
man doors and windows that eiube- 
ance of ornament which th^ now 
oihibit ; but the plana of Pellegrini — 
according to one of which the front * 
was to have bean composecl of a gigan- 
tic modern Roman portico— had given 
rise to numerous discussions, which 
were continued, revived, and resumed 
during the 17th and 18th centuries. 
Some of tha uvhitects of Xjombardy 



PeUflgrini, and advocated the recon- 
struction of Uie iaoado in tha Pointod 
stylo. 

Thus, in 1636, two Gothio desisna : 
wore proposed by Carlo Baizi, and a \ 
third by Franceam) CaileUi, all three of ( 
oonBideraWeromt. \\. ■«ia>»wQSie«i«> 
to observe ttuit,a\«3oH, ^\iB ^ena VVW*, 
it was detemdaKa \i^ ft>6 %yi&(* N 



164 



JR(mte 21. — MUan — Duomo — Exterior, 



Sect. III. 



Oothicise the fagade, preserving, how- 
ever, the doors and windows of Pelle- 
grini and Ricchini, on aecount of their 
^borate elegance; and, in order to 
i^logise for the discrepancy of the 
styles, they caused an inscription stating 
this reason to be engraved on the comer 
buttress of the front. 

To these works Napoleon gave great 
impulse, and their continuation was 
intrusted to a commission, under whom 
the fa9ade was brought to its present 
form, chiefly by the insertion of three 
Crothic windows ; and the greater 
number of the pinnacles and flying 
buttresses of the rest of the building 
were completed. The cost of these 
undertakings during the French go- 
vernment ampunted to about 3.^ mil- 
lions of francs. 1^ miUions of this 
sum were derived from the sale of the 
lands belonging to the Duomo, the re- 
mainder from the property of the sup- 
pressed monastic institutions. After 
the revolution of 1848 the suppHes 
were for a time cut off; still a good 
deal has been done during the Austrian 
occupation. 

A magnificent Gothic campanile was 
projected by the Marquis Cagnola. 
Others proposed flanking the front 
with belfry towers. The designs for 
the latter were sent to Napoleon at 
Moscow, and lost in that calamitous 
campaign. At present nothing further 
is in progress as to this part of the 
' edifice ; but, when Amati inserted the 
Gothic windows, he supported them 
by what are called bearing-arches of 
granite ; so that, if it should hereafter 
be thought expedient to remove the 
Bomanised doors and windows, the 
operation may be performed without 
injury to the superstructure. 

When Gian' Gtileazzo endowed the 
Duomo, he included in his dona- 
tions the marble-quarries of la Gtin- 
doglia, in the valley of the Toccia, on 
the Simplon road, and of that ma- 
terial the building is entirely con- 
structed. Time gives to this marble 
a fine warm yellow tint. 

In the tracery there ia an unusual 
approximation to what has been called 



the flamboyant style. This was proba- 
bly owing to the influence of the 
French Gothic, as it is most apparent 
in the great E. window, which was 
built by Campania from the designs of 
Nicholas Bonaventure of Paris (1391). 

The E. end, or tribune, is probably 
the most ancient or original portion of 
the structure. It is calculated that 
the niches and pinnacles of the exte- 
rior will require a population of 4500 
statues. Of these more than 3000 
are executed, besides the bas-reliefe. 
The excellent sculptures of the central 
door, by Bono, Castelliy and Vismara 
(about 1635), may be especially pointed 
out. The tympanum (iontains a bas- 
relief representing the creation of 
Eve. The arabesques in the pilas- 
ters are allusive to the works of the 
other days of the creation. 

In the compartments for the bas- 
rehefs there is a great variety of de- 
tail. Many of the artists were from 
Como. A careful observer will dis- 
cover in them not a few of the sym- 
boHcal representations of an earher 
age in modem forms. Amongst the 
minor capricci is a female head co- 
vered by a veil, all the features being 
seen, as it were, through the trans- 
parent covering. The Caryatides, by 
Susca and Carahelli^ are in finely 
varied attitudes. 

The traveller, in Order frilly to un- 
derstand the details of the building, 
should ascend the summit. A stair- 
case, the entrance to which is at the 
W. comer of the S. transept, where a 
charge of 25 centimes is made, leads 
by 158 steps to the roof. The best 
time to enjoy the magnificent pano- 
ramic view is the evening, the plains 
being generally covered with mist at 
an earlier hour.. 

Steps upon the flying buttresses af- 
ford an ascent to the different levels. 
Two staircases, winding in turrets of 
open tracery, as at Strasbiu*g, bring 
you to the platform of the octagon, 
and a similar staircase in the spire 
conducts to the belvedere or gallery, at 
the foot of the pyramid, or fl^che, 
1 which. CTOwna il, T>a<&ft© \,\xxwX.«» -^^^^ 



UPltlBcuteil by A 
'' 1490 Mid 1491 



ffin^ 21. — Milan — Puomo— hil^rloT. 



^Secuted by Aatonia Omodei between 
1490 (uid 1494. Tlie gcul|jture, tu nd] 
tw tba sn^hitBctura, in fi-om liis deeign. 
The open trECory waa ciaculod bj 
Jmici of Cremona. Thfl whole is of 
eiquiaite finish. There were to haye 
been two othEra of BiinUar workmitii- 
ehip at the opposita angleB of the 
ootngCHi. The larger number of the 
ptnAacIas of the niive and aiaUx liave 
been completed sinca 1805. The 
smaller ornBnienta — baskets of fruit, 
chembs' hcaiis, Biinflowers, lilies — are 
admirable, and much Baperior to any- 
tliing whioh results from the rigaritm 
now ineulc&ted by Qothtc architeetB. 

All the main pinnacles, 3 on each 
bul.treafl, are eompleted i a very per- 
ceptibli; progress has been made in the 
oourae of Uie last few years. 

From llie octagon ^lery yon gain 
a noble view of the plam of Lombard;, 
studded with dtiea and villagea and 
I'hnrcli towers i the whole walled in, on 
the N. and E., by the snowy Alps. To 
tlie eastward, in a line with the cupola 
of Sta. Maria deLa Paaaione, is the 
plain watered by tlie Latubro, called 
the Mnrtetana, and beyond are the 
mountiuna of the proTince of Breaoia, 
whicli towKde the N.nre connected with 
Iho^ of the Seriana andBrembana <al- 
leya, and tlien with the Reaegone, which 
rises above Lecco, and is distinguished by 
the serrated or sawlike form of its aum^ 
niit. The lower ridgea to the W. of tliie 
form the hilJyoountry of the BriBnin, be- 
hind which, and in a line with the Porta 
Nuova, riaea the mountain of 8. Primo, 
which stands between the two aouth- 
em arms of the lake of Como. To the 
1. of 8. Primo rise the mountains wliich 
enoirele the lakes of Como, Varese, and 
Lugano, with the snowy peaks about 
the 8. Oothard beyond. Still further 
to the westward, tlie Simplon is distin- 
guished, and then Monte Bosa, with its 
sununita sparkling with eternal anow, 
and showing at sunset those hues from 
which it derii-DB its name. ElBctljW., 
Mt. Cenis may be seen, and still fur- 
ther to the 1. the sharp snon'-capped 
~" aid of MddIp yisD. In a line 
tJie Porta Ticisiese tiio Apen- 



ea beein, among which Ihe mort j 
larkable point is the Feuico. Ad," ! 
cing towards the 8.E., and in I 
the lino of the Porta Bomana, is th« I 
insulated group of hills of 8. Colum- ' 
bano, and then the vaat plain of the • 
'o, iu which may be distinctly seen on * 
clear day Lodi, Cremona, and Crema, 
By aaeending to the gallery juet before ' 
sunrise, the yiaitor may aoroetimes enjoy 
the striking spectacle of the rajs of the 
sun cat ching auccessicely the snow-clad 
peaks of the Alps long before the orb 
itaelf has appeared on the bomon. 

The ground-plan of the Duomo ia 
a Latin crusa, Icrmlnoted by an apaa 
or tribune, in the form of fire sides of ■ 
an oc^agon. The body ia divided into j 
a nave and four aialea, by four ranges of i 
colossal clustered pillars, with nine 
inter- columniationa. The transepts and ' 
the chancel end are divided into three ' 
aisles. Tliere ia no triforiuro gallOTy. 
nor any division corresponding with 
it. The vaultings of the roof spring ' 
at onoe trom the pillars ; hence arisen 
an appearance of great loftiness. ITifty- 



a pillan 



ach foni 






of eight shafts, support the pointed 
arches on which the roof rests. The 
total height of each pillar of Oie nave 
and chancel ia 80 ft. The diameter of 
the abaft is 8 (t. 3t in. The di- 
of the four great pillars which 
support the octagonal cupola is one- 
fifth greater. The beautiful capitals C* 
the nave and choir were designed bf 
J^/ippine of Modena in 1500 ; the loWM 
part ia formed by a wreath of foliaga 
mixed with figures of cliildren and 
inimals ; above is a circle of eight 
lichcs, corresponding to the uttorvals 
between the eight sbafta of the elua- 
tered pillar, and each containing a 
■ by 



shafts which divide the niches ter- 
minate in a pinnaclt', surmounted by > j 
amaJl atatue. The design, however, is j 
varied in different pUlars. The roof ; 
ia.painted to rKprssont an elaborate fret- 
work. Theexecutionismodem.butthe . 
design, as well as t\ua mode, ol ovoap • 
ment, ia iminwA. 1\\o ?«b 6.<*ii«iW 
on the mridja were 4eBi^«i.V3 "^^Sj 



166 



Bouite 21. — Milan— Duomo — Interior, 



Sect. III. 



Mangoni in 1648. Flanking the great 
centre doorway are twd granite co- 
lomns, each of a single black: they 
were given by San Carlo, and brought 
from the quarries of Baveno. They 
have been called the largest mono- 
liths in Europe; and, perhaps, were 
BO until the erection of the church of 
St. Isaac at Petersburg. The height 
of each shaft is 35 ft., the diameter 
3 ft. lOf in.; the cost of quarry- 
ing and finishing them amounted to 
1948Z. 

The principal dimensions of the 
Buomo are as follows, omitting frac- 
tions : — 

English Feet. 

Extreme length 4S6 

Breadth of the body .... 252 
Between the ends of the tran- 
septs 288 

Width of the nave, from centre 
to centre of the columns, 
which is double the width 
of the aisles measured in the 

samewav 63 

Height of the crown of the 
vaulting in the nave from the 

pavement 153 

Height from the pavement to 
the top of the statue of the 
Madonna, which crowns the 
spire 355 

Just beyond the entrance the pave- 
ment, which is of a mosaic pat- 
tern of red, blue, and white marble, 
is crossed by a meridian line, laid 
down by the astronomers of Brera 
in 1786. The sun's rays, passing 
through a small aperture in the root, 
cross it, of course, at noonday. Origin- 
ally all the windows were filled with 
painted glass. Pellegrini designed 
those in the nave : much glass remains 
of extraordinary brilliancy, but a great 
deal is lost. The restoration of the 
painted windows is amongst the works 
now in progress, 3 only in the N. aisle 
remaining unfinished ; the windows 
of the apse have been already com- 
pleted by Milanese artists : the lower 
ranges contain subjects from the Apo- 
ealjpBe. Parta of the glass, too, in 



the S. transept, and the W. window, 
are modem. These restorations are 
poor in design. Two of the great pillars 
supporting the octagonal cupola, be- 
tween which you enter the choir, are 
encircled by pulpits, partly of bronze, 
begun by direction of San Carlo, and 
completed by his . nephew. Cardinal 
Frederigo Borromeo. These are covered 
with bas-reliefs by Andrea Pellizone, 
and rest on colossal caryatides, repre- 
senting the symbols of the four Evan- 
gelists, and the four Doctors of the 
Church, SS. Gregory, Jerome, Ambrose, 
and Augustine, modelled by Brambilla, 
and cast by Busca, bending and 
spreading forwards to support the 
superstructure. Behind the altar are 
seen the three gigantic windows of the 
tribune. The best time of day for con- 
templating this scene is when the 
morning sun is streaming through the 
eastern windows. The effect of the 
briUiant background is much heightened 
by the dark bronzes of the pidpits. 
Suspended from the vaulting of tlie 
octagon over the altar, is a i-eliquiary, 
said to contain one of the nails of the 
cross, which annually, on the feast of 
the Invention of the Holy Cross (3rd 
May), is exposed upon the altar, and 
carried in solemn procession through 
the city. 

"With some feeling of disappoint- 
ment, from having heard so much of 
this building, it was impossible not 
to acknowledge the sublime efffect of 
the interior. The first particulars 
which strike you on passing to the 
interior are, that it is dark and gloomy, 
and that the leading lines are very 
much interrupted by the shrines intro- 
duced in the capitals of the piers, 
which injure also the apparent solidity 
of the bmlding. 

" The style does not correspond with 
any of our English modes of pointed 
architecture. The vaulting is simple, 
without any branching ribs, or any 
ridge-piece; it is so much super- 
vaulted, that each bay appears to be 
the portion of a dome; and the dis- 
position of the materials in concentric 
circles, or m "n^rVionaa oi sviisix cades ^ 



X^MBABsr. 



ifenf* 21.— j(fiIas»-^2)Mni»~in<n4>r. 



mukea me beliera that tliis ia noarij 
tbe case, • • » The lower part of the 
capitals hiifl something of tl>e running 
foliage of the 14th eenty. in England : 
but tlie shrinc-work whicli forms the 
uppor part is perfectly oniqoe i at leaat, 
J know notliing panulel, either in the 
work if«ell^ on in the manner it is here 
introduced. The bases and the plans 
of the pillars are equally anomalooB, 
and I think any person would be 
balHed In attempting to determine the 
(lute from the aroliitecture, only he 
might safely decide that It could not be 
Tery early. — Woods' Letters of an 

To point out in detail tbe moA 
remarkable objects to be seen in the 
Duorao, beguming from tlie western 
end and on the rt.-hand side ; — First 
'a the monument of Marco Carelli, 
a benefactor of the Duomo, a work 
of A.D. 1394. It ia an altar-tomb, 
wiUi snuiU figures in niches. Noit 
follawB tbe altar of St. jLgatbo, nif h a 
picture by Federigo Zucchero ; tben 
that of St. John the EvangeliBt, by 
MeWhior Oherardini. In the ncit is 
a picture by Fiammet^Uao. These 
altWB were erected in the time of 
the Borromeoa. 

According to the strict Amhrosian 
rule, tbero ought, as in llie Greek 
Church, to be only one altar in tJie 
cathedra], and tbe Duonio was planned 
accordingly. Other altars have been 
introduced, but there are fewer than 
is usual in Homan Catholic csthedndB ; 
and the chapels are much less pro- 
minent than in similar buildingE. 

In the S. transept ia the tomb of Qio- 
ramri Oiaeomo rfe" Medici, Marquis of 
Marignano (d. 1E55), and uncle of Sun 
Carlo, esecuted in bronie by Xflon 
Leoni, and said by Tasari to have 
been designed bj Miohael Angela. 
The principal statue of Medici ia not 
unworthj in its general design of the 
great master who is supposed to hare 
sketched it. In the splendid window 
near this tomb, proceeding eastward, 
tbe armorial bearings of the duceaned 
introduCTd, This Meiiici, often 
' il Meilidino, nas Jiof reinted to 



■j^led 



In tlie tribune at the end of the S. 
transept is the chapel of 8an OiOTanni I 
Sono. The pilaatere of the arch and 
its arohiTolt are oorered with eicecd- 
iogly elaborate bas-reliefs by SiMow- 
Ma, San Fetra. Zarabaila, Snaeiti, 
Bussola, and others. The figures of 
Justice and Temperance, by Virmara, 
are good, but the chief merit is rather 
to be found in tho exuberance of com- 
position and liigh finish of the pnups 
and tablets — of which some are taken 
from tho life of San Giov. Bono. The 
statue of tho Ghxardian Angel is by , 
Bvad, that of 8t. Micluiel by Qtoii. 
Milanii. On one side is the entrance ^ 
to the subterranean way Jeading to \ 
the archbishop's palace, and, on tbe 
other, that of tbe staircase which leads 
to the roof. Next is tlie altar of the 
Presentation of tho Virgin, by Bam- 
hajt (1510), who has attempted a 
diflicnlt representation of perspeotiTe 
in Boulpture. 

Tbe tomb, dose by, of Oiovatmi An- 
drea Vimercaii, a canon of the cathe- 
dral, hea two One heads in bas-relief by 
Samhaja (1 537-48). 

The Martyrdom of Santa Apollonia, 
by Ercole JVoDKcciRi, is rather itfjured. 
The statuoB of San Satiro, by Cae- 
eialari, and St. Ambrose, b; Qaetano 
Monti, were pkcod here in 1842. 
Tho elaborate Ootliic doorway, com- 
posed of foliage intermixed with ima- 
gery, on the rt. lund, is tbe entrance 
to the southern sacristy. Then comes 
a sitting statuD of Pope Martin V. by 
JacopiiM di Tradaie, erected by Fi- 
lippo Maria Tisconti, to commemorate 
the consecration of the high altar by 
that pontiSl The much celebrated 
statue of St. Bartholomew, formerly on 
the outside of the cathedral, and 
TBunted above its deserts, has been 
lately remoyod into the S. transept. 
Tlie inscription," -Won me Praxitelei,ied 
Marcus finxil Agrafes," a adopted from 
an epigram in the Greek Anthology. 

The tomb of Cardinal Caracciolo, ^- 
TemorofMi^flo(,a.\&^'),Sla^J^^l"Ba■(»r , 
baja, is BtrikVng ia \^.9 ^enetii *ifi«ii>j. 



168 



iioute 21. — Milan — Duomo — Interior, 



Sect. III. 



On the wall beneath the great E. 
window is a tablet of marble, with a 
monogram of high antiquity, called the 
^^Chrismon Sancti Ambrosii" and which 
contains the A and H, together with other 
symbols. Some suppose it to be a 
Gnostic monument. Near this, en- 
graved on a marble tablet, is a long list 
of relics of saints, fingers, toes, teeth, 
&c., possessed by this church. 

North side. — The tomb of Ottone 
Visconti, Archbishop and Signore of 
Milan (d. 1295), is earlier than the 
foundation of the present building. It 
is striking from its singularity of 
form and colour, being of bright red 



Verona marble. He left his moveable ^arocciOy and the Marriage of the Vir 



goods and chattels to the knights of 
St. John, who erected this mausoleum. 
The same tomb, by a singular economy, 
serves as the memorial of Archbishop 
Giovanni Visconti (d. 1354), who also 
imited in his person the temporal and 
spiritual supremacy of Milan. 

Immediately above this tomb is the 
sitting statue of Pope Pius IV. (1559- 
1565), the brother of the Marquis of 
Marignano, and uncle of San Carlo. 
It is by Angela de ManiSy a Sicihan 
(1560). The semi -Gothic bracket 
which supports it, by Brambilla, is fiill 
of elegant fancy in the groups which 
compose it. An inscription, recently 
found under a house near the Cathedral, 
stating that it was erected in 1386, has 
been placed on the wall near Ottone 
Visconti' s tomb. 

Many defaced armorial bearings are 
seen in this and other churches of 
Milan ; this was done during the three 
years' republic, by the Milanese them- 
selves, and not, as is generally supposed, 
by the French. 

The circuit wall of the choir, towards 
the aisles, is covered with bas-rehefs, 
representing the history of the Virgin. 
The subjects are divided into compart- 
ments by angels, whose attitudes are 
finely varied. 

Entering the N. transept we come to 
the altar of San Praxedes, with a bas- 
rehef by Maro^ Antonio Prestinari, 

The Annunciation is a copy of that of 
^^/K? at Florence, The chapel of the 



Holy Sacrament, at the end of the N. 
transept, called delV albero, from the 
splendid bronze candelabrum which 
stands before it, the gift in 1562 of 
Giovanni Battista Trivulzio, archpriest 
of the cathedral, contains some fine bas- 
reliefs, and a statue of the Madonna, by 
Buzzi. In front of this altar are the 
slab tombs of the Cardinal Federigo 
Borromeo, the nephew of S. Carlo, 
of Card. Caietani, and of two arch- 
bishops of the Visconti family. In 
the chapel of St. Catherine the Gothic 
altar is delicately executed. In the 
altars which come next, the picture of St. 
Ambrose absolving Theodosius is by F. 



gin is by F. Zucchero. Then follows a 
crucifix which was carried about the 
city, before St. Carlo, during the time 
of the plague. Two modern statues, 
St. Martha, by Cacciatorey and St. 
Magdalen, by Montis have been placed 
in front of it. The next space con- 
tains an altar-tomb, erected in 1480, 
and restored in 1832; it has a bas- 
relief by Marchesi. The Baptistery, 
— a small square temple supported by 
four columns of macchia-vecchia marble 
— is by Pellegrini. It contains an 
ancient lahrum, used as a font, from 
a bath of the lower Empire, the 
Ambrosian ritual requiring baptism by 
immersion. Behind the Baptistery, in 
the N. wall, are eight statues of saints, 
with a circular bas-rehef of the Virgin 
and Child. The saints, in Verona mar- 
ble, are of an early mediseval date. 

The choir was designed by Pelle- 
grini. The richly carved stalls of wal- 
nut-wood, with bas-reliefe, represent the 
history of St. Augustine and St. Am- 
brose. The organ-cases are rich with 
gilded carving and paintings of Fi- 
gini, Camillo Procacdnif and Gitiseppe 
Meda. 

On the high altar is a magnificent 
tabernacle of gilt bronze, adorned with 
figures of our Saviour and the Twelve 
Apostles, the work of the Solaris and 
the gift of Pius IV. A Gothic candela- 
brum of wood covered with metal hangs 
from the roof of the choir, to carry the 
paschal candle. ^exva^A^v tlve choir is 



t'CpisTBiTWr, •Senteil.— Milan — Dumuo— Crypt. 109 

the Buliteimneei) ehureh, in wliicli ser- , bullet Btniek San Carlo on tlm bnck, 
vice is cclEbrated during Uio wuitur I but did not peuutrate his eilkim and 
BOaaon, aa beiiig wanner fiian the Tast embroidered uopo, and dropped harm- 
one abore. This lower church is leea on the ground; and Vac failure 
from the designs of PeMB^Hw. Prom j of the ftttempt was ooiiBiilered as an 
it is tlie entrance into the chapel of interposition of Proiideni:e. Sun Carlo 
St. Carlo, rebuUt in ISIT, &om Uie de- continued in prayer, while all around 
signs of Peitagalli, in the form of a him were in coiistraroatiou. The aaias- 
l^gthened octagon. This subterranean ' sin eairaped for a time, but was ulti- 
(<hapel is lighted by an opening in the j matelj executed, though San Cario 
pavBment of the church, above, but not endeavoured to save hun. — Tlie great 
fufficicntlj to allow of the objects in it translation of relics effected by liiin. 
being seen without the aid of tapere, — The death of San Carlo. He died 
The walla are Dovered with 8 oval 4th November, 1584, aged 46 years, 
bas-reliefs, in silrer gilt, rHpreseuting his life having been unqueationabl; 
the principal events of the life of shortened by Ms austerities. — His re- 

the saint, viz The Birth of San oeption into Parndise. Tliese tablets 

Carlo ; hjB presiding at the Provin- are aurrounded bj bnciAiI omiunents. 
tial CouaoE of MJan (1605), in Thus {e. g.) round a tablet given fay 
■which canons were enacted virtually the money-chaugcra are cornucopias 
proteating againet some of the worst pouring out money, the coins being 
abuses of the Soman CUureh; San real golden (lorins, pistoles, duoats, &e., 
Carlo'a diattibnlion to the poor of fastened together Dj vtra, or acme 
the proceeds of the sale of the prinoi- [ similar contrivance. Jewels, crosses, 
paJitj of Oris. He had a life-intereat ; rings, and otber votive gilta are hung 
in tliis domiun, which he aold for 'around; some are very recent. 
40,000 crowns ] and he ordered Ida \ Tlie body of the saint is deposited In 
almoner to diatribu1« it amongst the ' a gorgooua shrine of gold and gilded 

;oor and the hospitals of his diocese, silver, the giftof Philip IT. of Spain. The 
Tie almoner made out a list of the front can be lowered, and displays the 
items, bow the donations were to be corpse dressedinfiill pontificals, reposing 
bestowed, which, wheu added up, in an inner shrine, or colEn, and seen 
amonnted to 42,000 orowiis. But through panes of root crjataL These 
when he found out the mistnlce, he panes arc so large oa to eicito soioe 
began to revise the figures. " Nay," \ doabt whether they are not of very fine 
snid San CarlOj " let It remain for | glass, and whether the manufacturers 
their benefit;" and the whole waa of Murano may not have furnished 
distributed in one day. — San Carlo's j the material supposed to be the pro- 
administration of the Sacrament dur- duetion of nature. The skill of 
ing the groat plague. — Tlie attempt modem embalmers has not been able 
made to assassinate hhn. San Carlo to presm^e the body frnm decay. The 
had laboured to introduce salutary brown and ahrirelled flesh of the 
reforms into the order of SumUiaii, mouldering conntenanoe scarcely co- 
whoee soandatouB mode of living had vera the bone ; the head is all but a 
given great oiTenoe. Some membera of stull, and the face, alone uncovered, 
the order conspired to murder him offers a touching aspect amidst the j 
A priest named Farina was hired to j splendid robes anil omameots in wliieh ^ 
execute the deed. Ue gained sccesa to the figure is shrouded. Upon the | 
his private chapel, and, as San Carlo , sBTGOphagua, ami oil around, worted 
was kneeling before the nltar, fired I upon the rich aaras, ii repeated in | 
nt him point blank with an arquehnse. golden letters San Carlo's b,v<nu\iA \ 
At this moment they were aiziging motto, " Hamilitm" "«^m!3n.Vro^\l^«(Mlc 
the versft "Let not jour ieart bo , hia time hai beeoVuvrwa ^5:3 Ot^^.iOT^ 
cmabled, neither be je atoid." Xha meo fimiil?. 'niB iaVwicre ol 'Cn.« *wfi8 



170 



JSoute 21. — Milan — Duomo — Sacristy, Sect, III. 



may be seen on paying 5 lire to the 
sacrifitano in attendance. 

On the anniversary of this saint 
(Nov. 4) large pictures are suspended 
between the pillars of the transepts and 
nave, representing the events of his life 
and the miracles which he is supposed 
to have performed. 

The principal or southern sacristy 
contains some objects of interest, the 
remains of a much larger collection. 
Amongst those most deserving of 
notice are the following : — l%e iEvan- 
gelisterivm^ the cover richly worked 
in enamel, and containing a MS. copy 
of th^ Gospels, from which the arch- 
bishop reads portions on certain great 
festivals. It was given to the Duomo 
by Archbishop Aribert, 1018, but is 
probably of much older date than his 
time, the workmanship of the enamel 
appearing to be of the Carlovingian era. 

A small vessel of ivory, ornamented 
with whole-length figures, the Virgin 
and Child, and the Evangelists, is 
placed beneath Lombard arches. It 
was given to the church by Archbishop 
Godfrey, by whom it was used .at the 
coronation of the Emp. Otho II., a.d. 
978. 

Two dvptychs of the Lower Empire, of 
good workmanship, representing events 
in the history of our Lord ; Greek in- 
scriptions, not oil correct in their ortho- 
graphy, and one almost inexplicable. 

Full-length statues of St. Ambrose 
and Scm Carlo on silver. The first 
was given by the city in 1698, and 
was the work of Scarpoletti, and 
twenty other goldsmiths. There are 
small statues of gold in the pastoral 
ptaff, and events in the history of the 
saint are delineated on his chasuble. 
The statue of San Carlo was given 
by the goldsmiths in 1610. 

Several busts of the same material 
and character. 

A mitre, said to have been worn 
by San Carlo during the pestilence. 
It is embroidered with the brightest 
feathers, and was probably brought 
from some of the Spanish American 
con rents. 
Where ^re also some splendid speci- 



mens of modem jewellery, particularly 
a Poo?, by Caradosso^ the gift of 
Pius IV. It contains many figures ; 
the principal group represents a De- 
position from the Cross; the figures 
are worked with the .utmost delicacy. 
Amhrogio jP(>^a,nicknamed Carctdosso, 
was a Milanese, the contemporary of 
CelUni, and earned the deserved praise 
of the jealous Tuscan. He was also 
a die-sinker, in which art he excelled, 
and an architect. Foppa was not 
handsome : and a Spanish grandee 
having in contempt called him " Cara 
d'osso," or Bear's face, he very inno- 
cently adopted the name, without un- 
derstanding it, perhaps thinking it a 
compliment. 

The Ambrosian rite is almost the 
only national liturgy ip the West 
which has been spared by the Roman 
Church, and it is probably much older 
than the Roman Liturgy. The Bito or 
Oulto Ambrogiano is in use throughout 
the whole of the ancient archbishopric 
of Milan. Several attempts have been 
made to introduce the Roman service 
in its place, but they have been foiled 
by the attachment of the clergy and 
people to their ancient rite ; and even 
in the present age " not Ambrogiani " 
is an expression employed with a cer- 
tain warmth of national feeling. Tlie 
service is longer than the Roman. 
The Scriptures are not read from the 
Vulgate, but from the ancient version 
called the Italica, which preceded that 
made by St. Jerome. No musical in- 
strument is permitted except the organ ; 
the melodies of modem music are rarely 
introduced, and the monotonous chant 
maintains its supremacy. There are 
many minor diiferences in the ceremo- 
nies which we anxiously retained, ex- 
tending even to the shape of the centers 
or turtboH. 

A species of tunnel connects the 
Duomo with the Archiepiscopal Palace, 
Annexed to it is a workshop belonging 
to the fabric, in which is the model, or 
rather the wreck of the model, of one 
of the plans for completing the front of 
the Duomo. It ia eo large that a man 
can* staad ui^ m Vi •, "W^. VX. *"» «a.^i 



Moute 21 . — Milan— Sanf Ambrogio. 



ni 



haA a noble portal nf Qothio nrches, 
not unlike Pet-erboraiigli, and much 
more appropriate tlinn tlie profient 

TherB are many cliurchea beflides 
tliB catliedral deaerring notioe. Several 
of them are interesting bora their 
antiquitji from their conneiion with 
even 1« recorded in history; or for the 
works of art which the^GOntaiD. Some 
of tliem bate lost their interest, how- 
OTBF, bj being modemiied, partimlni^y 
the interioTB; and thia seem* to have 
buen doDe uhieS; about the time of 
3(. CsrlOj and during the Spanish 

SanC A^mgio. This basilica was 
fpimdad bj 8t. Ambrose, when Bishop 
of Milan, and dedicate b; him, June 
19th, 3H7, to the Martyrs SS. Oerva- 
lint and Frotatiwl, whose bones he 
rcmoted lo this chureb. Poateritj 
IiM transferred the dedication to the 
founder. This structure exhibits maiij 
of those arrangements which were 
adopted in the early apes qf the Church. 
Ill front is tlie atrium, beyond whose 
preciuGts the ealechumena were not to 
pass. Aa it now Btaiid/i, it waa built 
by Arohlrishop Anspertus (about S88- 
881), as appears from hia epitaph in 
the choir. It is, therefore, the most 
anciont mediffral aVuoture in Milan. 
When rapaired in 1631 by the archi- 
tect SieMiii, by order of Cardinal Fb- 
derigo Borromeo, an operation rendered 
iiidispeDAabliT by its impending ruin, 
all its features wore preserved without 
alteration. 

The square court in front is acknow- 
led«d to date from the 9th century, 
nnd the ehurcb exhibits very much of 
the sama stylo of art. This atrium is 
an oblong square surrounded by ar- 
endee, having 3 arches at each end, and 
6 on each side, supported by pilastem 
witli half-columns ; the acul|iture on 
the capitalB of which, Hnimalx and 
nmio kDots, are good specimens of 
early Christian art. There is nothing 
in the details of the design, or in tlio 
emKul-iojij lo denauid admiTation j and 



yet it is beautifnl, from the mere sim- 
plicity and harmony of the general dis- 

The architecture of Sant' Ambrogio 
may be called Lombard (i. e, with cir- 
cular arches), that style which it has 
beeu of laf« years the fashion to 
call Komanetque, but singularly rude. 
The five arches of the front are very 
oharaoteriatio ; those above enclosing a 
gallery which stands over tbe perigtyle. 
PragroentB of frescoes still reipiain on 
the nails of the atrium, round which are 
arranged slab tombs, urns, altars, vo- 
tire and sepulchral ■inscriptiona, found 
in 1813, when the-pavement <* thl^ Ba- 
silica was taken up and repaired. Some 
of the inscriptions are remarkable from 
the corruption of the Latin, eihibiting, 
perhaps, specimens of the colloquial 
dialect. Two small panels, — one at 
tbe top of each of the folding doors, — - 
are shown as part of the gates which. 
St. Ambrose closed against the Emperor 
Theododua after his mcrcilceB slaughter 
of the inhabitants of Thessalonica. 
These rchca are of cypress-wood, and, 
tlioiigh not decayed, fear the marks of 
citrenie age. The doors, scarcely Tisiblo 
through a close grating, are ornamented 
with foliage and 3mptupe histories. 
The generid costume and traatEment of 
many of the figures is that of the Lowel" 
Empire ; they were executed most pro- 
bably in the 9th century, and were re- 
stored in 1750, when the two bronee 
masks were added. As for the remark- 
able event to which the tradition refers, 
it took place at the eato of the Basilica 
Portiana, now the ch. of San Vittore al 

With respect to the architecture of 
the interior, it waa, like the atrium, 
Lombard ; but in the 13th century 
pointed arches were built up under the 
(ircular ones which support the roof, 
in order to strengthen tfiem. 

The inside of the church was origin- 
allj divided on the plan into equarff | 
portions, each division having two | 
Belli i circularly aroliod openijVM cm. sprite ^ 
side below, and two aliioieWiVBft ?!'^'^'^ 

arches, gro'imngB \iei;n^ ^.^isi. «o, S] 



172 



Jioute 21. — Milan — Sant* Awhrogio. 



Sect. III. 



roof. The first two squares remain 
nearly in the original state, but the third 
has double pointed groins springing 
from a lower point; the strong ribs 
which separate the squares unite like- 
wise in a point so as to form a pointed 
arch. The fourth square is covered by 
the lantern, which is probably an addi- 
tion of the 13th century. There is no 
transept. The parallel walls of the build- 
ing continue a little beyond the lantern, 
and terminate in the ancient tribune, 
between which and the nave is seen 
the Baldachino over the high altar, 
supported by 4x}okimns of porphyry. 
Beneath are deposited the bodies of St. 
Ambrose and of Saints Gervasius and 
Protasius. But the great curiosity of 
the Basilica is the splendid feuding of the 
altar, which is one of the most remark- 
able monuments of goldsmith's art of 
the middle ages. It was presented 
by Archbishop Angilbertus II. (about 
835), and its interest is increased by 
tlie preservation of the name of the 
artist " Volvinius," who describes him- 
self as " Magister Faber," or Master 
Smith, just as the famous " Wieland " 
is styled Meister Schmied in the Nie- 
belungen lay. His name seems to in- 
dicate that he was of Teutonic race — a 
circumstance which has excited much 
controversy amongst the modem Ita- 
lian antiquaries. The front of the 
altar is of plates of gold; the back 
and sides are of silver, all richly 
enamelled and set with precious stones : 
the latter are all rough, at least not 
polished according to our present 
mode. The golden fi^nt is in three 
great compartments, each containing 
smaller tablets ; in the centre compart- 
ment are eight, containing our Lord, 
the emblems of the Four Evangelists, 
and the Twelve Apostles. The two 
lateral compartments contain the prin- 
cipal events of the life of our Lord. 
The Transfiguration is represented ac- 
cording to the type followed, without 
any variation, in all the early Greek 
and in most of the Latin delineations 
of that miracle. The sides and the 
hack of the altar, though less valuable 
40 materml, are perhaps more beautiful 



than the front, from the greater variety 
of colour which they exhibit. The 
bas-reliefs on them are the following 
(we add the descriptions, because the in- 
scriptions are not easily read, and the 
Custode explains them ad libitum) : — 

l.-hand side. Eight angels bearing 
vials ; four whole-length figures, not 
appropriated ; and four medallions, 
representing SS. Ambrose, Simplicia- 
nus, Gervasius, and Protasius. 

rt.-hand side. The four archangels, 
Michael, Gtibriel, Baphael, and Uriel. 
Four angels with vials, and four saints, 
SS. Martin, Matemus, Nabor, who 
suffered martyrdom with St. Felix, at 
Milan, a.d. 304, and St. Nazarius. 

But the back is the most interesting 
part, for here are represented the prin- 
cipal events of the life of St. Ambrose, 
and here the artist has left his por- 
traiture. Like the front, it consists of 
three grand compartments divided into 
smaller tablets. These are separated 
by enamelled borders. Centre : The 
archangels Michael and Gubriel. St. 
Ambrose bestowing his blessing upon 
the Archbishop Angilbert ; and, in the 
pendant, he is also blessing the master 
smith Wolvinus. Lateral tablets. The 
history begins with the lowest tablet at 
the 1. comer, and thus we shall ac- 
cordingly describe them, proceeding 
upwards. (1.) The bees swarming 
around the sleepifig child. St. Am- 
brose, bom A.D. 3&, was the son of 
the prefect of the Gkiuls. The legend 
tells us that the swarm thus flew about 
the infant's cradle, whilst he was lying 
in one of the courts of his father's 
palace at Aries. This was considered 
a presage of future eloquence. Nearly 
the same story is told of St. Domi- 
nick, and of Pindar. (2.) Ambrose 
proceeds to take the command of the 
eastern and Ligurian provinces of 
Italy. (3.) St. Ambrose, having been 
chosen Archbishop of Milan by accla- 
mation (a.d. 375), attempts to escaj^e 
his promotion by flight. (4.) His bap- 
tism, which did not take place until 
after he was nominated by the people 
I to the archbiskopric. (5.) Ambrose is 
1 ordained \)ifi\io^. ^^, 1 ^ ^^^^jSiaX ^w- 



tibTssATctn. Smis 91.^— JfiTatt — Sanf Anhrogio. 



iW 



gend, of which the futility hns been 
pointed out by Bsroniua. (8.) St. 
Ambrose preaching, but prompled bj 
angels. ^.) Hculs the lame. (10.) 
He i8 Ti9itB4 by our Lord. (11.) The 
apparition of the angel calling St. Eo- 
norat Bisbop of YerceUi to admiiiister 
the Tiaticmn to St. AmbroBe, then on 
luB deathbed. (12.) His death; angels 
reaoiving hi» souL Thia monument is 
important aa an autlientic record of 
ectleaiustical cosCuniB. It narrowly 
eicaped being aeixed and melted down 
by the revolutionary (MmmisBionere in 
1797. 'Except upon high rcativoLi, it is 
covered up, but it is abown upon pay- 
ment of a feu of about 5 frs. to the 



Near the end of tiie singing gallery, 
luwarda the altar, is a half-lengtii 
figure in bBS-reliaf, with sliaven head 
mid uhin, long pallium, and punti&iil 
pnrment*, the right hand being raised 
in tliB act of giving benediction, tile 
left holding wi open book on which is 
written Sanctus Anibruaius. It is an 
ancient repreaeutatiou of the saint. 

In the nava of the ehiirch, placed 
upon a granite pillar, ia a serpent of 
bronie, the subject of etrunge tradi- 
tions . It is smd to be the brazen 
ol 

ion of 

that type), and as such vias Kiven, in 
1001, to the Arehbiahop Arnuiphne by 
tliu Emperor of Constantinople. It is 
probably an Alexandrian tahr^mou of 
the Srd or 4th century. 

The pulpit is a curious structure, 
standing upon eight arches. It is said 
to have been rebuQt in 1201 ; but 
most of the omamenta are ao evidently 
of the earliest Lombard period, that it 
caii only have been repaired. A re- 
markable bas-relief, repreaenting the 
Agape, or love-fiaet, ahould be pac^ 
ticularly noticed. The bronie eagle for 
supporting the book in of the workman- 
ship of the lower empire. Beneath it is 
n Sne early Christian snreophngue in 
the higliesi state of prp.wrvofion. It ia 
ixiUed the tomb of 8iiRi:ho ; but this 



Ls an antiqnnrian whim, flLcre not 
being tlie alightoBt fomnlation for tlie 
opinion. 

Near the entrance of the choir are 
two slabs with inscriptions, the oue 
covering the tomb of Arohbiahop An- 
apertua, the otlier of the Emperor 
Louie II., who died S75. 

The tribune, or eaatern termination, 
is the most unaltered portion of tlio 
edifice. The vaidljng ia covered with 
mosaic ujion a gold ground — a splendid 
apecimen of the Byzantine etyle, and 
the Brat wliich the travoller seea in 
this part of Italy. It represents the 
Saviour, and 8S. Frotaaiua, Oiirtaaiiis, 
Satirus, Morcellina, Candidn, and the 
two cities of Milan and Tours, in 
allusion to the legend of St. Ambrose 
being present at the death of St. 
Martin withoxit leaving Miian. The 
, inseriptions are partly in Greek, el- 
}ii tilting in its spelling the present 
Romaic pronunciation, and p«*ly in 
Lslin. A monogram, eonjetturally de- 
ciphered, probably contains the name 
of the donor and the dedication of the 
WOrki and in the hieroglyphics, con- 
tained within a square cM^ouche, the 
erudite may discover the namoa of the 
Abbot Gaudentius, the Archbishop 
Angelbert, and the Emperor Louis 11. 
But whether the interpretation be cor- 
rect or not, the character of the work 
ia certainly not later then the 9th cen- 
tu^, and probably of an earlier period. 

In the centre of the tribune is a 
very curious marble chair or throne, 
called the chair of St. Ambrose, of an 
ancient form, decorated with Uons at 
the anns, and a simple scrollwork. It 
is, in fact, the primitive throne of the 
Archbishops of Milan, on whioh. they 
sat, acuording to " 



. practico 

of the Chrach, in the midst of the . 
13 aufflivgana of the provinte, o? whom . 
the moat northern waa the B«*op of 
Cbur or Ooire, and the roost southom, 
of Genoa. The obaira of the bishops 
remained uutil the 16th cantmy, when 
they were replaced by wood stalls for 
the canons, carved ia » -luii. 'S\isaa^ 

loss ot autuiue buq'ji\-us&-^ . "^N^ssso.'SI 



174 



Boute 2 1 . — Milan — Churches, 



Sect. iir. 



traveller reaches Torcello (see p. 382) 
he will find the ancient arrangement 
still unaltered. The brick campanile 
is probably of the 13th century. 

The chapel of San Satiro contains by 
far the most interesting mosaics in this 
church. This chapel was, in the time of 
St. Ambrose, the basilica of Fausta, but 
afterwards received the name of " St. 
Vittore in cielo d' oro," from the 
mosaic on the ceiling. It originally 
stood separated from the edifice of St. 
Ambrogio by a narrow streetjj but was 
united when the basilica was rebuilt. 
The mosaics represent in full-length 
figures Ambrose, Protasius, Gerva- 
sius, Felix, Matemus, and Nabor: 
none are designated as saints, or 
crowned with the nimbus : in the centre 
is a medallion, supposed to represent 
St. Victor. The probability is, that 
they were executed not long after the 
age of St. Ambrose himself, perhaps in 
the 5tlL century. The nimbi and letters 
which are seen are a clumsy addition 
of a later period. Behind the high 
altar is a good fresco of our Saviour 
between Angels by Borgognone, and in 
a chapel close by a Gloria by G. Tie- 
polo, 

The church contains several good 
paintings : in the 1st chapel on the rt. a 
Holy Family by Luiniy seen with diffi- 
culty from the bad light ; in the 2nd, now 
forming an entrance, frescoes of the 
Maries weeping over the dead Saviour, 
by Gaudenzio Ferrari ; in the 7th, St. 
George destroying the Dragon, and the 
Martyrdom of the Saint, attributed to 
Luiniy Laniniy and Borgognone ; the 
vault and arches, beautifully deco- 
rated with flowers, arabesques, and chil- 
dren, and the Christ in the oratory out- 
side, in the midst of angels, are probably 
by the same artists. The atrium leading 
to the sacristy has a Christ disputing 
with the Doctors, a feeble work by 
Borgognone ; and a Virgin and Child 
on panel, of the very early Lombard 
school. A modem chapel has a statue by 
Marchesi. If the traveller descends into 
the once curious crypt, or scurolo, he 
will find it modernised by the munifi- 
eence of Cardinal Borromeo. The roof 



is supported by 26 modern pillars of red 
and white marble. There is some fine 
church plate in the sacristy, especially an 
ostensoriumyinthe form of the handRome 
campanile of the church of S. Gottardo, 
given by Azzo Visconti. In the archives 
of the chapter are several diplomas of 
the 8th and 9th centuries, and a missal, 
with fine miniatures, of 1398, a gift of 
Gian' Galeazzo. The archives of San 
Ambrogio were removed to the General 
Becord Office, and its library to Br^ra, 
in 1799. 

The adjoining Convent of Sant' Am- 
brogio, now used as a military hospital, 
was built about 1495 by Bra^mante, 
and retains vestiges of its ancient 
magnificence. The splendid cloister has 
been destroyed. The refectory is a fine 
specimen of an interior in the deco- 
rated Italian style : it iB painted in 
fresco by CaUsto da Lodi, 1545. This 
sumptuous hall is used as a ward for 
patients affected with loathsome dis- 
eases ; and whilst this occupation of the 
chamber prevents its being examined 
with any degree of pleasure, the exha- 
lations have greatly altered the colours 
of the paintings. 

Just without the precinct of Sant' 
Ambrogio stands a solitary shivered 
Corinthian column, a relic of Roman 
Milan. It has been found by recent 
excavations that this pillar did not 
belong to a building formerly standing 
here, but had been placed here singly, 
probably to, support a statue. 

Ch. of S. Alessandro. This church 
belonged to the Bamabites, by whom it 
was rebuilt in 1602, from a design of one 
of their order, Lorenzo Binaghi The 
interior is very rich in jwiinting and de- 
coration, without containing any work 
deserving of being particularly noted. 
The fagade, with its 2 bell-towers, 
is incomplete. The Bamabites, in 
1723, established here, in emulation 
of the Jesuits, a college for noble fami- 
lies j whence the neighbouring street 
acquired the name of Contrada dei 
Nobili. 

Ch. of San Antonio, built in 1632, 
from the designs of F. Eichini. It con- 
tains 7 claaipelB x\i5tk^7 oTtv«EaKoXfe^^SJJcL 



LOMBAItDT. 



Home 2\.— Milan— Chmxlws, 



marbles and pamtinga. The vault of 
the nave m paiuted id freaoo, bj Car- 
lo*e ; the BubjectB ndate to the Onioi- 
flxion and the Miraolos of tho Crdas, 
The choir ib pamted bj ifoiKalvo .■ the 
stibjeclA are token ^om the history of 
St. Paul the Hermit, and St. Authouj' 
the patron saint. In the Srat chapel 
oa the rt, hand the picture of St. 
Andrea di Arellino is h; Cerano. The \ 
Natiritj, in the Sad ohapel, is bj B. i 
Caapi, and another further on bj one 
of tlie Caracci, In the principal chapel 
oil the L, Christ bearing \ai Cross is 
bj Palma Gioeatie. In the ehapel of 
the Annunuiatioit are various worliB of 
8. C. Procacciiti, 

San' Bernardino del Moate, in the 
PiHEZa del Verzaroj an octagonal 
church, with a cupola ; attached to 
it is a sepulchral uhapel, Hntirelj 
walled with ekullB and bonea ajimne- 
trioaU/ disposed. Some sa; that thej' 

by the Ariani iu the limu of St. Am- 
brose. ThByarenot,howryar,Oonaidcrod 
as relics ; and the eiliibitioD of these 
gloomy tokeoa of nmrtahty is merely 
iuteuded to eioite devotional feelings. 
The oblaliouB for massea are aaid to 
Amount annually to between 10,000 
and 15,000 lire. 

San Carlo Borromea, in the Corao 
Francesco, built by contrihutiona miaed 
umougat the inhabitanta of Uilsn after 
tho first invasion of the cholera, &om 
the desians of Amati. Tbe first atone 
was laid on the 29th of Bee. 1838. 
It ia an extensive circular edifice, sur- 
mounted by a dome, and only second 
iu size to the Pantheon at Kome, its 
diameter being 1U5 feet, its height 
130 feet, and with the hmtem ISO ; 
it is consequently larger than either 
the domea of Poasagno or 0-hinalba. 
Ill front is a fine Corinthian periatyle, 
opening on a aqnare, aurrouuded by 
a portico of granite columna of (he 
aame order. The interior lias atiE an 
uii^islied, bare look, DOtwithstanding 
tlie 34 magnificeut columna of red 
Baveuo granite which decorate it. 
Amongst the works of art which it 
caaiaiaa^ tie moit rcjnurtable are 



Marcheai's group of the Saviour and 
Virgin, called il Veuerdi Santo : aud 
in an opposite ohapel, 8an Carlo ad- 
ministenng the Sacrament to young 
people, by the same artist. The outer 
appearoQoe of the edifice ia poor, from 
the disproportion of the immenau dome 
with the low peristyle and oolonnode. 
The old cUuroh of the Semi, which con- 
' ■ ' some good paintinga, was pulled 
j> make room for the portico. 
Ce/n, in the Borgo 8an Colao. 
In a field called "ad trea moros" St. 
Ambroae, in 396, discovered the bodies 
of SS. Nizarus and Celails, martyrs. 
St. If ocarus he dug up and deposited iu 
the church of the siit' Apostoh ; but 
over that of S. Celsus, which was al- 
lowed to remaiu in ita original resting- 
place, he built a amoll eh., afterwards 
enlarged, and roatorod in 1651. Thora 
only now remains the ohoir, an anoieut 
painting in a lunette, and a door wiih 
symbolical ornamenta of the 10th * 
oontury. The square brieli oampanilo 
is a fine apecimen of thia class of 
edificea of the 13th or 14th ceuty. 
During the recent repairs several &ag- 
menta of early Christian sculpture, 
which were dug up in the neighbour- 
hood, have beeo placed on the walls, 
and the front painted to represent au 
atrium, which is supposed to have stood 
in front oftluEiuli., aunilartothat of St. 
Amhrogio. Adjoining this is the Bneeh. 
of La Madonna di 8. Celso (see p. 179). 

SI. Eufemia, iu the Corso di ijon 
Celso, with an looio vestibule, oou- 
taina, in the first oha^l on the lefl, 
a picture by Marco d'Oggione. Tlie 
Death of St. Eufemia is asserted to bu 
by TUiait. 

S. Emtorgio, eituated at the end of 
the Borgo di Cittadolia, near the 
Porta Ticmeae. The suburb of the 
Porta Ticinese was first aurrouoded 
with a wall by the Tisconlia, and osUed 
Cittadella, a name which thus remains. 
This church is one of tho oldest m 
MUan, Wing been dedicated in the ' 
Iburth century, i.o. 320, by Arch- , 
bishop Eustorgina, who is said to havo 
dejioBited iti il fee >3<iiwft ol 'Ctia ftv«« ' 
Mj^, ^tefteu\.el \*i 'torn ^i^ 'die "^iflf 



176 



Route 2 1 . — Milan — Churches, 



Sect. lit. 



peror Constantine. It is one of the few \ 
remains of ancient Milan which escaped 
destruction from Barbarossa. After 
many vicissitudes it was attached 
to a Dominican monastery. This 
order established themselves, and the 
tribunal of the Inquisition, here, in 
1218. At their expense the church, or 
rather aggregation of churches, which 
is now called S. Eustorgio, was reduced 
to its present form by Tomaso Lorn- \ 
hardino. The campanile was built be- • 
tween 1297 and 1309. The church was I 
finally completed by F. Richini. As a i 
repository of monuments it is the most 
interesting in Milan. These are pointed ' 
to by Cicognara as worthy of more [ 
notice than they generally receive. All 
have suffered more or less from Van- 
dalism during the early occupation of 
the French, and of the Cisalpine Re- 
public, The armorial bearings have 
been completely defaced, the inscrip- 
tions of titles of nobility and honour 
chiseled out. In their pi-esent state it 
is very difficult to make out to whom 
the several tombs belong. In the first 
chapel on the rt. the 'monument of 
Stefano Brivio (ob. 1485) is of very 
delicate cinquecento work. It is said 
to be from a design of Bramante. Over 
the altar are 3 paintings in compart- 
ments by Borgognone : the subjects 
are the Virgin, the Infant Saviour, St. 
James and other Saints. Beyond 
the next pilaster is the chapel of St. 
Dominick, with a marble monument to 
Pietro, a son of Guido Torelli, Lord of 
Guastalla, of 1416. The next chapel, 
of the Rosary, is of 1733. In the 4th 
chapel, erected towards the conclusion 
of the 13th century, and dedicated to 
St. Thomas, is the tomb of Stefano 
Visconti, son of Matteo Magno. The 
sarcophagus is supported by eight 
spiral columns resting on marble lions, 
with bas'rehefs remarkable for the 
age. In the 5th chapel are the mauso- 
leimas of Uberto Visconti, brother, and 
of Bonacossa Borri, wife of Matteo 
Magno. The 6th chapel, dedicated to 
St. Martin^ was built by the della Torre 
family. The fine tomb of dasparo 
Tisconti exists, though mutilated, and 



the bearings upon the shields have 
been obliterated by the republicans 
of 1796 ; but some traces of the 
insignia of the Order of the Gtffter 
may yet be discerned. Glasparo ob- 
tained this distinction in consequence 
of his having been repeatedly de- 
spatched to the court of Edward III., 
upon the negotiations for the matri- 
monial alUances effected or proposed be- 
tween our Royal Family and the Viscon- 
tis : he died about 1430. The opposite 
tomb of Agnes, the wife of G^aapar, has 
been also much injured. It appears to 
have been taken down and the frag- 
ments rebuilt, but not exactly in their 
original position. The costume of the 
principal figure is curious : she holds 
an immense rosary. In the chapel 
on the right of the high altar is 
an enormous sarcophagus, destitute 
of sculptures or inscriptions, which 
once held the relics of the three 
kings of the East. When we say that 
it has no inscription, we exclude a 
modem one in large gilt letters, — 
"Sepulchrum trium magorum." At 
the approach of Frederick Barbarossa 
the citizens removed the relics from this 
church, which then stood without the 
walls, to another, deemed more secure. 
But in vain ; upon the fall of the city 
the reUcs became the trophies of the vic- 
tor, and Archbishop Rinaldus, of Co- 
logne, carried them off to his own city. 
Opposite is a bas-relief representing 
the Nativity, and the Arrival of the 
three Kings, which, as appears from 
the chronicles of the monastery, was 
put up in 1347. It is supposed to 
have been executed by some of the 
scholars of Balduccio di Pisa. A pas- 
sage leads from the subterranean chapel 
under the choir to the chapel of S. Pie- 
tro Martire. It was erected to him by 
a Florentine, Pigello de' Portinari, in 
1460, and in it has been placed the shrine 
or sepulchre of this saint, a work of 
Balduccio himself, which is an exceed- 
ingly beautiful specimen of Tuscan 
art. Cicognara considers it as a mas- 
terpiece. Baldtwcio was one of the 
artists invited by Azzo Visconti for the 
adornment oi \na ■snft\.To^c?^» ^Y^^ 



'Ho'iti ' 21 . — H^ri — ^uffijies. 



genenH plan is like that of tlie shrine 
of the CoufeSBor in WoBtuiiiiBter 
Abbey ; a lower atory, a biise eup- 
portEd b; Eight beHutiiul colunma, and 
the aepulchre ftbove. StatucB, fill] 
of simplicity, stiuui in tho (jothic 
arolies boiow; t\w Doctors of the 
Church, St. Thomae and 8t. Eiistor- 
ipns. More int-ereating to the stranger, 
becaofie more norel, are the allegoncal 
i-eprGBenfationB of theVirtuoa. Beyond 
the Aip» such allegoi' 
not Ofjcurring Tery often in the (]k>thic 
buQdiupa of France, and atill 
dom in England, but they are amongst 
the peculiaroharsoteristicaof the Pisan 
school — Charity — Faith, — Forttude. 
— Prndence repreaented aa hayiog three 
fiu'es Lontemplatmg past present and 
futim. ^Hope looking upwardB and 
gmapmg a uoeegay < f budding Qowere, 
— Obedieoce hoiduig a Biblo — Tum- 
peranoe pouring forth water from a 

ii_e Oil th t n b abore 
i the hfe and 

Mir 

ra e and date 
U i^Hter Johi 
i n ulpait h»ne 

■ 1 a no T> 1 1339 

maten^ u white marble A hkeneas 
f Pigello IB preeerved m an ancient 
j untmg above the door Ti e high 
iltar was ereitod hv Uberto Viaujnti 
II 1316 The mne ba- rehefs were 
a Ided bj Qian Galeai/o The bai- 
barous rock work a I UtioiiB to repre- 
sent Mount Calvary wore made in 
1j40 The silver busts on the altar 

nntam rchea of aamta of the ordi 
of ''t Don iiiick On the ontaide of 
the church la a null it f'om which 
It 19 aaid that San Pietro Martire 
1 reached to the mult I lie against 
tl e Oathan imd other beres ea whiiih 
tl en abounded m Milan It is a 
*pBci4 of Paul a Cross pulpit or hke 
ti at at Magdalen College Pra Pietro 
did not however conlenl: himself with 
p ■eai'hmg b it worked out m praetiue 
( hat has betn appronnglv styled the 
theory of pCTWcution. Me eiereiscd 
withoij* men:/ the oSce of iuQuiaitor 
in the monasteiy of the Domlnicaus 
formerfy alUu'Jied to tJiia ohurelij aiid 



fefl a Tictim quite as rauoli to the fears 
as to the reicmge of those who slew 
him near Barlassina, 6th of April. 
1262. The Church of Rome, in ad- 
miration of hia principles and prao- 
tice, canonised him only 13 years alter 
his death. The adjoining convent wM, 
in 1T93, turned into a barrack. In 
the Piassa opposite is a statue of Peter 
MartjT, on an elevated granite column. 

S. Fedf/e, one of the moat elt^ant' ' 
churches in Milan, built for the JeanitB' , 
by S. Carlo, by whom they were esta— 
btiabed here- It is ^om the designs 
of Pellegrini. The bas-rehefs of tis' 
front are by Oaetano Monti of Satieittut 
and hia pupils, and have considerable 
merit. Since the suppreaaion of the 
Jeaiiits (he adjoining college has been 
converted into the Sepoaitoiy of <i« 
J'Hblie ArohtJiet, which contains manj 
documents of great intereat on tU 
medifljvalhiatoty of Italy. Han Fedele ' 
may be called the fiishionable church, 
of Milan, as the visitor will see by 
going there at high maas on Simdaya. 

S. Giorgio in Palazzo was foundwl in 

750, by Saint Natalis. The facade wa« 

restored in 1800, by B. Ferrari. Th* 

interior in 1821, by Cammica. It has 

been much modemixed. The 

frescoes on the coiling of the ohoip 

re by 8. Moatalia. It also eon- i 

ains, in the 1st chapel on the rt., 

. St. Jerome, by GandBiuao FWrari, 

.nd, in the 3rd on the same side, 

. Deposition and Eooe Homo, by B. 

Litini, amongst the best pietures of the 

mastei?. Both. apeveryfine,andin good 

laervation ; thefe are some lair frea- 

^a on the nreh of this cbaiiel. 

San Qiovanni in Conoa, shut up and 

lecrated. The front eihibita a 

■ioua mixture of the oiroular and 

pointed etyles. Here were the tomb* 

of the Viaconti family. Tiie menu- 

' -i Bomabo baa been remorej 

Brera mnseura. Adjoining the 
lofty bell-tower, long used as a , 
meteorological observatory. To the 1. 
of this ohuroh ia what was the Caan' 
Sforza ! and ou tt\e rt. a teMi* a^sK^ 
Dei Cani, from tt\B 6.o^» V^mAv "li«e3 
labo Tiacontv'te^t iti \\,. 1 
S. Loreni.o . li\ \,W t:,OT»" iSi "^ ,T 
5^ I 



178 



JRoute 21. — 3/San — Churches. 



Sect. III. 



cinese, close to this church, stand the 
Colonne di San Lorenzo^ the most con- 
siderable vestige of the architectural 
magnificence of Roman Milan. These 
columns, 16 in number, are of the Co- 
rinthian order. Mouldering, fire-scathed, 
shattered by violence, .these rehcs con- 
trast strangely with the bustle and 
vivacity of the street in which they 
stand. According to the earUest Mi- 
lanese historians, they are portions of 
the Temple of Hercules, built by Maxi- 
minian in honour of his tutelary deity. 
Modem antiquaries consider them as 
portions of the peristyle of the baths of 
Hercules, commemorated by Ausonius 
in the epigram which we have before 
cited; and the constructions which 
can yet be traced in the adjoining 
church seem to confirm this conclu- 
sion. An inscription in honour 
of Lucius Verus, built into a pier, 
has evidently no concern with the 
columns, and anoth^, containing the 

N. 

following letters, A, P., on what is 

T, I. s. 
supposed to be a part of the original 
edifice, does not afford much explana- 
tion. The style has been assigned 
to the 3rd century. The increased 
intercolumniation of the 8 columns 
on the 1. is an irregularity found in 
the nearly contemporary palace at 
Spalatro. The ancient church of San 
Lorenzo fell down in 1573. It had 
previously sustained many mischances, 
particularly in 1071, when it was burnt. 
It was by this fire that the columns 
were so much damaged. Pellegrini, 
the builder of the Escurial, a good 
painter as well as an architect, was em- 
ployed by San Carlo Borromeo to give 
the designs for the new structure, but 
they were partly altered by Martino 
Bassi. The interior was rebuilt upon 
the plan of San Vitale, at Ravenna, 
and has 8 sides, 4 being filled by lofty 
arches enclosing recesses. The arches 
which fill the intervals are smaller ; 2 
orders are employed, the lower is 
Doric, the higher Ionic. The arches 
sr0 surmount by a Doric cornice, 
t^Iu'eli serves as the impost to the cu- 



pola, a regular octagon, having a win- 
dow in each compartment. On the rt. 
the basilica communicates with the oc- 
tagonal chapel of St. Aquilinus, founded 
by Ataulphus, the King of the Goths 
and successor of Alaric, but who aspired 
to the glory of being the restorer, not 
the destroyer, of Rome. In this chapel, 
which, excepting the cupola, is ancient, 
although entirely modernised on the 
surface, is the remarkable tomb of 
Ataulphus, who married Galla Placidia, 
daughter of Theodosius the Great, 
whose part in the history of the de- 
cline of the Roman empire is that of a 
heroine of romance conquering her vic- 
tor by her charms. The tomb bears a 
considerable resemblance to that of 
his wife at Ravenna, and, like hers, 
without an inscription, and of very 
plain workmanship. The monogram 
of Christ (with the descending dove over 
a cross) and a species of Runic knot, 
with two lambs, are the only ornaments. 
In the chapel are two very early Chris- 
tian mosaics, perhaps amongst the old- 
est existing specimens of Christian art : 
they represent — that on the right, our 
Lord in the midst of the Apostles — 
a fountain gushes fipom his feet as an 
emblem of the living waters ; and on 
the left. Shepherds and their flocks, 
and the Sacrifice of Isaac. It is 
thought, and with some probabihty, 
that this part of the building was ori- 
ginally one of the chambers of the an- 
cient baths. The shrine of St. Aqui- - 
linus is a rich specimen of pietra-dura 
work. The entrance door of the chapel 
is of the lower empire, and covered 
with sculpture. In a chapel behind the 
high altar is the fine mausoleum erected 
by Ghkspare Visconti to Gio. Conti in 
1538. At the first altar on the 1. 
hand the pictures are by A. Luini. 
The Baptism of our Saviour is pleasing. 
There are also, the Martyrdom df S3. 
Hippolytus and Cassianus, by Ercole 
Procaccini — the Visitation, by an un- 
known artist, Morazzone — and a good 
fresco, representing the discovery of the 
body of Sta. Natalia, by E. Procaccini. 
8, Morco. Built in 1254. The 
I facade is QrotYuCjXXveViAftTvoT'^aTSio^etxv- 



toSiBARrrr. 



HouCe 21. — Wan — (lurches. 



ITff' 



ized. It containB mMij fresco paint ingB 
b; Lonutiio ; the beiit ut' wbioli le tlu> 
M&donna and In^nt, will] Bunta, in 
the thiri cliapel. The picture of the 
Trinit; is altributed Ut LuinL Otbt 
the altar is a rieli modem Ubenuicle 
in the form of a Oorintluan temple. 
The large pioturoa by the eide of the 
Ligh altar are b; C. Proemxitii and 
Cerana. In the TBatiboIe fa<nng tbe 
Nsriglio are some Gothio monumenta : 
one in white mHrble, with tha ligure 
of Lanfrani^a SeptaJo, the Hrat general of 
the AuguHtinian Order, who died in 
1243, is attributed to Saldtuxia of 
Pisa— he is represented sitting amidst 
Ilia pupils { uid another of 134^ to one 
of the Aliprandi family. 

Bta. Maria del Carmine. Thischurcll 
has luidergone two tranafonoationH. 
It nas built by the Carmelites in 1446, 
in a Qothio stjle. la 1680 this 
was ^tered, as far as passible, into 
Koman b; Jiit'Atnt, and restored to its 
original, slate by eizzagiUH in 1835. 
it contains two anuient Lombard 
pictures, and a Madonna in fresco, by 
B, Luisi, Tbe chapel at the side in- 
ITUSt«d with marbles Bud gilt stucco 
contiunB on the walla two pictures by 
Camillo JVoeaccini. 

Stn, Maria pnao San Celso, more 
generally known as La JUadoHaa. A 
very splendid building, one of the rich- 
est churchiH of Milan. 

According to tradition, St. Ambrose, 
on tbe spot on which he found the re- 
mains of St. Naiarus and St. Celaus, 
placed a pii^turs of the Madouna, 
who afterwards, ou the 30th Decem- 
ber, 14i83, appeared tliere. 



luiroule drew 






a the 



small church whieh bad been built 
in 1429 by Fihppo Maria, that it 
was resolved ' to erect a splendid 
cbuTch on the spot, and this was 
fommoneed in 1491 from the plans of 
Brananle. In front of the ch. is a 
handnomo square court, 3 of the sides 
formed of 6 Coriuthian arches, the 
capitals of the half-columns as well 
as of the pilasters in bronie. The 
facade wm hegao by Sraiaante, or, as 
others a3j, bj Oobbo SoloTo, carried on 



and altered in 1573 by Martin Ba,i,i, 
and couiplet«d by Alettio, to whom 
the present design is principally due. 
Tlie sculptures of the facade are re- 
markable. The two statues of Adatn and 
Ere, and the baa-reliefs of the Annun- 
ciation, the Adoration of the Magi, 
and the Flight into Egypt, are by 
Slotdo Lnreim, a Florentme ; the rest 
are by Anaibale ^lUana^ a Mihmese. 
The capitals of the ooluuius of the 
interior ant of bronze. The rich organ 
over the entrance has statues uf pro- 
phets on each side, by Ibniaaa, and 
IS supjHirCed by caryatides by StLtgi, j 
12 statues stand round t3ie 12-Bided 
cupola. The peuiientiTes, and the lu- i 
nettes beneath, were painted by Ap^- 
ani in 1797. Below, on the pilasters 
which support the dome, is a statue 
of St. John the Baptist, b^ Fonlana. 
and two otliers by Loremi. Tlio 4th 
space is occupied by the rich altar of 
the Virgin, on which tile miraculous 
painting is preserved. The altar is rich 
in silrer and goli, the sculptures by 
Ibnlaaa. The wood-work of the stalja 
is by Ta-ari/ti, According to the ori- 
gins! design there should only have been 
2 altars, but several have been sincD 
added. In tJie Istreoess outhert.liand 
is a Deposition by O. C JVocoDoiitij 
the side pictures are by yunolune. 
Over the altar next to it is the Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Naiarua and St. Oelaus, 
also by O. C. Ftacaedru. They were be- 
headed at Milan, tinder Nero, A.B. G9. 
The mother of San Nazarus was Ferpe- 
tua, who had rooeiyed the faith from 
St. Peter. Under the altar is a rude 
sepulchral am, with a bas-relief of 
the 4l,h century. The roof of tlie 
nayo is richly decorated with sunken 
and gilt circular and octagonal panels. 
At the altar of the Grucifiiion the 
St. Joseph is by E. ProcacBiia. Tlie 
Baptism in the Jordan, 4th chapd 
on rt., is by OaademiB Ferrari. 
Iq the principal diapel of the rt.- 
hand traoBcpt are, a fine picture re- 
prasenting St. Jerome knediug heforo 
the Infant SfttiuM, anA «ni.o Kttviiiv. 
pLcturea, tj PorU Bur done . "Vn. ■Ona 
spaces ot flio circaii, \iAi3i4i.'0tt6^sisfij 



180 



Route 2 1 .-^Mtlan — Churches. 



Sect, iii; 



altar it is difficult to see the pic- 
t'lrea for want of light. The Besur- ■ 
rection in the Ist is by A. Campi. The ! 
pictures in the 2nd, 3rd, and 5th are ' 
by Carlo Urhino^ St. Catherine in the 1 
central one is by Cerano. St. Jerome i 
in the 6th is by Calisto Piazza, The ' 
Conversion of St. Paul in the 7th, by ' 
Moretto. In the principal chapel of 
the 1. transept the Assumption is by 
C. Procaccini. There is also a picture 
by BorgogTuyne. 

Close to here is the very ancient ch, 
of St. Celso. (p. 175.) 

Santa Maria delle Grazie. In the 
Borgo delle Grazie, which leads to the 
P. Vercellina. — This church, with the 
convent of Dominicans to which it was 
annexed, was founded (1463) upon 
the site of the barracks belonging to 
the troops of Francesco Sforza I., by 
Count (Jasparo Vimercati, then com^ 
mander-in-chief of the ducal army. A 
considerable portion of the military 
buildings was converted, in the first 
instance, into an habitation for the 
friars J the church was built after- 
wards. 

In a small chapel in the house of 
Vimercati, which is stiU preserved on 
the 1. of the nave, was a miraculous 
image of the Virgin. This, together 
with his house, Vimercati bestowed oii 
the Dominicans, who, pulhng down the 
whole, built the present church oft its 
site. The first stone was laid in 1464, 
Its progress was slow, not having beeii 
completed till after 1493. Ludovioo 
il Moro and his wife Beatrice were 
liberal contributors to the church, and 
she was buried here. 

The frpijt is a fair specimen of Lom- 
bard Gothic of brick, with ornaments 
in terracotta, The interior consists of 
a good Gothic nave, separated from 
the aisles by 7 pointed arches, sur- 
mounted by a Gotliic groined vault j 
and although dirty, dilapidated, and 
forlorn, is still grand. At the end of 
the nave rises the cupola by JBramdnte. 
In the second chapel on the rt, is 
a St. John the Baptist, attributed to 
M-ancesco (TAdda. In the fourth are 
^owe noble S^seoes hy Gaudenzio Fer- 



rari. "Three compartments, dated 1543, 
contain the principal events of the Pas- 
sion of our Lord, but are unfortunately 
much injured: The Crucifixion has 
been much admired, The Flagella- 
tion, opposite, exhibits pecuhar power 
and freedom. This fresco, and Our 
Saviour Crowned with Thorns, in 
a compartment above, have been in- 
jured by damp. The vaulting of the 
chapel retains its paintings in their ori- 
ginal ftdl and vigorous tone. The figures 
introduced — Angels bearing the in- 
struments of the Passion — are very fine. 
G«.udenzio exerted his utmost skill in 
these paintings, expecting to have an 
order for the altarpiece, but Titian 
was preferred, his celebrated Saviour 
crowned with Thorns, now in the 
Louvre, having stood here. Amongst 
the other frescoes are, in the 5th chapel 
on rt., a Crucifixion and Angels on the 
vaulting, by Carlo di Crema : and seve- 
ral on the roof of the last chapel on 
the rt,, and upon the vault* of the 
choir, by the school of Iteonardo da 
Vinci^ The choir itself is richly painted 
by MaleoUo. The high altar is a fine 
specimen of richly inhad marble work. 
In the sacristy are some presses for 
holding the priests* vestments, hand- 
somely painted with arabesques and tlie 
shields of the Viscontis and Sforzas. 
These paintings, in ittiitation of in- 
tarsia-work, are very beautiful, but 
have been erroneously attributed to B. 
Luini. 

When the friars were expelled, the 
monastery a^ain reverted to its primi- 
tive destination of military quarters ; 
but part of the conventual buildings 
not occupied by the soldiers continue 
to commimicate with the churcht Two 
deserted cloisters have portraits of the 
celebrities of the order, the Glorifica- 
tion of St. Thomas Aquinas, and other 
similar subjects. 

In the refectory is the celebrated 
CEN4.COLO, OP Last Sxtppbe, of Lbo- 
NAEDO DA Vinci, Perhaps no one 
work of art h»^ had more written about 
it, and none deserving higher praise. 
<* This picture o^ t\\© Laat Suiji^r has 
.not only \)©en gne)NO^xft\^*m^^^afe^V3^vQ^^. 



tiina*. 



Jfeafe 2^ .—Mart— dfiUrcheS. 



18i" 



but porta ere said to hare been painted 
OTBT Bgain. TliesB niceties niftj be left 
to oonnoiaaeurs— I apenk of it as I felt, 
The copy eihibited in London gome 
years sgo, and the BugraTiiig by Mor- 
ghen, are both Bdniirable] but in the 
onginal is a power which neither of 
those works has attained, or ecea sp- 
proaohed," — Wttrdsioorih, 

The history of tlio painting nud its 
inisohanoeB may bo briDfly stated. It 
was begun in 1493, being among the 
iirat worts which Leonardo eaecuted 
under the patronage of Lndovieo il 
Moro. An aneedote is told by Vaaari 
poncemine the composition ; that Leo- 
nardo loltf the Duke he must leave the 
liead of the Saviour imperfect because 
he could not realise his conception of 
the celestial beauty it ought to possess : 
" Anoor gli ranneava doe teste da faro, 
quella di Criato, della quale non voleva 
oeccare in terra e nonpoteva tanto pen- 
sare, ohe nella imaglnaiione gli pareeee 
uoUa k'leaa^i c celeste 



cm; IB, die doT 



A dellB 



Lnd jct tliia veit 
liead, which Letmavdoi* so saUi to liave 
k'ft impurfett, is nuiv oziu of tho finest 
portions of the whole. Leonardo em- 
ployed sixteen jeora upon tlie work ; 
but he used t, new process, which 
proved its ruin. The ground is plas- 
ter, impregnatad with mastio or pitch, 
melted in bymKuiaofa hot iron. This 
ground he covered with a species of 
priming, composed of a iniitnre of 
white lead and some earthy colours, I 
which took a fine poliali, but from 
which tliB oil colour flaked olf. 

The materialB with which the wall 
waa built are of a very bad quality, 
rendering it susceptible of injuiy from 
damp. As early as 1500 the refitetory 
seems to hare been flooded, owing to 
its low sitimtion. The Tioinitf of the 
kitchen smoked the painting, which ex- 
hibited early spnptotaa of decay. Ar- 
menini, who saw it about 5U years after 
it was painted, said it waa then half, 
spoiled, and Scanelli, who saw it in. | 
1618, spoalinH hyperbolicaHy, obserTed 
that il was (lien ((I'fficult to discover 
ttff subject. In 16SS the monks, wish- 



ing to enlurge the door, cutaway Christ's 
feet and those of some of the Apoatlca, 
Biid, by shaking the wall in cutting it 
away, brought off parts of the surface. 
In 1726, Bellotti, an indifferent artist 
of much pretenaion, who painted the 
fresco over the door of the adjoining 
church, persuaded the monks he was 
poBBCssed of a secret method which 
would entirely restore the faded paint- | 
ing. He concealed liiniself behind 
planks, and painted it all over. In { 
1770, MaMa, a wretched dauber, waa 
employed to go over the whole of it 
again. The three heads, however, to i 
the eitrame right of the spectator, ' 
escaped, in consequence of thia outcry i 
which the proceeding raised. 

When Napoleon was at Milan in ' 
1796 he visited the refectory i and, sit- 
ting on the ground, he wrote, placing 
his pocket-book upon his knee, an or- 
der that the spot shonld ho oiempted 
from being occupied by the military. 
This order was diaobeyed, and the room 
was amployed as a uaviijry stable, and 
afterwards as a hay mi^azine. The 
door waa then for some tune built up 
in order eBfectiTely to eiclnda the 
military. In 1800, owing to the 
drain being bloeked up, and rain 
falling for IS days, the refectory was 
flooded to a considerable depth. In 
1801, on the matance of Bossi, the 
secretary of the Academy, it was re- 
opened, and in 1807 the Viceroy Eu- 
gene caused the refectory to be repaired ' 
and dmiued, and everything done which 
roiglit in any way tend to preserve the 
remains of the painting. It ia, how- 
ever, now again sealing off, not very 
rapidly, but incessantly j and this is, 
perhaps, the last generation whose eyes 
will behold ita beautiea, even yet so 
tranacendeot in their irreparable decay. 
Professor Barosii of Parma is said to 
have discovered a means of preventing , 
the painting flaking off, which he has 
only yet appUod to a small portion I 
of it. 1 

The late Professor Phillies, E.A-, io^ 
1825, " i«ftTK(ntd\*.a cimS\\kn\-w"K\\ ■'^^^ 
ftilandinm\rtoB.tten.tttm,KiAcEf^'^^ 
difficulij fi.-n4 ft -^rt-Ssm ol 'vV.* is«^ 



182 



Rouie 21. — Milan — Churches. 



Secfc. III. 



surface. Tlie little I did find exhibited 
an exceedingly well prepared ground, 
smooth in the liighest degree, and the 
painting upon it free, firm, and pure." 

" Till tlu8 time all paintings on walls 
had been wrought in fresco; but oil 
painting, which had become known 
and practised in smaller works, better 
suited da Vinci's mode of proceeding, 
as it admits of retouching or repeat- 
ing : and, unfortunately, he adopted 
it here. He was not, however, the 
first who had employed it in that 
way; Domenico Veneziano, and one 
or two others, had made tempting 
examples for him, and thus led to a 
result so unfavourable to his reputation. 

"It would appear that the vehicle 
which he employed, whatever it were, 
had no union with the groimd, and 
therefore the surface cracked; and 
whenever damp found its way through 
those cracks, and between the painting 
and the ground, small parts of the 
former were thrown off", tiU at length 
large blotches were formed, exhibiting 
the white preparation beneath. These 
have at various times been filled up ; 
and it had been well if with that filling 
up had rested the efibrts of the re- 
storers. But their attempts to match 
the remaining colours faihng, as I sup- 
pose, they have taken the shorter me- 
thod of cure, by repainting the whole 
surface of the part they were required 
to mend ; so that, at the present time, 
little or nothing, it may be said, re- 
mains of Leonardo, save the composi- 
tion and the forms generally. " 

** Of the heads, there is not one un- 
touched, and many are totally ruined. 
Fortunately, that of the Saviour is the 
most pure, being but faintly retouched ; 
and it presents even yet a most perfect 
image of that divine character. Whence 
arose the story of its not having been 
finished it is now difficult to conceive ; 
and the history itself varies among the 
writers who have mentioned it. But 
perhaps a man so scrupulous as Leon- 
ardo in thedefinemeiit of character and 
expression, and so ardent in his pur- 
suit of them, might have expressed him- 
self unaatia&ed, vfhsre all others could 



see only perfection."— PAiWip*' Lec' 
tures^ p. 65. 

"That part which is to the rt. 
hand of the large dish, under the 
figure of our Saviour, including an 
orange, a glass of wine, a portion of 
two loaves, and a large piece of the 
tablecloth just about and under thes« 
objects, are, in my opinion, the only 
pai*t of this great work which have 
been untouched. These parts have 
all the beauty of finish to be found in 
da Vinci's ou pictures." — J7 C. H. 

La his treatment of the subject, Leon- 
ardo adhered to the traditional style of 
composition, handed down from an 
early period, and peculiarly adapted to 
the position chosen for the picture. 
Placed at the upper end of the refec- 
tory, down the sides of which are 
ranged the tables of the monks, it con- 
nects itself with their circle, while it is, 
at the same time, exalted above them 
by its elevated position and the greater 
size of its'figures. " This mode of com- 
position, which betrayed the earlier 
artists into a disagreeably istifi* and 
monotonous representation, and seems 
so unfavourable to the development of 
an animated action, is here enlivened 
in the most varied manner, while 
a most naturally imagined connec- 
tion reduces it to an harmonious 
whole. The figure of Christ forms the 
centre ; he sits in a tranquil attitude, 
a Uttle apart from the others ; the dis- 
ciples are ranged three and three toge- 
ther, and they form two separate 
groups on each side of the Saviour. 
These four groups in their general 
treatment indicate a certain correspon- 
dence of emotion and a harmony in 
movement, united, however, veith the 
greatest variety in gesture and in the 
expression of the heads." — Kugler. 

The figures of the Apostles are thus 
placed. The standing figure to the 
extreme left of the spectator, and on the 
right of the Saviour, is St. Bwiiholomew ; 
then they come in order thus: St. 
James the Less, St. Andrew, Judas, St. 
Peter, St. John. On the left of our 
Lord, beginning with the figure next to 
, him are St. lYioia'aa ^'\\i^tl^i^c^<bi<OT«i^ffii^«t 



LOMBAItDY. 



Jitnde 21. — Milan — Chuj-chea. 



18: 



rHiaecl),Se. James tlieGreotar.St.Philip, 
St. MattliHW, St. TbaddffiUB, St. Simou. 
" The well-iiiown worda of Chriat, 
' One of you ehill betray me," have 
wiuaed the liveliest emotion. » • • 
TTiB two groupB to the left of Ohriat 
are fall of impasaionBd eicitement, the 
figures in the Grst turning to the Sa- 
viour, those in the aiyund Bpeaking to 
each otherj horror, aatoniahnieut, bub- 
picioD, doubt, alternate in the Tarious 
eipresBiona. On the other hnnd, atilt- 
nesB, low whispers, indirect observa- 
tioQ, are the preraibng eipressions in 
the groupa on the right. In the middle 
of the flrat groop aita tlie betrayer, 
a cunuing sljarp profile: he looka up 
haatil; to Chriat, aa if spealung the 
words 'Bobhi, ia it I?' while tnie to- 
the aoriptunil account, his left hand and 
Cliriat'e right hand approach, as if im- 
ronedoasLy, tlie diah that atanda be- 
tween them." — Kiu/ler. 

Copies have been at varioua limes 
made of lUa celebrated work : the beat 
of which [a, one by Marco d'Oggiono, a 
pupil of da Vinei, now happUy pre- 
aeryed in the Boyal Academy, London. 
Another by Buiiiohi, made by order of 
Cardinal F. Borromeo, ia in the Am- 
broaian Library. Bosai, by direotion 
of the Viceroy Eugene, in 1807, made 
with great care a, cartoon drawing 
of the siio of the origLuBl, and after- 
Hards an oil paintmg, &om which 
a mosaic was eieouted. Thia moaaio 
ia now at Vienna; the cartoon is 
in the Leuchtonberg gallery at Mu- 
nich ; the oil-painting in the Brera. 

At the opposite end of the refec- 
torj ia B painting whioh, anywhere 
else, would attract great atteution, 
but which is generally oierlooked 



of it 



) the 



Cenacolo. It is a ttrj large and 
preeerved fresco of the CruoiEiion by 
MoiUor/'ano, with hia name and the 
date lld&. It contains b great number 
of figures grouped witliout any confu- 
SLOD, one of the beat ooooeptiona of a 
multitude we have almost ever seen, 
and full of mei-it. The good condition 
of this painting oaaaaa one the more to 
n^TBl that Leonardo did not employ 



frewo. His error ia rery curiotialj ra- i 
EmpliCed on this aame wall. You see 
two white spaces in thecumera. Here 
Leonardo painled in oil the portraits of 
the donors of the Cenaeolo, but only a 
trace of the figures can bo diaeeraed. 

Santa Maria Ineoronafa. Built 
1461, at the eipense of Francetco 
SfoTZB. It contains a good picture by 
C. Froaunwi, and the monument of 
Qabriolfl Sibraa, 1458. The baB-relie6, ; 
also, in the Capella Bossi, ahouhl be 
noticed. 

Sta. Maria dellaFiatione. Opposite 
to the end of the Stradone della Paa- 
aione, close to the Archinto palaee, 
and between the Porta Orionlale and 
Porta Tosa, stiiniifl this church, built | 
in 1486. The fine oupola «a* raised in 
1530, from the desien of Solaro. Its 
height froui the pavement is 160 ft. 
The Unmade was added in Ifitfa. It ia 
heavy and overloaded ; upon it are 
3 fine high-reliofa, representing the 
acourging of our Lord — the Crown- 
ing with Thorns— the Entombment. 
The interior ia divided into a nave and 
two aisles, and the original design of 
a Greek cross has been altered into a 
Latin one, with 8 chapels in eauh 
aisle. On the rt. at the end of 
the transept, is a Crucifiiion, by O. 
Campi! the roof above it ia painted in 
freacji, by hia brother Auloiiio! near 
this ia the tomb of the two Bira^ 
Daniel, Biahop of Mjtelene, on the 
urn above, Francis below ; a worft of 
Andrea f\itiaa. It is the only speci- 
men which ean certainly be attributed 
to this artist, almost unknown, but 
who was Hmangat the beat eculptars 
of Lombardy. Cipognara, speaking of 
this monument, says, " its general pro- 
portions, the grace of its ornaments, 
the beauty of the aeTcral parts, all ' 
are in the best taste and the utmost | 
elegance." On tho 1. the baptistery 
oontains the supper of San Carlo, by I 
Daniel Creapi; tlie first eliapel, a 8t, \ 
XJbaldo,byJi»Bo*«; thefifthon L.aSt. 
FraneiB, by CamiUo Froeaocini; the \ 
last, Cliri»l aomftto C»lCTa.-n, *■■««*»■ ^ 
Uw Bohool of L. da Vxncv. \w*iXs» fiosa^St, 



184 



Boute 21,— ^i^n— Churches, 



Sect. III. 



by Qatidenzio Ferrari, and Clirist in 
the Garden, one of the best works of 
Salmeggia. The Flagellation, the Re- 
surrection, and the long pictures on the 
pilasters of the high altar are also by 
him. Much exj)ense has been bestowed 
upon the high altar ; the ciborium is of 
pietra dura ; and beliind it is a paint- 
ing, almost a miniature, upon marble, 
by Camillo Procaccini, representing the 
Deposition of our Lord. The principal 
ornament, however, is the altarpiece, 
a Pietctf by B. Luini, in his first 
manner. The doors of the organ are 
painted in chiar'-oscuro by Crespi and 
Carlo Urbino. Those on the rt.-hand 
side are by Urbino. Bv Crespi also 
are the small pictures of the Four Doc- 
tors of the Church, and the 8 pic- 
tures fixed to the great pillars, and 
representing the History of our Lord's 
Passion. The interior of the cupola 
is painted by Nuvolone. The sacristy 
is a noble apartment. In the lunettes 
are paintings of the saints and prelates 
who have belonged to the order, worthy 
of Borgognone. 

The monastery connected with this 
church has, since 1808, been occupied 
by the Conservatorio di Miisica, the 
most celebrated training school of Italy 
for theatrical music. 

San Maurizio Maggiore, in the Corso 
di Porta Vercellina, called also the 
Monasterio Maggiore, on account of its 
rich endowments and the numerous 
privileges bestowed upon it by King De- 
eiderius and the Emperor Otho. It is 
said to stand upon the site of a temple 
of Jupiter, £i*om whence the columns 
supporting the tribune of Sant' Am- 
brogio were brought, and to have been 
one of the three buildings exempted by 
Barbarossa from the general destruc- 
tion of Milan. Of the building of that 
early period, however, few traces remain, 
except in the two towers, the one round 
the other square (used as prisons for 
some of the Lombard martyrs), which 
are embellished with some coarse paints 
ings and niches. One of the towers is 
. traditionally asserted to have been 
af tAe 300 erected by the Romans 
vrhich defended the citjr, and a frag- I 



ment of Roman wall may be discovered 
in the monastery. The present con- 
struction is chiefly the work of Dolce- 
bono (X497'1506), a pupU of JBrji- 
mant$ ; the facade is by Perovano 
(1565). The church is divided into 
two parts by a solid screen reaching to 
the height of the principal cornice. 
The half which serves for public wor- 
ship is arranged in the same manner 
as the inner church, which belongs 
exclusively to the monastery. Great 
elegance of proportion is displayed in a 
triforium above a row of small chapels 
which are unconnected with each other, 
while the triforium leads round the 
whole church. The architecture is of 
a refined Tuscan order, and Braman- 
tesque in the truest sense. The screen 
dividing the two churches is painted 
on both sides. On the outer side, or 
towards the church for the public, the 
whole of the paintings are attributed to 
Luini. At the bottom are 4 large fe- 
male figures of saints, with angels bear- 
ing torches between ; above in limettes 
are portraits of the founders, and still 
higher up the Martyrdom of St. Mau- 
ruB and St. Sigismimd. The 1st chapel 
on rt. is painted by Qnocehi ; the 2nd 
has two saints and Putti, attributed to 
Luini; the 4th chapel, perhaps tlie 
most interesting of the whole, is entirely 
painted by Luini, representing Christ 
bound between St. Catherine and St. 
Stephen, and the founder of the chapel 
kneeling before the former, on the side 
walls her Martyrdom, and on the vaults 
angels with the instruments of the 
Passion ; on the 1. side in 2nd chapel is 
St. Stephen preaching and martyrized, 
by Aurelio Luini ; in the 3rd, the Birth 
and Martyrdom of St. John the Bap- 
tist, by the same painter ; and in the 
4th, a Descent from the Cross, by pupils 
oi Luini, The inner ch. or choir: — the 
lower part of the screen has been con- 
verted into a chapel; in the lunettes 
are paintings of Christ mocked, his 
Crucifixion, and Deposition in the se- 
pulchre J and on the side-walls, our Sa- 
viour in the Garden, with 3 sleeping 
Apostles, and t\ie 'BleaxrreectvaxN, %jd.TO.ir- 
able works o£ B. Luim ; VYic K\tcl\^\,>j 



Lombards, 



Eoute 21. — Milan, — C/iuivItes. 



185 



iritli the i Eysageliats, ami Angels 
singing, are probably by Borgognane, 
OB olflo the beantifiil half'SgureH in the 
gallery that rant round the ehurch. 

Saa Niaaro Mfv/giorOi in the Coivo 
di Porta Boniona. This benljua wae 
Ibiiiided bv St. Ambrose (a.d. 382), and 
dedicated 'to the 13 Apostles. It wi» 
bnrnt in 1075, enlarged upon ita being 
rcibiult, and sgaiu by Sail Carlo; the 
two principal chapels were added in 
1653. The moat interesting part of the 
oh. is therestibulti b}' which it is entered. 
This is the scpnlehra! cliapel of the 
TriTnUiH, and contains an interesting 
series of monnments of that lEustTiDus 
femilj. They are reinarltaWy simple, 
figures as iarge as liie, in the armour, 
dreaa, and garb of the times, true por- 
traits in marble, resting upon their sai^ 
eophagi in stucco,— Antonio (d. 146*), 
the father of the great TriTuliio, who, 
u]ion the death of (he last Sforxa, turned 
the dubious scale in fiivoiir of the Via- 
contrs.— The great Oisn' Giacomo (died 
1518), Marqness of Vigesano, his laurel- 
crowned Jiead pillowed upon his eorslet, 
with the inscription "Johannes Jaco- 
buAMAgnnsTrimltiusAntrOniifilius, qui 
nimquam qnievjt quiescit, taoe." This 
was the TriynMo who, banished frora 
Milan,retumedBttba head of the French 
army, and may be said to have been the 
main cause of the ruin of his country. 
Those who had profited by his treason 
reapected him not ; the old warrior 
died broken-hearted, nt the age of 80 
years, and was buried, as the IVench 
say, at Bourg do Chartres, near Mont- 
hery. He was the founder of the 
chapel, OS appears froni an inscripti 
yet remaining. — Tlie two wives 
tlio Marqnis, Margareta CoUeoni, died 
1488, and Beatrice d'Aralos, sister 
oF the Marquis of Poscnra. — Qian' 
Nicolo, died 1512, the only legitimate 
son of tlie Marquis ; aa zealous as his 
father in the iatflrests of Fniupe, and 
who, had he lived, woidd probably have 
i-qualled him in militaty fame.^Paula 
QonEaga,tUewifoof Giannieolo ; Ippo- 
lita, Luigi, and Mai-gherita — maiden, 
hoy, and infaot, diUdren of Giannirolo, 
all Ifingside b^aide; and, lastly, Ginn' 



Franceaeo, died 1573, the son of Gian- 
nicolo, who served both Francis I. and 
Charles V., changmg sidus ns was most 
convenient to hun. It was he by 
whom these monnments wero erected, 

aeription which seems to apply to 
the whole series. All the monnments, 
however, are cenotaphs, the bodies 
bemg deposited in the vault beiow. The 
chapel is said to have been designed by 
Brammtte, and altogether is one of the 
most remnrkablo of its kind in Milan. 
On the pupola and four apandrils are 
freseoes by Vitalt Sola. There is a 
copy of Gaudenzio Ferrari's Cena, by 
Lanini, In the church. A good fresco, 
representing the Martyrdom of St. 
Qvtherine, m the oratory of St. Caie- 
rina della Buota, adjoining the chureh* 
was executed by the same painter in 
1546. In the principal compartment, 
near the pilast^^ of an ttrch, un the rt. 
hand, he has introduced himself be- 
tireen Gaudcnzio Ferrari and Bella 

S. Paolo, on the 9. side of the open 
space In front of St. Eufemia. The 
side towards the piazsa, coupled with 
Corinthian pillars above Doric, pro- 
jecting from the wall, is from liio de- 
sign of Alessio. The front, which ia 
in bad taste, has a bas-rolief over tho 
door, !a Madonna dv Loreto in the 
tympanum, and some long perpendi- 
cular compartments with emblems, 
beautifully eiecuted. The interior is 
divided transversely by a screen, as at 
S. Mauriiio, rising as high as the cor- 
nice, the further part being occupied bj 
the Augusttnian nuns called the Angel- 

Sa»' Pietro in Gtisate (in a street 
leading from the Corso di Porta Toaa 
to theBorgo of the same name),sO caHed 
from tho Gessate family, who here 
founded a convent for tho order of the 
UmiluitL Tiie Interior, consisting of 
a nave and two aislen, with painted 
arches supported by monohth columns 
of grey granite, preserves its ori^nal 



186 



Eoute 21. — Milan — Churches. 



Sect. m. 



Madonna of Luiniy in 6 compartments, 
with Saints and Donatarii. D. Crespi 
painted the S. Mauro, to whom persons 
afflicted with the sciatica performed 
pilgrimages in this church. The ac- 
tions of the saint at the sides are by 
Moncalvo. The frescoes in the 2nd 
chapel, on the 1., representing St. 
Ambrose as archbishop, are attributed 
to B. Zenale and B, Buttinoni of Tre- 
vigUo. In the altar of the 3rd chapel 
on 1., a Madonna, in the middle 
of six compartments of very ancient 
paintings, is by Bramantino or Vincen- 
zio Foppa, The monastery adjoining 
this church was erected in 1509, and 
is in the style of the school of Bra- 
mante : it has 2 cloisters, with Doric 
colunms, with arches and a frieze of 
•brick. It is now used as an Orphan 
Asylum. 

8a/n SatirOf in the Contrada del Fal- 
cone, nearly surrounded by houses, is 
without facade or choir, but is a very 
graceful building inside. The original 
church was built by Archbishop An- 
spertus on the site of his own house, 
in the 9th centy. : the only remains of 
this is the chapel in the 1. transept, 
with four larger and several smaller 
colunms of di^rent materials and di- 
mensions, and with different capitals, 
all taken from earlier buildings, as was 
then usual. The present church was 
erected about 1480. It was intended to 
be in the usual shape of a Latin cross j 
but, from want of space, the choir is 
wanting, and its place is suppHed by a 
perapective painted on the wall. This 
painting is as old as the church, but it 
has lately been retouched and refreshed. 
It can hardly be called a work of art, 
but, as a specimen of perspective, the 
deception is marvellous. Annexed to 
the church is a small very elegant 
octagon sacristy, by Bramante. The 
bas-reliefs, arabesques, and sculpture 
are by Caradosso^ and are very beau- 
tiful. 

8. Sebastiano has a good painting of 
the martyrdom of the patron saint by 
Bramantino. 

San Sepolcro (close to the Ambro- 
Bi'an library) retama its ancient towers 



built in the 11th century ; the rest is 
modem. Over the door is a celebrated 
painting hj Bramanimo — a Dead Christ 
mourned by the Marys — but it is 
so shut up in glass and grating, to pro- 
tect it from the weather, that it is diffi- 
cult to examine it. This church was 
the centre of the congregation of the 
Oblati, a body of priests foimded by 
San Carlo, in order thai; th^ might, 
by stricter lives and more exemplary 
performance of their duties, check the 
Protestant Reformation. The congre- 
gation has ceased to exist. 

8. Sinvpliciano. St. Ambrose erected 
a chapel here, over the burial-place of 
some saints, and S. Simplicianus de- 
posited here the bodies of Sisrnius, 
Martuius, and Alexander. The Milan- 
ese, when they defeated Barbarossa at 
Leffnano, believed that they were as- 
sisted by these martyrs, and that 
three doves, flying from their altar, 
perched themselves upon the mast of 
the Caroccio. In consequence of this, 
a fine Lombard church was built here, 
which, after having undergone some 
alterations in 1582, in a different 
style, has been recently restored, pre- 
serving the Lombard portal. In the 
choir is a Coronation of the Yirgin in 
fresco, by Borgognone^ a remarkable 
work for the simplicity and grace of the 
figures, approaching to the style of Fra 
-^gehco ; it has been much injured. 

8arC Stefano in Brolio, in the Piazza 
del Verzaro, the njarket for vegetables 
("verzee") and fish, a very ancient ba- 
siHca, rebuilt by Archbishop Visconti, 
the successor of San Carlo, and com- 
pleted by Cardinal Federigo Borromeo. 
It was also called 8t. Zaccaria alia 
Biiota, from a species of wheel of terra- 
cotta, with the inscription "Rota san- 
gvinis Jidelium, " formerly fixed against 
a pillar, and afterwards deposited in the 
sacristy, but recently again concealed 
or removed. Near the pillar is a 
species of rude um, now buried in the 
pavement up to its rim, and covered 
with a grating. This is called the 
" Pietra degli innocenti." Who the 
innocents were is a subject of great dis- 
c\iBaioxL) ouiQl ao «J^o n«"S}j)dl. i«ei'^esi\. \.<a 



Soate 21.— Milan— Churches. 



137 



tlio 



ia«yi: 



■tjrdoma in the earliest agea of the 
Churuh. IntbemodembistinTofMilBii 
an important foot ii oonneoted wiCli the 
"Pietra degli iimocenti," Hard bj 
perished one to whom that name did not 
applj, Galeozzo Maria Sforxa, slaiii De- 
cember 2Qj 1476, by the three couBpira- 
6ore— Carlo Viscoati, Girolamo Oigiata, 
and Oioiann' Andrea LompugDano. 
They were instigated bj Cola Moiitono, 
a man of lellers, who, faDBticisiMi bj 
the Btndy of ajicient history, urged liis 
diecipleii — and he had many — to 
imitate the eiamplca of those who had 
perished in the extirpation of tyranny. 
This chnruh nas judiciously restored 
ill 1829. The rich Corinthian chapel 
to the rt, of the high altar built by 
Cardinal TrivuLiio, governor of Milan, 
(1656) waa restored in 1814. The 
buptisteiy has been lately Gttedup with 
modem Btained glass by Oldrino, ama- 
niifaoturer in Milan, Tlienncieut cam- 
panile having AiUen down, tlie present 
one was built in 1612. 

San Tomato in terra mala, or terra 
aniara. The date uf the preaent form 
of tim ohurcli is 1580. Ths heiastyle 
portico was added in 18S6. It eon- 
taius a Magdalen by A. Luini, a S. 
Carlo by G. C. Fraeatcim, and a St. 
Anthony by the younger SaiateCU. It 
is said to derive its name from one 
uf thoae Bot« go characteriatic of the 
tyrants of Italy. The priest of the 
pariah had refused to read the funeral 
eerrice over one of his poor pariah- 
iouers, uiilesB hia widow would pre- 
viously pay the feea. The woman 
barat oat in loud lamentations ; when 
Giovanni Viseonti, riding by, aaked 
tliB cause of the diBturbanco. — " Bury 
him gratia," exclaimed he to the priest, 
H'ho complied ; but, like the ehoriaters 
in the baUnd of the Old Woman o( 
Uerkeli^, repeated the dirge with a 
qnaver of ismstemntion. And, when 
the Bervicewaa finished, "Now," said 
Visconti, " throw hhn in." And the 
mifterable prieat was buried alive with 
liis pariBhioner. The atory adds that, 
as they were cBaliag fjje eartJi over the 
ptiest, be eried out, " Coiae queata 



terra 6 ainara!" Tram which the church 
derivea its present name. 

Sa» Tittore al Corpa, in the Stra- 
done di San Vittore : formerly tho 
Basihca Foniana, vying in dignity 
with the cathedral. According to the 
traditions of the Church of Rome, ail 
early convert, the Seiiator Oldanus, 
had two tone. Fortius and Faustns; 
the latter bnilt the baaiUca, which wa» 
incorgiorated afterwards in the Am- 
brosian. The former built this basi- 
lica, from him oalled Poreiana. It was 
the Bcene of the Emperor TheodoBiua' 
eidusion from the ohurcli by St. Am- 
brose, and of the latter's victory over 
the Arians, and of the introduction of 
the cantu altemo of the Ambroaiau 
rite. At that time it was also known 
by (he name of the "biuitU^a exU'o-' 
Biurana." It waa Grst asaigned to 
the Benedictinea ; in l&GT ta the 
OlivetanB, by whom it was rebuilt 
in 15G0, from the designs of Alesaio. 
The fac^e is simpler Uian the UBual 
stylo of this architect. He intended 
to add a maeiiifloent cortile, but this 
part of the design was stopped in its 
progress. The interior is splendid. 
The vaulting eihibita that union of 
plastio work and colour which, almost 
peculiar to Italy, produces such an 
effect uf elaborate uiagniSoence. It is 
divided into compartments of raised 
work, foliage ajid figures, within which 
ure paintmgs of samts, martyrs, and 
angds, not so small ae to fritter away • 
the general aspect, and not so large as 
to intrude ujwn the arclutecture. St. 
John and St. Luke, in the cupola, were 
painted by -ZJ. CrBspi ; the other evan- 
gelists and the sibyls are by Stoiwaltio, 



byXJ 
I the tm 



lenta of thereof of tliB nave, and St.Ber- 
nardo above the door. St. ChriatoghBr 
is by Cioeca; St. Peter by SaooeU. The _ 
paintinp in the choir on each side of the ' 
high altar are by Salmeggia ; St. Ber- 
nard, and St. Victor, the patron 8aint,on 
horseback, the horse leaping forward 
with much eiltect. AnQthei ^vc*»i%Vil 
Saltneggia tepreseiAii 9S,b.. 'Stsoicia^ 



183 



BoiUe 21. — Milan — San Gotardo, 



Sect. III. 



the Oblate op Collatine Nuns, comforted 
by the apparition of her guardian angel. 
Mve Victors are honoured as saints by 
the western churches. The patron of 
this church suffered martyrdom upon 
the site which it now occupies. He was 
a soldier in the army of Maximinian, by 
whose command he was tortured and 
beheaded, a.d. 303. 

In the CapeUa Arese, designed by 
G. Quadriy with its fine black marble 
columns, the Madonna, angels, and 
prophets were sculptured by Vismara. 
It contains the sepulchres of the 
Arese family. In the last chapel 
on the rt. hand are three pictures 
by Camillo Procaccini^ subjects from 
the life of St. Gregory the Great, 
— ^his Litanies during the great pesti- 
lence, — his attending on the poor, 
— and the feast given by him after 
the cessation of the plague. In 
tliis composition the table is placed in 
singular angular perspective ; the sons 
of Totila are falhng down before him. 
In the chapel of St. Benedict are some 
good paintings by Mgino. The stalls 
of the choir are of the 17th cen- 
tury. They are of walnut-tree, and 
the carvings represent events in the 
life of St. Benedict. The sacristy is a 
fine room with noble wood carvings ; 
it also contains several good pictures, 
of which the best is the Martyrdom of 
Saint Yictop, by Camillo Frocaccini, 



THE SEOULAE EDTPICES OP MILAB". 

Palazzo della Reale Carte, close 
to the cathedral. This palace, which 
was the residence of the viceroys under 
the Austrian rule, and now of the 
King when he visits Milan, is bmlt 
upon the site of the very magnificent 
one raised by Azzo Visconti about 
1330, which was one of the largest 
and finest palaces in Italy, and 
decorated with paintings by Oiotto. 
After repeated partial demolitions, 
the whole, excepting the church of 
San Gotardo, included in the present 
palace as its chapel, was pulled down 
tofwmxia the close of the last century. 



"The steeple of St. Gothard, built 
in 1336, is a curious specimen of that 
age; it is of brick, except the little 
shafts wliich decorate it, and these 
are of stone. The four lower stories 
appearing above the roof of the church 
are plain octagons, with unequal faces, 
with a row of ornamental intersecting 
arches to each cornice, and a shaft or 
bead at each angle, which interrupts 
all the cornices. There is a little win- 
dgw in the lowest but one, but it 
appears to have been broken tlirough 
at a later period ; the fourth has on 
each foce a window divided into two 
parts by a Httle column, and each part 
nnishes in a small semicircular arch. 
This sort of arrangement occurs in the 
early architecture of France, of the 
11th, and perhaps of part of the 
12th centy., but I think not later. 
In the fifth story, the angular shafts 
receive their capitals, and unite with 
other shafts on the fiwjes of the octagon 
to support a series of Uttle arches ; 
but as the angular shafts intersect the 
Uttle cornices of each story, and con- 
sequently pass beyond the upright of 
the plain faces, while the intermediate 
shafts are within that line, the latter 
are broken into two heights, one pro- 
jecting before the other. Over this 
are two stories, rather smaller than 
those below, and forming an equal- 
sided octagon ; and above all is a 
spire, cut to indicate scales or shingles, 
terminating in a globe, and a little 
winged figure supporting a weather- 
cock. I have dwelt more fully on 
these details, because they so strongly 
distinguish the Lombard buildings 
from similar edifices of the same 
period m France or England; and 
because also they show the necessity of 
a new system of dates, when we would 
determine the epoch of a building by 
the peculiarities of its architecture. 
Though bunt in the 14th centy., it 
exhibits more of what we call Nor- 
man than of the Grothic ; and perhaps 
the Italians never entirely abandoned 
that mode of building for any con- 
, sistent style, tUl ' the restoration of 
I the Biomaii «tcb!A.ec\.\«« vcv. >i)aa Vo'Ool 



LOMSASDY. 



Jiottte 21. — Milan — Arcivescoeado. 



18iJ I 



oenty., under BrunellesoliL There are 
several sCeoplos at Milan of this sort, 
but tluH ia the best. It waa^higlily 
extolled bj contemporar; writers ; and 
it deriTBS more additional interest from 
having containad the first clock which 
everaoanded tile hours." — Woodi' Let- 
tert of an Arohilect. From the oiroum- 
stance of the first striking clock having 
been placed in this tower the neighbour- 
ing street ncquirod the name of " Dell' 
ore." Aaingularstjirjisconnoutedwith 
the giit brass angel on the summit. A 
bombardier, in 1333, being condenmed 
tu die, offered to etnke ofi' the bead of 
the figure at one shot, and, being allowed 
his trial, he succeeded ; and liis skill 
purohased his pardon. The angel con- 
tinued without a head till 1735, when it 
ws$ restored. It was when proceeding 
to the church of San Qotardo that 
Uiovanni Maria Visconti was slain, 
16th TAajy 1412. The diabolical fero- 
oitj of this tyrant had continued un- 
checked for ten years. It was his re- 
to feed hia bloodhounds 
lictims, delighting in the 
' saw the animals tear the 
1 from the boues. Tiiat 
Ida unbridled cruelty at last tcnuLnatetl 
in perfect iuaanity cannot be doubted. 
It is a ciirious &ct that Giovanni Mai'ia 
began his reiKU bj grunting a kind 
of Mugna Charta to the MUaneac, 
and that he was a liberal patron of 
literature. He is buried in the chapel, 
near the altar, but bis tomb was de- 
stroyed by the French, and the interior 
of the chapel IS n^w entirolymodernised. 
Tlie exterior of the tribune retains its 
ancient aspect. 

The RoTiii Palace contains many 
modem frescocB. The show ports of 
the palaee WtJrthy of mention, are 
the following: - — Saloon : Nialit and 
Morning, by Martin Knoller, a 
Tpolosa, a scholia' of Meugs. Salle- 
A-manger ; ceiling, the Four Seasons, 
by Treballen. Small Dining Moam .- 
» vety elegant cabinet, with medal- 
lions on chiar'-OBCuro. Sala di Bepre- 



guliir pastime 
with human 
spectacle as hr 









toiy inscribing the deeds of Nnpolpon 
upon the shield of Minerva; iu the 
four angles, the four quorterB of thti 
globe, imperial Throne Room : by 
Appiani — the Apotheosis of Napoleon, 
ho being rpproaented as Jupiter upon 
an eagle : conxiiiered the best of the 
series. PrenerU Throne Eoam .- Mai-- 
riage of Napoleon and Maria Louisa, 
by Sayct. Ball Boom .■ the Coro- 
nation of the Emperor Fnineis as 
King of the Lombardo- Venetian Ejng- 
dom, also by Sayet. The &real 
Ball Boom is a epluidid old-ftuhioned 
apartment. Its principal feature ia 
a gallery supported by catyatides, 
executed by Cataao, an artist from 
Parma. They are cleverly varied. 
Small Sail Boom, an Egyptian Hall ; 
i, e. a hall supported by ranges of 
oolnmns, hke that at our lloodon 
Mansion House. Lastly, a room hung 
with tapestry from the designs ol 
Raphael. 

The Areineseopoilo, or Archbishop's 
Palace (between the Piazza Fonlana 
and tlie i^thedral), contains a veiy good 
collection of pointings, bequeathed to 
the see by Cardinal Monti, and in- 
creased by his successors. A few have 
been transferred to the Brera Gal- 
lery. The following are the best :— 
Oialio CoHijB : the Madonna, sup- 
ported by Angels ; originaUv a diarch- 
bnnner, or gon^on. Bemardiiio ' 
Campt! St. John the Evangelist, with 
his symbol the Eagle. Leonardo da 
Find : a Sketoli, — the Virgin contem- 
plating our Lord, who is holding a 
Lamb. Qand/naio Fefrarii a Nati- 
vity, — many saints introduced, XlUaai 
on Adoration of the Mam. Camillo 
JVooaceiiH ; the Heads of the Twelve 
Apostles, Cereno ; the CireUmEision 
of our Lord. - Sareaaa : the noked 
Infant Saviour sleepuig on the Crods. 
Sramantiiia : a Virgin and CMd, — 
the Virgin dressed m blue, with a 
turban. Andrea del Sario ; a Mag- I 
dalene holiling the Vase of Ointment. ( 
Leowirdo da Vinci i a Virgin and ] 
Child. MorQiimw : ftiKi IfcrnisK i&. 3 
the Innocents- Palnao. VecnVui ■. "i^ 



190 



Route 21. — MUan — Piazza di Trihunalu Sect. 111. 



pointing to the writing on the ground, 
the Pharisees looking on. Ghtido : St. 
Joseph holding and contemplating the 
Infant Saviour. Michael Angela : a 
Battle-piece, with many naked figures. 
Titian : a Portrait of Pope Julius III. 
Giulio Cesare Procaccini : St. Jerome, 
half naked, — an angel above is in the 
act of speaking to the saint ; the Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine. Bernardino 
Ca^wpi : a Design in chiar'-oscuro, re- 
presenting St. Sigismund of Cremona, 
and other Saints. After Raphael : the 
Adoration of the Shepherds, a piece 
of tapestry woven in gold and silk. 
Morazzone: the Angel wrestling with 
Jacob. Antonio Campi : our Lord's 
Agony in the Garden. Andrea del 
Sarto : the Lord of the Vineyard pay- 
ing the Hire of his Labourers. Raphael: 
a Design, on paper, of several naked 
figures in the act of shooting at a mark. 
Jjeonardo da Vinci: two Designs, in 
chiar'-oscuro, of naked children. Ca- 
miUo Procaccini : the Raising of Lazar 
rus, and the Martyrdom of S^. Nazaro 
and Celso ; Designs in chiar'-oscuro, 
with many figures. Mabuse : a Virgin 
and Child. Antonio Campi : the Cir- 
cumcision of our Lord. Albert Durer : 
St. Jerome. Paris JBordone : two 
Holy Families, one including St. Am- 
brose, and another with St. Catherine. 
Bernardino Campi : our Lord bearing 
his Cross. Morazzone : a Holy Family. 
Pordenone : the Virgin and Child. 
Titian: a Holy Family, with St. 
G-eorge in armour. 

The Palazzo delta dttct, or BrolettOy 
in the Coi»so del Broletto. Broletto was 
the name formerly given to the town- 
hall or palace of the municipality. It 
first stood on the site of the Corte, 
afterwards in the Piazza de' Tribunali. 
The present building, which is exten- 
sive, with two courts and colonnades, 
is a specimen of the architecture of 
the revival previous to the time of 
Bramante. It was built by Filippo 
Maria Visconti for the celebrated Count 
Carmagnola. It now contains the 
several municipal offices. 
The J^tazza de^ IHbunali is remark- 
^bJe as containing some remains of me- 



diaeval Milan. In the centre rises a 
large square building, standing upon 
open arches, of which the upper por- 
tion serves as a depository for the 
Notarial archives of the city, whilst 
the arched space below was used as 
a species of market. The latter has 
been handsomely restored and enclosed 
in glass, and serves as the general ren- 
dezvous of the mercantile community, 
and especially as a com exchange. This 
building was the Palazzo delta Ragione, 
where, in earlier times, the magistrates of 
the commonwealth of Milan assembled, 
and where the ducal courts of justice 
sat in after times. It was begun in 
1228 by the Podestk AHprando, and 
completed 1233 by his successor, Old- 
rado Grosso di Tresseno, who is re- 
presented on the S. side mounted on 
his steed in full armour, very curious 
for the costume, but still more so per- 
haps for the inscription, which recounts 
his good and doughty deeds in extir- 
pating heresy : — 

** Qui solium struxit, Catharos ut debuit uxit." 

The Cathari here mentioned were 
Manichseaii sectaries, whose name, cor- 
rupted into Gazzari, was transformed 
by the Germans into Ketzer. The last 
word should be ussit ; but the author 
of the inscription took the poetical 
licence of altering it into uxit, in order 
to rhyme. On the archivolt of the 
second arch, on the N. side, is a mys- 
terious figure, which belonged to a 
much older structure, a^^d was thus 
preserved in the 13th century, out of 
respect for its then remote antiquity. 
It is no other than the once cele- 
brated half-fleeced or half-fleecy sow, 
by whose augury Mediohmum was 
founded, and from which the city 
derives its name (In medio lanse). 
Belovesus the GJaul was guided to 
place his settlement, just as the sow 
and thirty young pigs settled the site 
of Alba. 

Claudian, in his Epithalamium upon 
the marriage of the Emperor Honorius 
with Maria the daughter of Stilicho, 
thus deaciiibea "Vemxs «jft T«^airin^ to 
Milan, -wViete, ««a Hfc n^ovjJl^ ^.^em^ >^«» 



LoMBAKDY. Jijitii 21, — Milan— Tiis Brera Qa&ary. 



lai 



hide of the wooUj sow was etill pre- 

"CorKtnua lubllmeTotxu.iil nuinUBiUUs 

And SidoniuB AppoUiutu^ by tbe de- 
Bcription of " the nit; named aflor the 
woolly tow" inoludea ia one distioh 
Rayenna luid Milan : — 



The PUzza de' Tribunali is unr- 
mundwl by other bnildings, poaseasing 
much historiciil interest, and not de- 
void of piatureeque beftut;. Of these, 
the moat ouriouB in aspevt la that on 
the 3. aide caUed tbe Loggia degli Oisi, 
fi-om tbe lamily wbo defrayed muuh ol' 
tlia oipeuaeottiie BtnwjtvirB, whieb was 
bfgiin in 1316. From tlio bidcony, or 
" riaghUra " (or, in the language of the 
coniniDn pcopla, j/arlera) , in tbe front, 
Iho BBsent of the citisena was asked hj 
tbe Podeati to the acta of goTeninient, 
mid theaentenoeapaased upoiiuriminnla 
were proiilaimed. A row of shiolds 
"'ith armorial bearinga decorate Ihe 
tflpido, being thone of the a is 
i|uartor8 of the city, and of tlie I'ia- 
conti-Sfbnaa. It is of an elegant 
Italian Qothic, in black and wliite 
marble, and as each wns raueh sd- 
rriired by Mr. Hojie. Aloagaida the 
Loggia degli Otn is the ancient 
Souola Paletina, now conrortod into 
nil oiBcefor mortgage-deeda, in front of 
wbieh are atatnes of Ausoniua and of 
St. Augustin. On the opposite side of 
t he Ptuua ia the ancient college, for- 
merly belonging to tbe doctors of civil 
law. It waa built by Pope Pius IV. 
about 1564. The interior has some 
tolerable painliiiga of the 17th centy. 
()n the opposite aide of the Piazza 
from the Ijoggia degli Oasi ia the old 
Fiilazto della Citia, or, aa we should 
say, tbe Town Hall, a building ofi 
tbe 16(h century. Ttie atatue of St. 
Ambrose oceupiea the place of that 
of Pbilij) II. of Spain, which was con- 
verted into a Brutna in 1797, and de- 

etrojed during the riots of 1813. The 
lower wrt ha* been recently onoloaed 

at tbe Solas or Ezcliaiige. The tower 



that risea on it ia of the 13th cent,, 
having been erooted by Nnpoleonc 
dulla Torre. 

This part of the city is the heart of 
buaineas. Opening out of it are Iho 
goldsmiths' street ; tho CoiUrada di 
SatUaMargherita, the Patemofltcr Row 
of Milan, full of booksellers' shops 
(Chiidca, prints, and excellent mapa, 
inoluding those of tbe Austrian Ord- 
iianee Burrey, are to be had at Art»- 
ria's, who liaa also eatahlisbmcDta at 
Vienna and Maunlieim) ; and the Con- 

, trada dei Borainari, leading to the Ca- 
thedral, tbe seat of some of the beat 
Bbopa in Milan, 

Brema, PaIaX30 deUe Seieate e 
delle ArU is the official name of the 
groat esCabhshnient wliicli, when it 
belonged to the Jaauita, was oalled the 
Collegio di Sla. Maria in Brera, or, 
more ahortly, Brera, by which name 

I it ia still generally known. It might 
be called St. Mary's in the Fields, for 
the old Lombard wordSrera, or more 
properly Bredii, is a corruption of 
J'ripMita. Tbe establiahment origin- 
iilly belonged to the order of the Ifmi- 
liaii, BOTne of tho principal mem- 
bera of which bavins cotiapired against 
tho Ufo of San Carlo liorromeo, it 
was suppreaiod. Their dissolute oon- 
duct bad already eicited great acan- 
daL The Jeauita were put ia poa- 
aeasion of tbe Brera in \bli, upon 
condition that they should est&blisb 
both what we may term a high school 
and a college, a duty whifh they eie- 
euted with their usual ability til] tbey 
were expelled in their turn. Tlie 
chnrch was pulled down in 1810 to 
make room for the academy, Tlia 
present bmldingB are very estensiTCV i 
and now contain witbin their walla , 
(besides a chapel) the apartments oeca- , 
pied by the " Heale Academia," the . 
achoola of various branches of the fin» , 
arts, apartments for tbe "Eeal Ineti; , 
tulo delle Science," a very eitonsiva' | 
gallery of pajntines, the Pinaeoleca, the , 
Library, a rich otSleel ' 
and coins, man's mt™ 
acriptB,taTO«ll\iiA».nicsBtiea,ll*s. "^ 
the grea,t ooort ■\ib^o'4jwq eac(*ei ** 



192 



Route 21. — MUan — The Brera — Paintings. Sect. III. 



tues of Vem the historian, of Caval- 1 
lieri the mathematician, of the Marquis | 
Cagnola the celebrated architect, of 
Orossi the historical novelist, and of 
Count Castiglione, an eminent Orien- 
talist ; on the stairs leading to the 
hbrary, are busts of Oriani and others, 
and statues of Beccaria and Parini by 
G. Monti and Marchesi; and under 
the corridor on the first floor, which 
runs round three sides of the building, 
busts of Monti, Manzoni, Gen. Yaccani, 
and of seyeral other Milanese celebri- 



ties, &c. Out of the S.E. corner of tliis 
corridor opens 

The Pinacoteca, or gallery of paint- 
ings, a collection wliich, though some- 
what deficient in particular schools, is 
nevertheless of great value. The pic- 
tures, however, gain nothing by their 
arrangement. There is no attempt at 
classification, and they are indifferently 
lighted. The names of the painters, with 
the numbers of the pictures, in large 
characters, are appended to each, which 
renders the purchase of the incomplete 



PLAN OF THE BRERA GALLERY. 



XII 



XI 



4 



b 



I 



o, 



-t- 



IX 



vni 



■I- 



» 



5 



db 



d 



— t- 



X 



Scal0 of YarO^, 



xin 



o 
o 



o 
e 



m 



YII 



VI 



_ Y 

J H 



lY 



■\- 



a Entrance, hhb Halls of the Frescoes, c Bust of King. I. to XIII. Halls of Paintings. 

XIV., XV. Rooms of Engravings. 



and unsatisfactory catalogue imneces- 
sary : a new one is in preparation. The 
gallery is open daily, from 9 to 2. 

In the two entrance halls (b b) are a 
number of frescoes by different early 
Lombard masters ; some on the walls, 
which have been sawn from their 
places, and others which have been 
transferred to panel and canvas. The 
most important are those by Luini. 

Among these frescoes thefoUowing are 

most worthy of notice: — 'Sj Bernardino 

Jyiuni: J, three Qirh playing apparently 



at the game of hot cockles ; 2, a Youth 
riding on a white horse; 4, a Child seated 
amongst vines and grapes; 5, St. Sebas- 
tian ; 7, the Virgin and <Bt. Joseph pro- 
ceeding to their marriage at the temple. 
— 8, Bramantino : the Virgin and Child 
and two Angels. — 9, B. Luini: Two 
Minstrels, such as used to accompany 
wedding processions, and probably in- 
tended as a portion of No. 7 ; 10, a Sacri- 
fice to Pan ; 11, the Metamorphosis of 
Daphne ; 15, the Dream of St. Joseph. — 
16, AuT, Ltdul: «. Y^t^'b ^^^<i of the 



TaMBAEtY. E3u?e ft.—Man—The Srer-a — Pairdings. 



Martyrdom of St. Andrew.— 17, Un- 
(WBEio Foppa; the MBrtjrdom of St. 
Sebastian; tie eflrliest in date of the 
freicDBS exhibited liertt. — 18, B, Lvim : 
tlie laroelites preparing to deport from 
Egypt ; 19, the Presentation in tlie 
Temple { 20, an Angel; 26, thelnionoy 
of tlie Vii^in ; 37, of his school also ia 
^SsnLazzaro. — 22 a-ad. 28, Semardino 
Iionini .■ Mary Magdalene, and Sta. 
Harta.— Sg, Sts. Marcella, Bi'hool of 
Xviiu ; and by Luini again are — ilO, the 
Birth of Adonis ; 31, an Angel ; 33, 
Bt. Anna and St. JoacSum ; 33, the 



tt^ 



the Sepulchre — a lovely wort, repro- 
duced ill oliromo-litbography by our 
Aruudcil Soeietr of I^ndiHi ; 35, a 
Chcnib 1 36, tlhe Virgin and Child, 
with Saints, and an Angel tuning a 
lute, painted in 1531. This very fine 
fre^eo bean hia name, and the dat« 1621. 
37, the Almighty j 38, a Chomb i 39, 
the PreeeotfttioQ of the Virgin in llie 
Temple 1 40, the Prophet Iliibakkul 
awakened by the Angel ; 41, St. Anna ; 
42, St. Anthony of Padua.— By Oati- 
deaiio Ferrari are — 13, the History of 
Joachim andAnna, in 3 uonnoctedpEiint- 
ingfi ; 48, the Salutation ; 49, the Dedi- 
cation in the Temple ; 50, the Adoration 
of the Magi, in 3 oonipMimcnfs. — B. 
jC/Hini, 51, Two Angels; 56, the Trana- 
figuration ; 57, St, Ursula ; 59, St. Jo- 
BBph; 61, the Kedeemer ; 62, a Portrait 
of a Young Lady ; 65, another Portrait 
of a Lady j and, 66, an Angel Hying, 
very henuliful. 

In the first room (l.) the pictures most 
wortby'of attention are: — 5, Parmi- 
trnmina.- the Virgin and Child, with St. 
Margaret, St. Jerome, St. Petronio, and 
aji Angel, proiiablv a copy, — 6, Titio»: 
St, Jerome in the Desert. The saint is 
kneeling, with hia eyea fixed on the cru- 
cifix, and graapa a, stone, with which he 
oppeerain the act of striiiing his breast. 
The action of the saint, and the tone 
of the luidecape, are One, A larger 
picture of the same subject is in the 
Eaeurialiofwliich this has been thought 
to be the firs* desigo.^JO, Vandyke: 
the Yirgin aiidCSiild, vith St, Anthony 

JK-fflj^— iseo. ' 



of PaduB,— 11, ParU Bordone v the 
Virgin and the Twelve Apoatlea.— 16, J 
dvereiao: St. Clara and St. Catherine. I 
— 17, Subeas : the Institution of the ' 
Lord's Supper.— 18, Domenidino : the 
Virgin and Child, with St. John the 
Erangelist, St. Petronio, and many 
Cheruba. — 19, Alhani .- a small Ma- 
donna. — 20, Guerciao i the Virgin, St. 
Joseph, and St, Thoreaa.— 31, Ayostiito 
Caracei ; the Woman taken in Adal> 
tery, with majiy figuroB. — .22, Idudovico 
CoraiKi : the Woman of Canaan nt 
our Lord's feet, with several Apostlea. 
—26, -Porw BordoHB : the Baptiam of 
our Lord. — 2,T , Annibale Caraoci i the 
Womaji of Samaria at the Wall— 8^ 
Proeaccini : the Magdalene, with an 
AngeL— 33, Trotti, colled II MalosKi i 
tlw Entombment. — 35, Froeaecini : St, 
Cecilia sinking {ram her wounda, but 
her eyea filed on heaven, supported by 
two Angels, — 36, DanUl Crttpi ; Our 
Lord going to Mount Calrary. — tl, 
Campi: the Holy Family, with St. 
Tkeiisa and St. Catherine j good. — 
43, Daale/ Creapi: the Martyrdom of 
St. Steplien— a picture crowded with 
llgures, — 44, the Adoration of the 
M ngi, called a Titian, but more pro- 
bably by Bonifazio. 

The second room (li.) eontaint 
&om Nob. 44 to 71.— 45, Gar<y~ 
falo, a Pietk^ with many flgurea 
— 47, TiiitoTettO! another Pietit, — 18, 
MoTOra .- the ABSumptiou of the 
Virgin.— 4a, 50, and 51, Pmi Vero- 
aeie : St. Qregorf and St, Jerome, St. 
Ambrose and St, Augustine with a 
glory of Angela around, and an Adora- 
tion of the Magi.— 58, Faima Oiovcuie ; 
St. Benedict under temptation. — 53, 
Bassauo .- St. Soch Tieiting the Sufferers 
from Plague, the Virgin above.- 55, , 
FoecM; Virgin and Child, with four 
Saints and Angela. — 56, Morelto .- the | 
Virgin and ChUd above, in glory ; be- , 
low, St. Jerome, St. Francia, and St. 
Anthony the Hermit. — 58, 2!™. detla ^ 
Jlle ! the Virgin, St. John the Baptist, 
and St. Sebastian, ^ — 59, BoKiaaino r ' 
Virgin ftnil C\ii\.4, Wi.'StNiici», %.Mav*» * 
aud Angala.— ^, PalmaVecolio '. 'C 
Adomticn " " "" '''" °'' ^^" 



194 



Bovte 21. — Milan — The Brera — Paintings, Sect. III. 



— 61, Paul Veronese : the Marriage of 
Cana. — 62, Geronimo Savoldo, called il 
Cavaliere Bresciano : the Virgin and 
Child, with two Angels in glory ; and 
below, St. Peter, St. Paul, St. Jerome, 
and St. Dominick. — 63, Carpaccio ; St 
Stephen ; beautiful. — 65 and 66, Mo- 
retto : St. Clara and St. Catherine, and 
St. Jerome and an Apostle; 68, St. 
Francis. — 70, Tintoretto : the Holy 
Cross, with many Saints; St. Helen 
and St. Catherine are the chief figures ; 
St. Andrew and St. Dominick are 
amongst the others. — 71, Paul Vero- 
nese : St. Cornelius (a popfe), St. An- 
thony the Abbot, St. Cyprian, a page 
and priest. 

The third room (ni.) contains from 
72 to 128. 73, Stefano da Ferrara. — 
75, Gentile da Pahriano : the Yirgin 
with the Holy Trinity and many Angels; 
figures about half the size of life — a 
curious and good picture. — 77, Niccolb 
da Foligno : the Virgin and Child sur- 
rounded by Angels ; with his name, and 
the date 1465. — 78, Cablo Cbivelli : a 
picture divided by architectiu!«l orna- 
ments into 3 compartments ; in the 1st 
is the Virgin and Child; on her rt. 
hand are St. Peter and St. Dominick, 
and on the 1. St. Peter Martyr and 
San Geminiano. Q^he name and date 
(1482) are on this curious old pic- 
ture. — 79, id., a Sainted Bishop 
and a Cardinal : all these works of 
Crivelli are first-rate specimens of the 
master. — 86, Bartolommeo Montagna : 
the Virgin and Cluld, with St. Andrew, 
St. Monica, the Emp; Sigismund, St. 
tJrsula, and three Angels below, playing 
on different instruments. A curious spe- 
cimen of this early and rather stiff 
master ; it is full of character in the 
actions and expressions of the saints. 
The date (1499) is on the base of the 
picture, with the name of Montagna. 
•=—88, Giottino : Events in the Life of 
St. tferome, in two parts. — 90, Gen- 
tile Bellini : St. Mark preaching at 
Alexandria in Egypt: a striking pic- 
ture, remarkable for its great size, as 
well as for the variety of figures and 
eostume. In the background the Basi- 
Jioa of 8, Marco at Venice, and be- 



fore it camels ; and a camelopard 
is introduced, which Bellini pro- 
bably saw and drew when he was in 
the East. 91, Luca Signorelli : the 
Flagellation. — 96, Cima da Conegliano : 
St. Peter Martyr, St. Nicholas, St. 
Augustine, and an Angel tuning his 
lute. — 97, Giovanni Sanzio, father to 
Kaphael : the Annunciation, a remark- 
able picture. It has much of that 
grace and delicacy which his son after- 
wards manifested so largely. The colour 
is rich, and in parts good, but inhar- 
monious. — 98, iMca Longhi : Madonna 
and Child, St. Paul and St. Anthony, 
the work of a rare master. — 101 and 
109, Giacomo Francia: Virgin and 
Child, with Saints. — 103, Palmezzano : 
the Nativity, with Angels, very pecu- 
Uar. — 105, Andrea Mantegna : divided 
by columns into 12 compartments, St. 
Mark in the centre, and various Saints 
around. 107, Corradini, called Prate 
Camevale: the Virgin and Child, 
with many surrounding figures j many 
portraits, especially of Federigo da 
Montefeltro, Duke of tJrbino, are in- 
troduced into this curious picture. 
— Ill, A, Mantegna: beautiful dis- 
temper, S. Bernardino, with two 
Angels. — 112, Paul Veronese : our Lord 
in the house of Simon the Pharisee, 
a fine picture, and full of figures. — 
113, Gio. Cariani, a rare master : Ma- 
donna and many Saints. — 116, Ben. 
Montagna: Madonna and Saints. — 117 . 
Martino da Udme : St. Ursula, sup* 
rounded by attendant Virgins. — 118, 
Garofalo: a large Crucifixion. — 121, 
Stefano di Ferrara: the Virgin en- 
throned, with Samts. — 123, C. Cri- 
velli : a Crucifixiop. — 125, Gfiotto : the 
Virgin and Child, signed. — 126, Marco 
Basaiti : St. Jerome, highly finished. 
— 127, Palmezzano di Porli: Virgin 
and four Saints, with name and date 
1493.— 128, Carlo Crivelli : Virgin and 
Child, with exuberant ornamentation. 

The fourth room (iv.) contains from 
129 to 164. 130, Garofalo : a Land- 
scape, with two small figures, represent- 
ing; St. Francis and St. Anthony of 
Padua. — \^\, «b ^oiiiA. •^TO^WkSAK.cra. qH Van 
TUeUn and. Poelcmburg ^>L\\a^creJtc«VQ^ 



tx)MB4BDy. -Bouie 21. — Jfilan — The Brera — FamUngs. 



195 



□itme )lie piL'turo bears, for the flowers, 
the necond for the figureB.— 136, ran- 
dy i-e.- a fBiiiala portrait. — 137, one of the 
finest portraits by Moroni S Albino : a 
half-k-aglh of a Uer<;ikm!iBC Magistrate. 
— 139, a picture attributed to Correggio 
era THry doubtful grounds, the Virgin 
and Child, Moty MagdalBne, and St. 
Lucia, in a LatiJ^CBpe. — 143, JVansio' 
tho Annuaaiation ; injured and muuh 
retouched. — 144, Car/iaecio i St. Bte- 
phen disputing nith the Pharisees 
tl514).— liSandlSl.flbiieBw.-LaQd- 
Bfflpea. — 165 and 161, Breughel : the 
Descent of .^neas into tho Infernal 
EegiouB, and the Burning of Troy, on 
copper, with a multitude of minute 
figures. — 1S4, Sloemen : a Landscape. 
— 1 57, Poelemiurg : Women bathing. — 
153andl63, -l««(ioiBini: parts ofa 
llolj Fanulj. — O. F, Morom ; Virgin 
and I'our Saints, &om S. Zenoue at 
Verona. 

Tho fifth room (v.) contains from 
166 to 175. 166, Talmeziaiio : a good 
Coronation of the Virgin and two Saints. 
167, lAberaU da Verowt, cuiious from 
the scarceness of the artist; 176, 
Lakiki, Madonna and Saints, with the 
Donatario. 

Tlie siith room (vi.) oontams &om 
177 to 209. 180, ntlore Carpc 
A Bishop, in a green and purple 
robe, good in tone and colour.* — 
182, Carpaecio : St. Antliony of Padua, 
a BguM of a Monk, reading, and hold- 
ing a hly in Mb hand. — 184, Ceaare 
da Sesla.- the Virgin and Child.— 
185, AlfflASl : the Dance of Cupids, oi 
the Triumph of Love over Pluto : i 
most gracelul and pleasing specimen 
one (^ Alban^g finest works, and ii 
esEellBnt condition. — 1B7, Aiaabale 
Caraeei: tho Virgin and Child, St. 
IVanois, an Angel, and St. Joseph in 
the distance : whole-length figures, 
rather ailected.^-188, Giovanni Bel- 
lini : a Pletii, with the artist's name, 
very oaily.— 191 and 197, I^l .■ Dead 
Gbme.— 193, Van Goyein a Sea View. 
— 193, Oia. PedHnl, one of the 
pnpils of L. dfl Vinci : Magdale 
JffS, J^.ma.- a Landscape.— 199 and 
200, Stelcbes of tvo Qiris, attributed 



7%»toretta.— 202, Aniilbale Caracci: 
the Portrait of the Artist and three 
other Heads ; very clerer. — 206, Oaro- 
fah : Madonna and Child, in a glory 
of Angels.— 208, Moroni! the Virgin 
and Child, St. Catherine, St. ITrancis, 
and the Donor : figures half-length. — 
209, GJonunni Bellini : the Virgin and 
Child; signed and dated 1510; agood 
picture.— 354, 358, Andrea di Salerno ; 
two good specimens of the master. 

The seventh room (vu.) includes 
from 210 to 330. 210, Mariio (f 
Oggirmno : the Virgin and Child, St. 
Paul, 8t. John tlie Baptist, and au 
Angel playing an a violin ; a good 
apocimen of this rare artist ; the heads 
are full of eipression, ospedally that 
of the Virgin, which is beautiful and 
tender. Marco d'Oggione was a pupil 
or imitator of Leonardo da Vinci, 
and he made two or three eicelleui 
copies of the Cenaoob. — 314^ QtrBU- 
CINO : Abraham dismissing Hagar : 
perhaps the moat praised amongst the 
pictures in the Brera. Ever ainea 
Lord Byron was so much struck by 
this picture, numberless travellers hava 
been strncfa too j it has been beauti- 
fully engraved by JesL — 213, 217, Cima 
da ConegUaao! two pretty sm^ pic- 
tures qf the Madonna. — 319, Andr, 
Frecitali, a rare master, a Bergamaao, 

SLpil of Gio. Bellini : Christ on the 
ount of Olives ; very fine ; it hat 
a date, 1513.— 318 and 223, Carpomo .• 
the Marriage of the Virgin, and tha 
Dedication : pictures full of figures, 
very interesting for the costume of 
the period. — 230, Kaphjbi. ; the " Spo- 
sali»io," or Marriage of the Virgin. 
This celebrated picture was originally 
at Citt& di Castello. It is in the 
artist's early style, and bears much re- 
semblance to that of Perugino in the 
architectural pcrspei^tive, arrangement 
of the figures, and a certain d^ree of 
hardness in the outline ; yet the de- 
sign and action are very gracetiil, and 
it is a most interesting apeoimen of 
one of Ksphnel's early woAa, bearing 
liiB -name, tmi feo i^Aft, ^Wfiii>aA. 

1 stand opposA« Ka aoi^ tiOoBt i»- ** 



196 



Eoute 21. — Milan — 27ie Brera — Paintings, Sect. III. 



centre; the high priest between them 
joins their hands ; Joseph is in the 
act of placing the ring on the finger 
of the bride : beside Mary is a group 
of the Virgins of the Temple; near 
Joseph are the suitors, who break 
their barren wands — that which Joseph 
holds in his hand has blossomed into 
a lily, which, according to the legend, 
was the sign that he was the chosen 
one." — Kugler. This lovely painting 
has been recently much improved by 
removing the old varnish ; many fine 
details, both of design and colouring, 
concealed by years of neglect, have been 
brought out, some of which escaped 
Longhi in his celebrated engraving of 
it, especially the deHcate landscape in 
the background. 247, Luini : the Vir- 
gin and Child, a very fine and charac- 
teristic picture. — 358, Andrea da Mi- 
lano : the Holy Family, with a venera- 
ble porti^t of an aged man, perhaps 
the donor of the pictm'e, introduced : 
the name, and date, 1495, are given. — 
416, Leona/rdo da Vinci : the Head of 
our Lord, a design in black and red 
chalk, heightened a little by white, and 
believed to be the study fcr the head 
in the celebrated Cenacolo ,• extremely 
beautiftil. 

. The eighth room (vin.) contains firom 
231 to 255. 231, Fran. Verla, rare : 
Madonna on Throne, and Saints. — 234, 
Titian: An old Man's Head, bald, 
and with a large beard ; fine. — 235, 
Raphael : Sketch, in sepia, of an alle- 
gorical group of naked figures, on paper. 
At the bottom of this very clever de- 
sign is written, as it is thought, by 
Kaphael, the name of MicTiello Angela 
Bonarotus. This bistre drawing is the 
original sketch for the fresco formerly 
in the Casino Olgiati at the Villa 
Borghese, and now in the Bor- 
ghese Q-allery at Rome. — 236, Cesare 
da Sesto : a good portrait. — 237, 
6ruido ; St. Peter and St. Paul. It 
was formerly in the Zampieri Gallery 
of Bologna. — 239, Giovanni KupetzJci : 
A Head of a Man, believed to be that 
of the artist. — 240, And. del Sarto : 
A bistre drawing, called " II Padre di 
^am^Iia/' the Man in the Gospel! 



paying the Workmen. — 241, Filippo 
Mazzuolo : a Head. — 242, Amhrogio 
Figino : a Soldier ; a clever portrait, 
thought to be that of Marshal Foppa. 
— 243, A very fine specimen of the 
German school, in three compartments; 
the Adoration of the Magi in the middle. 
— 244, St. Sebastian, once attributed to 
Giorgione. — 246 and 248, Canaletti: 
two Landscapes. — 252, Alessandro 
Turchi, called V Orhetto : "wrhole-length 
Magdalene ; fine for this master and 
school. — 254, Velasquez: Portrait of 
a sleeping Monk, excellent. — 226, Aif- 
DBEA Mantegna : a Dead Christ and 
the two Marys ; in distemper : singular 
and forcible effect of foreshortening, 
and executed with great power. 

The ninth room (ix.) contains from 
256 to 279. 256, Simone da Pesaro : a 
Madonna and Saint presenting Acorns. 
— 257, Bonifazio ,• the Presentation of 
the Infant Moses to Pharaoh's Daugh- 
ter ; imtil of late years attributed to 
Giorgione. — 258, 8and/rart : the Good 
Samaritan. — 259, Umni : Noah drunk, 
and his Sons. — 263, Bubens: a Fe- 
male Portrait. — 264, VandgJce : tlie 
Portrait of a Man. — 268, Franz Hals : 
a most beautiful male Portrait. — 269, 
a Portrait, said to be by Titian. — 
270, Geldorp or Gtialdrop : a Female 
Portrait. — 271, Bubens : the Portrait 
of a Man. — 272, Bajphael Mengs : 
another, three quarters length. — 274, 
Guerdno: La Sacra Sindone. — 277, 
Giovanni Bellini : the Virgin and 
Child, surroimded by Cherubim. — 278, 
Moretto : the Assumption of the Virgin . 
— 279, Sassoferrato : the Virgin and 
the Infant sleeping ; above, a Glory of 
Cherubim ; a poor picture. 

The tenth room (x.) contains from 
280 to 333. 280, Lwia Giordano : the 
Virgin and Child, St. Anthony of Padua, 
St. Joseph, and many Angels and Che- 
rubim. — 284, GasparPoussin: St. John 
the Baptist in the Desert ; St. John is 
represented as a child of about ten 
years old. — 285, Deiner: the Portrait 
of an Artist, three quarters length ; a 
very theatrical picture. — 290, Baroccio : 
the M-artyrdoTQ. of S«cn. Vitale-^ with 
many Egurea •, ^^ >i^i'6 ^i^^^- ^^^i^'vsasra. oil 



■LoiiBlsRr. ■' Jfeiife Zt.—Siilan — The Bi-sra — P^a^ngs. 



19? 



this most haraqne manter." — L. O. 
2»a, ZHccheri .- Thu Seeceut of tha Sn- 
rioui- into Hadoa, with liia Tinmc, and 
tbe date 1585.— 393, Sneyders .- a Stag- 
hunt. — 3M, Pieiro da Cortosa .- tho 
Virgin and CliUd, St. Joseph, St. 
Catherine, St. John the BnptiHt, and 
St. Gaetmio.— 396, Zaitamio Gam- 
iara: Portrait of a Mun. A One 
specimen of this great freaco-pnintBr, 
whosB oil paintings are extremely rare. 
— 297, Daniele Creapi ; liHlf-lcngth 
Portrait of a SoiUptor. — 299, Pielro 
S»ble^ai : the Crucifixion, Tfith St. 
Marj Magdidene and two other figures, 
with the artist's name, and tlio datu 
1744.-300, St. Jerome in the Desert, 
bj the same 



of e 



e de- 



aignc;'. Tor a gonfalon or churohbunnoi 
nnd painted on both sides. On that 
now eiposed la the Vii^in nnd Child, 
■with San Carlo and Sant' Amfacogio 
and Screo Augols ; the other side also 
has the Virgin and Cliild with other 
" ■ - md Angela. — 302, Fompeo Bat- 






iaitit^t, Holj ifaiuUj, 
geK — 308, Qaido: the 
Piiihwopher. — 311 to 318 idduaivo: 
all portraits, wid considered those of 
the artists themselTea. The; arc inte- 
resting-, especially 316, the portrait 
of C. F. 2fm)ol<HU; and 317, Martin 
Skollsri Portrait of Mougs.^321, Ba- 
ti^azio ; the Siaeiples at Emmaus. — 
322, Salvalor Rosa : the Bonis in Pur- 
gatorj. SalratoT Rosa was nut equal 
to this Bubjert. — 325, Castiglione ; the 
Departure of the Israelites for the Holy 
Laud.— 326, Andrea Porta , tha Por- 
trait of the Artist.— 827, Scarstlliito .- 
the Virgin and Cliild, with the Doc- 
tors of the Chnroh and a glory of An- 
gela,— 381, Francesco del Cairo : a 
Portrait, hcUeTed to he lliat of Scara- 
inaocia Penigino ( aflne picturo.— 332, 
SalnatoT Rosa : 8t. Paul tlie first ITor- 
nit ; a remarlcablj' Quo and clearly 
painted sccdb. 

The eleventh room (xi.) contains 
from 331 to 337. 335, Bemardiao 
Lanisi: The Virgin and Cliild, seated 
on the koees o£ St. Anne ; a design 
fiill of grace, thaagb not without 



affeetation. — 836, Beliraffio ; St. 
John the Baptist, on wood — 337, 
And. Salaini .■ the Virgin and Child, r 
with St. Peter and St. Panl- 33& J 
CalUsta da Lodi .- the Virgin ana 
Child, St. John the Baptist, St. Joroms, 1 
and an Angel— 839 and 342, Marco 
(f OggioHO ! the Asamnption of the Vir- ' 
gin i and St, Michael conquering Luci- 
fer, with two angels ; curioua, eapedaUy ' 
the latter, in which tlie drawing of ■ 
the figures and the trauqnil immoved 
eipresaion of the countenances of tha 
angels desarre attention. — 343, Gatt- 
DKNzio Febeabi; the Martjrdom rf " 
St. Catherine, an admirable work, \ 
perhaps the finest work in oils of { 
this master; the Saint, tranquil and , 
resigned, looks up towards hoarca 
awaiting her niartyrdoro, whilst tho 
oiocntionera at the wheel have their 
eyes fixed on their saperior, waitiiiK 
lua commands to commence their cruel 
task. — 344, Bernardo Zssah: the Vir- 
gin and Child, with the Fathers of the 
Church, as. G^regorj, Ambrose, Jerome^ 
and Augustine. Many of the flgiires 
evidentlr portraita of tho family for 
whom this very intoreaf ing picture was 
painted ; amongst otliers, Ludovico 
iSforza (d Moro), and his wife Beatrice ■ 
Visoonti, with their two danghters, are ■ 
introduceil ; it bears the dateof 1515. 
— 345, Beraardina Luini : the Virein 
and Child, St. PhUip, and others. Ttii 
Saints are in the act of presenting a man 
and two women, kneeling, and only 
partly seen, to the Virgin.- — 346, Cars' 
vapgio I the Samaritan Woman at the 
WelL — 348, Marco d'Ongionei tho 
Laat Snpper ; this picture ia a study 
for the same subject in fresco, and per- 
haps for the picture in the Louvre. — 
350, Nicola A'ppiaja: the Adoration 
of the Magi, valuBble aa one of the 



bold and fine drawing." 
Enea Salmeggia,i!^\e^U Pa^jiiiio, with 
his name and tha date 1604 : the Virgin 
and Child, St. ■a*ic'ii,%\,."STKWM.,«tA- 
St, SebastittTi. — ^1, Aiwl/fta ia. TCj 



198 



Eoute 21. — MHan — The Brera — Paintings. Sect. III. 



and another, 358, in Room tit., are 
two of the best specimens of this 
rare artist, who lived towards the close 
of the 15th centy., a contemporary of 
Gio. Bellini. — 360, Cesare da Sesto : 
the Virgin and Child, with St. Joseph, 
St. Joachim, and the Infant St. John. — 
361, Leonardo da Vinci : the Virgin 
and Child, with a Lamb, an unfinished 

* work: beautiful, particularly the head 
of the Virgin. — 363, Bramante : Pre- 
sentation in the Temple. — 364, Andrea 
Salaino : the Virgin and Child. — 365, 
coptf of Raphael: the Virgin and Child, 
with St. Joseph. — 366, Dan. Crespi : 
the Virgin and Child, with several 
Saints. — 369, Camillo JProcaccini : the 
Nativity, with the Adoration of the 
Shepherds. The scene is illuminated 
by the light radiating from the Infant 
Saviour, as in the celebrated " Notte " 
of Correggio. — 370, Arnbrogio Bor- 
gognone: the Assumption of the Vir- 
gin, with the Apostles, and SS. Am- 
brose and Augustine, G^ervasius and 

' Protasius, surrounded by Angels and 
Cherubs ; with his name, and the date 
1522. — 371, Oiulio Cesare Procaccini : 
the Adoration of the Magi. — 375, 
Bevilacqua : the Virgin and Child, 
with St. Peter Martyr, and another 
Saint, called by some King David, by 
others Job, and a devotee kneeling. The 
date 1502 is on the base of this pic- 
t\u:«, which is simple, and a curious 
specimen of the early style which pre- 
ceded Leonardo, in which there is much 
of dignity in the character of the 
figures. — 376, Carlo Francesco Nuvo- 
lone : a Family, believed to be that of 
the artist, and considered one of his 
best works. — 377 and 379, C F. 
Nuvolone : the Angel Gabriel in the 
a<;t of giving, and the Virgin in that of 
receiving, the Annunciation. — 378, 
Ambrogio Borgognone : an EcceHomo. 
— 382, by the same artist, Lazarus, 
St. Martha, St. Mary Magdalene, and 
other Saints. This picture represents 

an early legend of a miracle worked by 
St. Martha, on founding the first church 

at Marseilles. — 384, Oio. BatUsta 

Crespi: the Madonna and Child, St. 



many Angels. The Virgin is in the 
act of giving the rosary to St. Dominick, 
while the Infant Saviour places a crown 
of thorns on the head of St. Catherine. 
— 385, Qio. Batiista JDiscepoli, called 
lo Zoppo di Lugano : the Adoration 
of the Magi. — 387, Marco eT Oggione : 
St. Francis and a Nun. — 388 and 390, 
Francesco Londonio z two good speci- 
mens of the Milanese Berghem. — 389, 
Francesco del Cairo : a Head ; believed 
to be that of the artist. — 391, JErcole 
Procaccini : the Crucifixion ; full of 
figures. — ^QSfMichOrel Angelo Cerrutti: 
Fruit. — 397, Marco d^ Oggione: St. 
Anthony of Padua and a young Lady. 
An interesting collection of Studies of 
Animals and groups of Peasants, by 
Francesco Londonio^ a painter of the 
18th century, celebrated for this class of 
works — presented to the gallery by his 
grand-nephew. 

The twelfth room (xii.) contains 
from 398 to 428 of modern artists. 
398 and 400, Andrea Appiani and 
Qaetano Tamhrom: Landscapes, with 
groups of figures. — 402, Andrea Ap- 
piani : Jupiter, Juno, Hebe, Gany- 
mede, &c. — 406, 407, 408, Marco 
Oozzi, Landscapes. • — 410, CHuseppe 
Appiani : an Old Man's Head. — 412, 
FVancesco Fidanza, an artist celebrated 
for this kind of scenery : a Winter 
Landscape. — 414, Andrea Appiani: a 
Portrait, of the artist.— 417, 418, 420, 
421, 422, 423, Marco Gozzi: Land- 
scapes. — 424, Bernardino Galliari : a 
Nativity, in distemper. — 426, Luigi 
Basilettiy a living artist at Brescia : a 
Waterfell. — 427, Qaspar Galliari: a 
View of Venice by Moonlight; in 
distemper. — 447, Loudonio : several 
studies of poor people and animals. — 
68 and 69, Appiani : two portions of 
frescoes. 

An apartment (xm.) has been re- 
cently opened, called the Galleria Og- 
gionni, which contains a large collec- 
tion of second-rate pictures, bequeathed 
by a person of that name, amongst 
which a Coronation of the Virgin, with 
a Pietk in the lunette above, by C. Ore- 
velli, "pamted \xi 14^^, some Canalettis 



X>ominick, St, Catherine of Sienna, and\ an^^aroi^o^^eife^'bTao^^.^ceaisfi^fcsaS^^. 



loKBASMr. Mvia 21.— JftEoK— I%0 Srmyi—Scu^ra 



idtfl 



TIio Muieo Lapidaria iB in a r 
on the ground-floor. It contains a 
anclivit inscriptiODB lUid aaulpti 
amoiigat which the bronze Staltle of 
Sayoleon, hy CanOFB, intended for the 
Arco della Puce, a repetition of that 
poeeesBod }tj the Duks of Wellington ; 
the tomb of Bemabo Visconti, BUt- 
uounted by liia equestrian statue, 
brought innn. the ch. of S, Gioranni 
in Couca. He is in the full armour of 
the age, the biacia, or yiper, being 
prominently displayed upon hia back- 
It 15 evidently a good portrait of this 
prince, vrhoua cruelty was such ba to 
oonref tho iHea that ho tras actuated 
by ineanily. Thia ia not the place to 
apeak of the tortiu^a and horrible 
deaths which he iaBicted upon Ms 
liubjecta, but one pasaage wiU ei- 
BmpUfy hia ingenious tyranny. He 
kept upwards of 5000 hoiuida, whioh 
wpre quartered upon the riiihoat citi- 
zens, who were bound to board and 
lodge them. Every two montha a dog- 
inapectian was held. If, in tlie opinion 
of the Caaetero, a dog waa too lean, 
the host was fined heavily for haring 
uegleotcd the canine inmate. If the 
dog was declared to be too iat, then 



by the French, when in possesaion of 
Milan, in the 16th centj. j it formnrly 
stood in tlie Oh. of Sta. Martlia, at- 
tached to an Augustinian monastery. 
The monument waa considerably ad- 
vanced in 1 522, when, Francesco Sforaa 
regaining his dominions, the work wna 
suspended ; and the ehurch being after- 
wards pulled down for the purpose of 
being rebuilt, it waa broken up and the 
portions dispersed. Other fragmenta 
are to be mot with in different collec- 
tions, some of the best in that of tha 
Marchese Trivulzio at Milan. 

Anotlier line monument by Bam- 
haja is that of Lanino Curaio, tha 

In other parts of this palace are the 
usual appurteiiancea of an academy i 
model-rooms, coUections of coate, &o. 
The LArary, of which the main 
part belonged to that of the Jeauita, 
but i^ which great additions have 
been made, ie very extensive and well 
selected ; better adapted fur general 
study than the Ambrosian, aa &r oa 
printed books ore concerned. The 
collection of manusci 



, but < 



It r 



great nmnbcr of Chronlclea and other 
materials for "Venetian hiatory, which 
were brought here during tho French 
occupation, and which have not been 
sent back to Venice. Amongst them 
ia a copy of the celebrated "Libro 
hia property. Branabo waa dethroned d'Oro," which the republicans burnt 
' his nephew Gian Galeazzo, in 1385. in honour of libErty. Amongst the 
e intenMt of this monument is in- show voltunea are the magnificently 
creased by ita being the eacEest mo- Uluminatod choir-books of the Certosa 
dcm Gqnestrian slatue in Europe, at Favia. With this libraiy of manu- 
Many fragments of sculpture and scripts is connected a very valuable 
architecture bora ruined churclios and and select collection of coins and 
lonasteriea ; the original models for medala. The Observalory, or la Specela 
the Napoleon bas-reUefa of the Arco di Brera, was founded in 1762, under 
deila Face -, Roman remains, includ- the direction of the celebrated rTesuit 
■ Lg an altar mih painlingt vjion it. Father Boscovieh. "When the building 
said to have been found near San waa planned, all the nuna in the city 
Lorenzo, but for which it is not I romonatrated against it, alleging that 
being over aoeptical to demand a j they would be coiiatantly apied at by 
eertScato of origin. Tho recumbent i the astronomers when waking, as they 
statue of Gaston de Foil : a frsg- were wont to do, upon the terraces of 
ment of his magnificent monument, their convents. The Observatory ia 
the eAef-iFceavrs of the celebrated weU provided -w^^V ia'i!tTO(Q(m\a, *3^ 
Agoatiao Busti or Bambaja, erected the obsorvBtvans oiflinja^ ■^vKiSoe&.^Sl 



200 



Boute 21. — MUan — Bihlioteca Anibrosiana, 



Sect. in. 



its director Carlini are highly appre- 
ciated by the scientific world. 

Not so the Botanical Garden, which 
is very indifferent ; not at all worthy of 
the institution to which it is annexed. 

Every second year there is an " ex- 
position" of native art in the Brera. 
The exhibition takes place in the 
autumn. 

The Bihlioteca Ambrosiana. — This 
justly celebrated collection was founded 
by the Cardinal Federigo Bon^omeo 
(1609), Archbishop of Milan. The li- 
brary is under the direction of a " con- 
gregation" of ecclesiastics, presided over 
by a clerical member, or, if there be 
none, by the head, of the Borromeo 
family. The chief acting officer is the 
Prefetto. This dignity was held by the 
celebrated Cardinal Mai, who was pre- 
viously professor of Oriental languages, 
and who, by the discovery which he 
made of the palimpsests in this collec- 
tion, laid the foundation of his high 
reputation. The Prefetto and the three 
other principal Hbrarians are honorary 
canons of Sant' Ambrogio. The Hbrary 
is open daily from 10 to 3, except on 
Sundays and festivals. The librarians 
are very civil and attentive, but the 
catalogues are imperfect and incomplete. 
It has been erroneously said that the 
want of proper catalogues results jfrom 
the will of the cardmal founder, and 
that there is a papal bull prohibiting 
the making of them: but the reason 
is to be sought in causes which ope- 
rate full as forcibly in other libraries. 
Cardinal Borromeo's regulations were 
liberal in the truest and largest sense 
of the term. The Ambrosian was, in 
fact, the earhest public library in Eu- 
rope J that is to say, a Hbrary not at- 
tached to any college or cathedral for 
the use of its own members, but open 
to all students or to the pubHc, and 
for whom, what was then unexampled, 
writing materials were provided. 

The collection of manuscripts is of 
the highest importance, consisting of 
6500 volumes. Many were purchased 
by the founder, but the principal 
stores have been brought from sup- 
pressed monasteiies or convents, par- 



ticularly from that of Bobbio. This 
was founded by St. Columbanus and 
Irish missionaries in the 7th centy., 
and from this ancient Coenobium have 
proceeded several manuscripts of ex- 
treme value to the Celtic scholar, in- 
asmuch as they contain some of the 
earliest specimens of the Gaelic lan- 
guage in existence. They consist prin- 
cipally of int-erlineary translations and 
commentaries of portions of Scripture, 
in general beautifully written. Of these 
one of the most remarkable is a Psalter 
of the 8th centy., with the commentary 
of St. Jerome. This i| filled with 
Gaelic glosses, beside a page at the be- 
ginning, probably containing a preface 
or dedicatory epistle. The whole is 
in the ancient Irish character, and very 
legible. And a MS. of the Gospels, 
with Gaehc notes, of high antiquity. 

The palinvpsests are ancient manu- 
scripts written upon vellum, from 
which the characters of a previous ma- 
nuscript have been rubbed off, or par- 
tially effaced. The existence of tliis 
practice was long known j but Cardinal 
Mai was the first who ever endea- 
voured to recover the classics below 
from the superincumbent strata of 
legends or homilies. The original 
writing is generally in bold, uncial cha- 
racters, imperfectly erased, and the 
scribes of the second period usually 
crossed the older writing, as ladies do 
their letters, though sometimes they 
took the intervals between the lines. 
Of course much patience is. required ; 
but the principal difficulty lies in the 
transposition of the leaves, and it is 
in connecting the separated leaves that 
Mai has shown his great skill. Amongst 
the specimens which are geno^lly 
shown are the fragments of the version 
of the Bible, made a.d. 360-80, by 
Ulfila Bishop of the Moesogoths. The 
gospels are at Upsalaj a portion of 
the epistles was foimd at Wolfen- 
buttell-; whilst from these pahmpsests 
Mai has extracted large fragments of 
the Acts of the Apostles, and portions 
of the Old Testament — a singular 
dispersioTi*, a.nd'^Tba.^a many more of 
these B&^\\infe \e®Nei^ tosc^ \*ei \s^.^^<5iXk. 



tiOMftilffel^ ffoofe Si. — Mifaf! — KKhAwi An^msktm. 



aoP 



ETca in Englanil. Tbe letters of Froii- ' a moat singular miHcBllanj — maeMiies, 
to and Marma Aureliua, and TariaUH ordnanco diHgraias,caricHtiireB,faiipiesi 
fragments of Orationa, and of the Trea- ] tlie descriptions ipo wi-itteu by himself 
tiae Ae BepublicA of Cicero, were also from riglit to left, so tliat they can onlj 
puhlisbed from pBlimpseats in this ' be re»d with facility bj baing placed 
library. I before alooking-glaas. Therewere ori- 

AraongstotherIiteraTjenriositiBa,thel ginally twelre of these yolumes, which 
following maj be pointed outi^Virgil, I were presented to thelibrary inl637by 
copied and annotated by Petrardi, and I Ghiioaiio Areouate, after having refused 
with one miniatiire by Simone Memmi ' 8000 doubloons offered for one volume 
representing Tirgil, and an allegoricai i of them by the King of England, aa ve 
personification of Poetry, of great I are t«ld by an inscription on the stairs ; 
beauty. The handwriting is fine and .' but the other eleven hare been re- 
cIcBj-, Frefiied to tliia iimnuecript ia tained in the Ubrary of the lostitate 
tlie note in which Petrarch ia supposed at Paris, to which they were removed 
to describo his first interview with ! during tlie French occupation of Lom^ 
Laura. The manuscript, which aftet^ ' hardy. 

wards belonged to Galeasio Visoonti, A small Tolome, with architectural 
may be authentic, but the note ia bus- designs by Bramante, and some manu- 
picious, and we raay be temp(«d to i aoript descriptions, 
doubt wliethar it deserves much more Vite degU AroiveBcovi di Milnno, 
credit than the sonnet of Petraroli , with flue minintores of the time of 
found in Laurs's tomb at Avignon. | Luini. 

■ — The autograph correspondence be- i Livy, translated into Italian by 
twecn Oardinal llcmbo and Lucretia , Boccaccio. 
Borgia. A lock of her beautiful flaxen | The Missal used by San Carlo Boi^ 



inely illuminated, and 

:>, Sumilitaa. Printing 

common in tlie daya ca 

' San Carlo ; but there continued to be 

a fechng of preference for manuscripC 

Erayer-books, and some were executed 
jr the royal family even as late as the 
reign of Louis XIV. A very fine and 
, early Dante, In a room on the 
■ ground-floor is a fresco by B, Xuini, 
' of the Crowning with Thorns. 

The printed boots are principally 
in one lofty hall. They amount to about 
: 100,000 volumes. The arrangement ia 
Book of Genesis at Vienna, diaputes not by classes, but strictly by sizes, and 
the palm of being the must ancient , the volumes are built in with so much, 
volume containing illuminstioca that accuracy that hardly a chink or n cranny 
has come down to our days." Lucano | can be discovered. 

di Parma's trcBtiae ' De Regimine Prin- The great or principal room is a ' 

■ c^is,' presented to Galeazio Sioria, fine apartment. It is ornamented with J 

with a very curious and characteristic I a frieie of portraits of individuals dis- 

portrait of tlie douee. j tingiiishod for holiness or for inow- 

Twelve Toliunes of heads of sermons '"ledge ; principally, howorer, prelates or 

by San Carlo ; and his correspondence j fathers ol'tlio Church. Formuig part of 

during the Council of Trent, all in his I the Ubrarj is a hall in which have been 

n handwriting. | placed BevarB.\ i 



the letters, is ni 

Josephus translated into Latin by 
Rlillnua, wlio died in 410, jipon papy- 
rus, probably of the Bth centy. ; manu- 
sr^ript books upon this material are of 
the greatest rarity. 

Homer ; fragraents of 
perhaps of the 4tJi centy., with fifty- 
eight illuminated miniatures, highly 
interesting both for the art and the cos 
tume which they cihibit. " This MS,, 
with the Virgil of the Vatican and the 



202 



Boube 21. — MtUm—BibliGteca Ambrosiana. . Sect. HI. 



reliefs by Thorwaldsen, and monu- 
ments to the late Count Borromeo, by 
Cacciatori, and to the Marquis Fa- 
gnani, who left his valuable collection 
of printed books to the Ambrosian. 

The gallery and museum annexed to 
the Hbrary are not extensive, but valu- 
able, containing many important his- 
torical monuments and works of art. 
Amongst the first are to be placed the 
collection of portraits made by Paolo 
Oiovio, and partly, though only to a 
fimall extent, employed by him in his 
well-known work, 'Yitse DlustriumVi- 
rorum.' Paolo Q-iovio was the first 
who formed the plan of illustrating 
biography by portraits. Many are 
ideal ; but with respect to contempo- 
raries, or those who were not of a re- 
mote period, he took great pains to 
have them as authentic as possible. 
To these have been since added many 
others, but these are not, as they ought 
to be, distinguished from the Giovio 
collection ; this is to be regretted ; but 
possibly the curators may have the 
means of so doing when they publish 
a catalogue of their gallery. Amongst 
the more remarkable are Machiavelli, 
Scanderbeg, Sigonius, Cardinal Pole, 
Cardinals Bembo and Baronius, Yida, 
Alciatus, Card. Noris, Budseus, Sixtus 
V. These are in the ante-rooms. The 
first of these rooms also contains a 
copy, by Andrea Bianchi, of L. da 
Yinci's Last Supper, painted by order 
of Card. P. Borromeo. It has only the 
upper half of the figures. 

In the first gallery is the Profile of 
Leonardo da VtTici, by himself^ in red 
chalks. Seven valuable Miniatures. — 
Two drawings by Caravaggio, our 
Saviour appearing to Mary Magdalene: 
and some fine studies by Luini and 
Cesare da Sesto. — Rapha>el^ two Men 
on Horseback, an early work, 1505. — 
Hemling^ a beautiful picture of Ma- 
donna and Child. — A, Luini, St. John, 
an Infant, playing with a Lamb. — 
L, da Vinci, an exquisite Female Head. 
— Two pictures attributed to Titian, a 
Holy Family, and our Saviour dead : 
of the latter the authorship is very 
doubtful — Marco d^Offgiono^ theYrrgin 



nursing the Saviour. — Twelve coloured 
drawings for the painted glass of the 
Cathedral, by Pellegrini. 

In the second gallery is Kaphael's 
cartoon for the School of Athens : it is 
executed with black chalk on grey paper, 
and contains the figures only, without 
the architecture. " It is one of the most 
interesting examples of the nature and 
extent of the alterations introduced in 
a composition prepared for fresco. The 
changes are mostly additions. The 
figure of Epictetus, represented in the 
fresco, sitting in the foreground on the 
left, leaning his head on his hand, is 
wanting in the cartoon. This figure 
was added to fill up a vacant space, 
and thus the change, though a consi- 
derable improvement, involved no in- 
convenience. Some less important 
alterations in the same fresco, such as 
covering the head of Aspasia with dra- 
pery instead of showing her flowing 
tresses (for thus she appears in the 
cartoon), might have be^n made on 
the wall without any change in the 
drawing. That this cartoon was the 
identical one which served for the 
execution of the fresco is proved by 
the exact conformity of every part, 
except the additions above mentioned, 
with the painting." — Hastlake, In a 
room opening out of this are arranged 
the original Drawings of the great mas- 
ters : — Many studies, by Michael An- 
gelo, for the Last Judgment. Two ex- 
quisite portraits in red chalk, by L. da 
Vinci, Also by him, three portraits : the 
profile of Beatrice d'Este, who died in 
childbirth at 27, and whose monument 
is in the Certosa at Pavia. Head of 
St. John: a drawing of part of the 
Triumph of Julius Caesar, hjMantegna. 
The Annunciation, attributed to Par- 
migiano. Sandro Botticelli : Madonna, 
Child, and Angels; a roimd picture. 
B, Luini: Holy Family; a master- 
piece, and the design for which is at- 
tributed to L. da Vinci. L. da Vinci: 
beautiful Portrait of a Physician, 
half figure. Benvenuto Garofalo: 
Holy Family, with Angels, small. 
A Holy Easmlj, aaid to be by Titian. 
i Gfiocomo Bcwiano: ^^i^^m\.o^^s^\.. 



liOMBAHKr', Rot49 2\, — Mian— Great Ilospiial. 



Gvido! Ofirist on the Cross. 37- 
tiaii: tho Adoration of Ihe MsgL 
B. Luiai : the Young SuTiour, hslf- 
Itmgth. Holy Fomil;, with S&iDtB, 
hall flgaies ; attributed to TiUan. Sa- 
phael ! pat of the cartoon for tbe 
Battle of ConetantiuB. Lvini: Yomig 
Tobie rotonung with the Angela i 
esqujsite drawing. Qaudeiaio Fe 
rari: theMarriage of the Virgin. 

In the neit room, containing the oi 
ginal drawings of the ancientmaBter8,a 
sereral modem woiis in gilt bronse, e 
hibited ae Bpecimens of Uilanese mso' 
facture ! amongat others, a model of an 
intended Porta OrienC-ale, hy Cagnola. 
Here are also drawings by Giulio 
Somano, Caranagffio, Miehatl Angela, 
Alb. DtHVr, ManlegHa, 0«errriim, Imea 
Catabiata, tbe tno ZroiiiM, Saphaet, 
Leon, da Find, &c. Sc. ; and a portion 
of SaphaeVi oartoon for the battle be- 
tween CoQBtantine and Maientius. 

A cabinet has been formed for the 
gilt bronzes left h; &, Pecis to the 
library. This cabinet also contains two 
of Holbein^s finest portraits. Sasaiti ; 
our Saviour with a standard. Cior- 
giaiie i St. Sebastian, full length, with 
Romein the baciground. Mengs: Por- 
tr^t of Clement XIU. Vetasquez ,- a 
portrait. Bromano: a portrait, called 
that oiS. Cellini. Luoaa nanLegden: 
Adoration of the MagL Albani: Gala- 
tea borne by DolphiM. Carlo Dolvs : 
a Madonna. B. iMiai! St. John. 

In R small garden opening on a side 
street is the stump of the tin pahn-tree, 
whifh Lalande, in his description of 
Italy, has nof«d with great aoeuracy, as 
a proof of the mildness of the climate 
of Milan. The cort.ile, as you enter, 
contains many Koman and luediieral 
iuBCripfioos let into the walls. Some 
of the most interesting are tbe early 
Christian ones. 

Among the scientjGc establishments 
at Milan, the most remarkable is the 
Miueo Civico di Storia NalaraU, 
wliich contains a very good eoUeetion 
of Zoology and Pidcontology : the 
lattw is particularly rich in fossils from 
the tertiarjr subapeaniae formations 
oftbB dachiea of Forma and Piacenza. 



I The museum is liberally endowed and 
supported bj the munieipaUty, which 
deserves the greatest credit £br the 
encouragement it has given to the 
teaching of scienoe, and of natural his- 
tory in particular. Iho extensive col- 
ledtions of tbe suppressed Sauila delU 
Mitiitrey consisting of fossil remains of 
gigontie animals, found 8, of Parma 
and Fiacenza, and purchased by E. 
Beauharuois, and of the fossil tertiaiy 
sheila described by Brocclii, in his 
classical CoacMolagia Foaaile SabapBa- 
nt'no, have been recently removed to tho 
Jtlimeo Civico. 

Oipedale Haggiore, or Groat Hos- 
pital of Milan. — This splendid esta- 
blishment was founded by Franceseo 
Sforza, and his duchess Bianca Maria, 
in 1456, They gave for its site an 
ancient palace which had belonged to 
Bernabo Viscooti. Tbe iimds for its 
maintenance were partly supplied by 
the dute and his consort, and partly 
by the union of the endowmenta of 
several other hospitals previaualy exist- 
ing in tho city. To these have been 
added from lime to time, and still 
oontinne to be added, legacies and do- 
nations of the Milanese, who have 
a great afibction for the institution, 
whioli lias had an unusual e 



from spoliatioi 






pohtical vi 



itude. The bnilding was begun on 
the 4th of April, 1457, the first atone 
being laid by tJie hands of the duke 
and duchess. Antonio Marete, a 
Florentine, was the arohitect ; the 
Boutbeni portion of the edifice was 
' <d from his designs. The 



space being the grand quadrangle. 
The windows of the facade are beau- 
tifully ornamented with reliefs of 
children and foliage in moulded terra- 
'■ ; and the numerous niches and 
tes contain busts of Saints and 
allegorical flgiiros. The central portion 
of the hospital is also of moulded brick, 
but was erected at a later period, iii ' 
1621, bj a AcmnXio-ci i^ (.'s&icriJS- ctooisa., ' 
Gittu "PifctTo CaiiiravQ. Twa TSfSK&sriw 



_J 



204 



Route 21. — MUan — Public Bvildings, 



Sect. m. 



On entering by the Great Gate- 
way, a very noble quadrangle pre- 
sents itself: it is surrounded by a 
double colonnade, having 21 arches on 
two sides, and 19 on the others : the 
columns of the upper oirder are compo- 
site, of the lower modem Ionic, with 
archivolts and entablatures ornamented 
with arabesques and figures in rehef be- 
tween circular niches, from the designs 
of Camillo Procaccini. The upper co- 
lonnade has been partly walled in to 
gain space; the lower is formed by 
80 columns of red granite. This quad- 
rangle measures 250 ft. by 280, not 
including the depth of colonnade, which 
is 19 ft. In the small church oppo- 
site the entrance is a good Annunci- 
ation, by Ouercino. In 1797 Giuseppe 
Macchi, a notary who had led the IHe 
of a miser, left an immense property to 
the hospital, by means of which it was 
completed. The N. wing is from the 
design of Castelliy who, unfortunately, 
abandoned the style of the earUer part 
of the building, so that this wing is 
out of keeping with the rest. The 
average number of patients admitted 
annually is about 20,500 ; the deaths, 
2700 ; the mean mortality being 13 per 
cent. The hospital can accommodate 
2000 patients, but has seldom more 
than 1600. Monimients have been 
raised under the porticoes of the great 
quadrangle to Becorsi, LocadeUi, and 
other eminent medical teachers who 
were attached to the establishment. 

The Ospizio IHvulzi is a noble mo- 
nument of pious charity. It was 
founded in 1771 by Antonio Trivulzio, 
who for that purpose gave up his 
palace. The endowment- has since 
received very considerable additions, 
and the building has been recently 
enlarged to nearly double its original 
size. It now contains 600 inmates, all 
above seventy years of age, who are 
well fed and clothed at the expense of 
the institution. 

Milan contains as many as eighty- 
five hospitals and institutions of charity, 
possessing property to the amount of 
^00 millions of lire, nearly of 7 mil- 
I/ons sterling. 



The vast Lazaretto is just out of the 
Porta Orientale; it is interesting both 
from its magnitude and from the recol- 
lection of the scenes which have been 
witnessed within its walls. It consists 
of a square cloister of red brick ; mea- 
suring, outside the arcade, 404} yds. 
by 393. From these arcades sur- 
rounding the quadrangle opened 280 
small rooms or cells ; in the centre is 
a chapel designed by Pellegrini^ and 
possessing much beauty. This building 
was founded by Lodovico il Moro about 
1461, when governing in the name of 
his nephew Gian Galeazzo, but not 
completed till the end of the 15th cen- 
tury. It was the scene of some of the 
finest episodes of the Promessi Sposi, 

Milan has few squares. The largest is 
the Piazza della Fontana, in firont of 
the archbishop's palace. In it is one 
of the few fountains in Milan. The 
Piazza Borromeo has a statue of San 
Carlo, by Pussola, formerly in the 
Cardusioj it stands in front of the 
small ch. of Santa Maria Podone, be- 
longing to the Borromeos, whose pa- 
laces form two sides of the piazza. The 
Piazza del Marino^ with the handsome 
palace of that name on one side, and 
the newly opened Piazza della Scala, 
opposite the theatre, with the Palazzo 
Bramhilla, a remarkable specimen of 
modem decoration in terracotta and 
moulded brick-work. 

There were formerly many crosses 
and similar monuments in the streets 
and crossways, but most of them have 
been removed. Of those that remain, 
the " Leone di Porta Orientale" a 
small column in that street, is the 
principal. It is said to commemorate 
some victory gained by the Milanese 
over the Venetians; but the lion is 
not the lion of St. Mark. 

Of older street architecture, the 
principal relic is, the Coperto de* 
Figini, in the Piazza del Duomo. It 
was built by Pietro Figini, in honour 
of the marriage of Gian' Galeazzo 
Yisconti with Isabella tlie daughter of 
John King of France. The Gothic 
arches Temaim. *. tVie "oc^^ec «»tQix\<£«, have 
been -modeimBed. 



LoMBAfiOr. 



e 21. — Mian— Palaces. 



205 



Falaiza WpH?ii.— Built tj the Mar- 1 
quia Alp93and.ro TrivTibd. Here is a 
rery ttelect and Tfiluable library of 
printed boofes and maniiseripta, and a 
choice eollpction of coins, and ofGreek, 
Roman, and mediipval antiquities, in- 
oliiding the monument of Aizo Vis- 
conti, fbrmerlj in the Chiu-eh of San 
Oottardo at Milan. Tliere arB alao 
aome good pictuns. 

CiuaArBhiBilo. — Some good frMeoee 
by Tiepolo Hid othep VEnofian artista. 
Here, also, is a rery good Ubrary and 
collection of untiquitie*. 

Casa, Andriaai, now Sofmani. — 
The garden ia one of the largest in 
Milnn. In Hie ooUeetion in this man- 
flion is a ploaning ManUffna, ^ the 
Virgin and Cliild between St. John and 
St. Maiy Magdalene. 

CanaPiaaeaeaatiuiia a TcrypTeciouB 
series of poptrsita of the Sforza fami^ 
in frCBCO by jMim, all appEircntly taken 
fiMm originals. 

Cofa Mela. — A large library, and 
some good modem pictures. 

There is auotber Casa Mehi in the 
Borgo NuoTO, originally the bouao of 
the painter Sratnonfino, who has left j 
fiomB freBCOea in what is now a coach- 
house j and in the court is a good fresco 
by B. I/iuni, of an Atlas supporting a ' 
Globe, in his laat and best manner. 

Palaeio Castelbamo, opposite the 
Bfera, contains a large collection of 
pictures, many of which are good, and 
some attributed to BapliaeljL. da Vinci, 
Correggio, &o. 

Palazso Iiitta. — This waa bnilt hy 
SU^iai, and is one of the finest in 
Milan. Here is a small callfction of 
paintiilgl! amongst others, a Cor- 
f^SS*"! originally the lid or cover of 

of which the subject is ApoEo and 
Marsyas. It is most highly finished. 
It WM painted by Correggio when lie 
was vary joiing, and it has a belter 
certificate of origin than aucb pro- 
duetions usually possess, haring been 
engraved by Banuto in 1S63. There 
are other paintings by Zeonardo 
and iKoat; but the principal oma- 
meitts of the ooUectioa are, perhaps. 



the frescoes by Luiai, cut out of the 
nails of a demolished villa aod chapel 
near Milan. They are, — The Ado- 
ration of the Magi. The kneeling 
king is BUppoBi>d to be a partralt aS 
Luini himself. — The Crucifixion. Two 
saints arc introdncod, St. Thomas 
Aquinas mid St, Jerome.^A fine pic- 
ture from St. John, chap. ivi. v. 33, 24, 
" Whatsoever ge ikall aek the IhfhvT 
ifl mff name, he ihall give it ^ou," A 
single admirable figiira, — Our Xord 
holding (be globe in bia left hand, and 
in the attitude uf blessing vrith his 
right. There are several repetitions of 
tlua fresco 1 a very had one in the eon- 
vent of the GraKie, and a verjgood 
one (attributed to Leonardo da Vuici) 
in the oolleotion of Mr. Miles, — One 
subject ia taken from profane history. 
Curiua DentatuB rejecting the presents 
of the Sahinea, — Another more doubt- 
ful L«ini m this collection is the Birtb 
of the Virgin. — "ntian .- the portmil 
usually called hia mistress, probably 
only a good copy. — Saiao SWrato: a 
praying Head. — An old painting of 
the Castle of Milan is curious, as show- 
ing it« siato at the alose of the ITtll 
eenty, ;— there are some modem paint- 
ings by Appiani and others, worthy of 
notice. The groat bbIoou is splendidly 
fitted up in the stylo of Louis XIV, 
There is also a valuahlo library of 
30,000 vols, in this palace, which, 
during the banishment of il« owner, is 
said to have sufiered from its occupa- 
tion by the Auatrians. 

Palazzo Fmibbtb, in the Via de 
Bossi, remnrkable for its handsome 
portal from the designs of Michelozzi. 
This house, which was given to Cosiroo 
de' Medici in 14B6 by Francesco Sforza, 
is supposed to have been the seat of 
a Brencb bank of that celebrated 
Florentine family in the 15th century. 
Over the archway are the armorial 
bearings of the iJnkes of Milan, willi , 
the two dogs of the BfoMas, and the | 
portraits of Prancesco and bis wiEs 



a Vise. 



Polai 



206 



EoiUe 21. — MUan — Theatres. 



Sect. III. 



the fomily since 1444 : the interior is 
modernised, and contained a fine collec- 
tion of minerals, formed originally by 
Breislack, and a valuable series of paint- 
ings by S. Luini ; but on the banish- 
ment of this noble family, arising out 
of the events of 1848, the palace had 
been seized upon and converted into a 
barrack by the Austrian authorities, 
«ince which it has remained unin- 
habited. 

Palazzo PozzL — This palace was de- 
signed and built by Zeone Leoni, of 
Arezzo, a capital medallist or die-sinker. 
Ijeone was a sculptor and an architect, 
and much patronised by Charles V., by 
whom he was knighted. Hence he is 
often called " II Cavaliere Aretino." He 
became very opulent ; and this building 
is a monument of the riches he had 
acquired, as well as of his genius. It 
is, however, rather odd than elegant : 
colossal statues support the &ont, to 
which the Milanese have giten the 
name of Omenoni («. e, big men), and 
to account for which there are many 
strange stories. 

Theatres, — Milan is of all the cities 
in Italy the most celebrated for its the- 
atres and theatrical amusements ; the 
principal house is IJa Scala, so called 
from its having been erected upon the 
site of the Church of St. Maria della 
Scala. It was built fr^m the designs 
of Fiermarinif and was opened in the 
autumn of 1779. It contends with 
S, Carlo at Naples for being the 
largest theatre in Italy, and has always 
been admired for the excellence of its 
internal arrangements. The house is 
capable of containing 3600 spectators. 
The number of boxes in each row is 
41 : each has a small room attached 
to it ; the greater number are private 
property. The form of the house is 
a semicircle, with the ends produced 
and made to approach each other; 
the greatest width is 72 ft., the length, 
including the proscenium, that is to 
say, from the front of the centre box 
to the curtain, is 954 ft. The width 
oi the opening between the colimins 
of the proscenium is 64 ft., and the 
depth of the stage behind the curtain 



is 150 ft. This theatre also contains 
a Sala di Kidotto, where concerts are 
given, and masked balls during the 
Carnival. 

The other Boyal Theatre is ia Cano- 
biana, connected by a species of via- 
duct with the palace. It was built 
from the designs of Piennarim, and 
opened in 1780. The pit contains 450 
seats, and the house will hold 2200 
spectators. 

These two Boyal Theatres are xmder 
one management, and receive an annual 
subvention from the government, sub- 
ject to the expense of maintaining the 
Academy, of Dancing. The theatrical 
year is divided into three seasons ; the 
Carnival, which extends from St. Ste- 
phen's day to the 20th of March ; the 
spring, from Easter to the end of June; 
the autumn, from the beginning of 
September till the end of November. 

Teatro Carcano. — ^This Theatre was 
built in 1803, from the designs of 
Canonica, on the site of the Monastery 
of S. Lazzaro. Every part of the in- 
terior is constructed of wood; it is in 
the form of a horseshoe, with a convex 
ceiling, and it is considered very favour- 
able for healing. The pit contains 300 
seats, and the house can hold 1800 
spectators. Operas and comedies are 
performed here. 

Teatro J2^, near the Piazzadel Duomo, 
was built in the year 1812, by Carlo Re, 
from the designs of Canonica, It stands 
on the site where the Archpriest Dateo, 
in 787, erected the church of San Salva- 
tore, and the first foimdling hospital 
that ever existed. The comedies of GK)1- 
doni, Nota, &c., are often well repre- 
sented here. The pit holds 120, and the 
whole house is capable of containing 
1000 spectators. 

Teatro Mlodramfnaiico. — Antolini, 
in the theatre which he designed for 
the Foro Bonaparte, declared his in- 
tention to banish everything by which 
the attention is distracted, and that he 
would not therefore have boxes as a 
retreat for noisy chattering. He said 
the audience would behave and attend 
better if everj oTve -waa eeen^ and that 



Jiowte Zl.—MIan—Mu/Mourhood. 



opinions, wliicli were colled repnb] 
prevailed when tlie Teatro dei 
drBiamiitici wiu built Irom the designs 
of Poiack and CaHOmca, an the sits " 
S. Damiono nlla Scala, and it hance 
ceired the appellation of " patriotior 
The pit ooatttina 245, the openboj_._ 
630 persons. The tiuketa of admiasion 
nra distributed gratuitoualy by the 
members, irho are formed into a refidai 
academical body, hsTe a school of de 
rlomation, and give prizee. Th* com- 
pany IB entirely oouvpoBed of amnl«urB 
joung men engaged in trade or in thi 
public offices, and young women be- 
longing to respectable families of the 
city. Actors who have appeared in 
public are not allowed to jilay on this 
stage. Vincenzo Monti, Cario Porta, 
and other dlHtinguished auUiors ajid 
actors, appeared here, and here Pasta 

J^lro Maido, Fantoccim, Mario- 
neiti or FappeU. — This theatre was 
bwit by one Fiaudo, from the design 
of Camrnica, in the Oratorio or Chapel 
of BeUarmine. It ia called also the 
Teatro Girolamo, from the comic 
character who always appears as one 
of tho principal personages in every 
drama represented here. Qiroiamo 
is B PiedinontcBo from the Duchy 
of Montferrat, always frightened and 
hungry, but jesting and babbling. The 
pcrfonnancas are exceedingly droll and 
amusing, oonaisting usually of a play, 
which is apt to be very pstbetio, and a 
ballet. But strangers will not hear 
there tha language and humour of the 
people, as at tho Cafisandrino at Bonie, 
or tha Son Carlino at Kaplos. 

The Giardiao FubUco ia a pleasant 
public promenade near tho Porta Ori- 
entale. It containa a theatre, ball- 
room, and some other buildings for 
eimiJar purposes ; it has been recently 
enlarged, and a building erected in the 

Amongat the placea of amusement 
were two club-houseB, the Cofiao dei 
JVoiiii, and the Castao dei ^egoziauU, 
coiled also Sdciei4 del Oitirdino. Both 



itained reading-rooms, baU-rooms, 
foe-rooms, and the like ; and an 
troduction to either could be easily 



coffo 



obtained. Bothhaveboen closed 

1848, and that of the nobles converted 
by the Austrians int-o a barraok. 

The Caatto degli Ariisii is on the 
same system as our English clubs. 

The Galieria de Crhtaferia, a species 
of Burlington Arcade, forming a pas- 
sage between the Corso Francesco and 
the Tia del Monte, is one of the noveities 
of Milan. It contains some good shops, 
coffaa-houBca, &<!. &o. 



lt( ifny. — DiroMQ] Eojal Palaro; 
Archbishop's Pal. ; Ch. of Saa Fedele 
and Piazza di Marino ; Piaixa della 
Scala ; Brera Qaller}', Lihrary, and 
other Collections ; PaL Caetelbaroo ; 
Ch-of 8. Marcoi Ch. ofS. Bimplieianoi 
Arena ; Arco della Pace ; Cast«llo. 

2Hd day. — Ch. of San Carlo ; PiazEa 
dei Tribnnali i Che. of Maurizio Mag- 
giore, of San Tomnsso ; Palazzo Litta; 
Chs. of Sta. Maria deUe Grazie, of S. 
Vittore, of S. Ambrogio ; Museo Civico 
di Storia Naturale ; Piazza Bocromeo i 
Ambroaian Library ; Cba, of 8. Giorgio, 
S. Satiro, S. Giovanni in Conca g PaL 
Triyulzi; Ch. of S. Alcasandro. 

3rd rfay.^Chs. of 8. Lorenzo and 
S. Euatorgioi Porta Ticinesei Chs. of 
La Madonna di S. Celso, 88. Celso and 
Kazzaro, S. Paolo, and B. Eufemia 
Great Hospitali Chs. of S. Stefeno, S 
Bernardino, 8. Pedro in Qessate, Sta. 
Maria della Passions; Oiardino Pub- 
blico ; Corao di Porta Oriontale i Lai- 



dilferent wJutes, the following may be 
noticed : — ■ About 3^ m. trom tho 
Porta Veroollina, and on tho I. of the 
high road leading to Tercelli, near a 
yiJage called Quarto Cagnino, is 

Lititern/i, memoi&bU 'u ^\te *k^6^^ 
I wbich PrtxmcV t^vtei »^ust ■Oca . 
death rfljaMrajtttti-w^ieteVftw 



208 



Eoute 22. — Milan to Varese. 



Sect. m. 



his poetical lamentations for her loss. 
Its original name was Inferno, or In- 
vemo; but the laureate, out of love 
for Cicero, changed it into the classical 
LintemtMn, the retreat of Scipio. 



ROUTE 22. 

MILAN TO VAEESE, BY SAEONNO. 

About 34 m. Diligences run by 
this route daily, performing the dis- 
tance in 4 hours ; persons may leave 
by it in the morning, visit Saronno, 
and return from Varese at 3J p.m.; 
there is also a diligence to Saronno 
only, leaving Milan at 2f P.M., and re- 
turning every morning; but the tra- 
veller whose object is to visit Varese 
only will find it more convenient to 
take the Rly. to Camerlata, and thence 
by dihgence, which starts on the ar- 
rival of each train. See Rte. 21. 

This road to Saronno leaves Milan 
by the Porta Tanaglia, passing through 
the Suburb degli Ortolani. A road 
which turns off' to the rt., at a short 
distance from the gate, leads to the 
Palazzo della Si/monetta, noted for its 
remarkable echo. The front presents 
three colonnades, one over another, 
with arches and small columns, and 
paintings in the cinquecento style. 
The interior is not remarkable. The 
fa9ade towards the garden was con- 
structed with a very intricate arrange- 
ment of angles, and from a window on 
the second floor, on the 1. hand, is an 
echo which is said formerly to have 
repeated the sound of the discharge of 
a pistol 50 times. An alteration in the 
building has diminished its powers, 
but the echo will still repeat a clear 
sharp sound nearly 30 times. 

3^ m. from the Porta TanagHa, and 
about ^ m. on the 1. of the road, is 
the village of Garegnano, near which is 
the Certosa of Garegnano, a once cele- 
brated Carthusian monastery, in the 
midst of a territory which the labours 
of the monks reclaimed. It was founded 
by theArcbbiahop Otho Visconti, Lord 



of Milan. The conventual buildings are 
desecrated ; the chm*ch contains some 
frescoes by Crespi. Those on the 'walls 
represent the principal events of the 
life of St. Bruno, those on the ceiling 
subjects from the New Testament. 
Some have been much injured by the 
wet penetrating when the lead was 
stripped off the roof in 1796. 

Caronno. — In the parish church are 
some frescoes, attributed to Aurelio 
Luini, the son of Bernardino. 

2 Saronno, about 15 m. from Milan i 
on the rt.-hfend side of the road is 
the church of the Santuario della Ma- 
donna di Saronno. It is close to the 
posthouse, and on the opposite side 
of the road is an inn, where a fair 
dinner may be had. The town of 
Saronno itself lies ^ m. distant to the 
east. This church contains celebrated 
works in fresco, by Gaudenzio Fer- 
rari and Bernardino Luini, in excel- 
lent preservation. It was commenced 
in 1498, ifrom the designs of Tincenzo 
delV Orto. The campcmile, the cupola, 
the high altar, and the two side chapels, 
were erected by Paolo Porta, in the 
I6th century. The facade, which is 
overloaded with ornament, was built in 
1666, from the design of Carlo Buzzi. 
Owing to this cljange of architects the 
interior is somewhat irregular. The 
cupola is painted in fresco, by Gau- 
denzio Ferrari. The subject is the 
heavenly host playing upon various 
instruments, with a circle of cherubs 
above them singing. Below is a series 
of painted statues, in 12 niches, two 
figures in each, consisting, for the most 
part, of Prophets and Sibyls, as Sibylla 
Delphica and David, &c. ; 24 in all ; 
there are also groups representing the 
Calvary, the Last Supper, &c. 

Below, in circles in the pendentives, 
are eight subjects from Genesis, — the 
Creation of Eve ; Eating the Forbidden 
Fruit ; the Expulsion from Paradise 
(much injured) ; Trilling the Ground 
after the Fall ; Adam and Eve in the 
Garden, very fine; Abel tending his 
flocks ; the Remorse of Cain ; and 
Adam. \i\ea«.m^ \as^«.t«tvtY •. these are 
I a\BO \>y Ferrari. ^"Vi^a \\3ai<e\\«» \i^Qi^ 



lOilBAEDY. 



lioute 23.— 



are by iajuni. All tlioae frencoes may 
be more auily seen from the gallery 
which runs round three sidea honeath. 
the oi^ola. lu that part of the church 
tfhioh connects the nave and the ohoir 
ape two large frescoes by Lmni, the 
Marriage of Joaeph and Mary oa the 
l.-haud, and Ohrist diaputing with the 
Doctors on the rt. On tlie wall on tho ' 
1,-hand aide of the high alt^r is the 
Preaentation in the Temple, with a 
Tiew of the Ch. of Saronno, and oppo- 
sitcisthoAdorationoftheMagL Tbeee 
4 large fi'eacoea are well preaeried, and 
ore, aeoording to Lonzi, among the 
(neatest of his works ; and certainly 
they are Tecy aupcrior to anything at 
Milan, with the eiecptioD, perhaps, of ■ 
one or two sinall portioua of freeco in ' 
the Brera ; for inatance. (34) in the en- ! 
trance hall, the bodyof St. Catherine car- \ 
ried by three Angels to the Sepulchre. ! 
The 4 great freacoea of Lnini in the '• 
th. of Saronno afford admirable eiam- 1 
pies of this style of painting, and are 
in racellent preaervation : in the Ado- . 
ration of the Magi, pcrhups the best of 
the four, the Tirgin and Child are ex- 
quUite examples of that union of 
beauty and tsndumeas which diethi- 
giiishes Luini'a best worka ; the heads 
of the two kneeling kinp are admirable, 
and the tranaparency of the colours 
throughout aiTords the best eioinple of 
freeeo-painting. In theOhriat disputing 
with the Dootora, although the figures 
of our SaTiour and tho Virgin are 
wanting perhaps in dignity, the whole 
is finely uonooiTed i the heads of tho 
Doctors are admirable. Luini's own 
portrait, wliich he baa introduced, is 
very fine. In the fresco of the Marriage 
of the Tirgin the principal figure is 
perhaps too much of a Venetian cha- 
racter, and wanting in youth and aim- 
There are many smaller frescoes by 
Luini on the nalla and ceiling of the 
ohoir J amongst others, the Erangelist?, 
and the four Doctors of the Church 
(which iuiTo been retouched), with St. 
Catherine, and Bt. Apollonia { and two 
Angels Kinariitble for the traoBpaTeaty 
a£ their Dolours. Jii the sacriflty ia a 



picture by O. C. Procaccini. On the 
wall of the cloister leading iraja the 
church to the priest's house is a Na- 
tirity by Lvini. He waa paid for the 
single figures of saints a sura corre- 
sponding to S6 Auatr. lire, and reoeived 
besides wine, bread, and lodring. For 
the other works he was paid so much 
a-day, together with bread and wine, and 
waa so well pleased with hia pay that he 
painted this last frDaco for notliing. 

Beyond aaronno the level of tho 
country rises, and tho road, after pass* 
ing through Moszate, Carbonate, and 
Tradate, a largo village, where, on a 
hill, ore the remains of an ancient 
castle, crossee the Olona, [a short way 
lower down the river is the village oi 
CasKgUone di Olono, an interesting 
place from its many medireval remains, 
but chiefly irom the frescoes by Jlfo*- 
eoliao da I'l^iealff recently diBCOvered 
in one of the churches : 0. di O. ia 
about lislf'Way between Saronno and 
Varese] from which there ia a continu- 
ous ascent to 

2 Varese. See Koute 18. 



3 Austrian posts to Pavia, 20 til. 
to Casteggio, and from thence 114 kij, 
by Rlj. J in all about 110 miles. The 
postmaster cliargea i a post extra for 
going down to the Certosa. 

Persons wisliing to visit Paria and 
tho Certosa, without proceeding far- 
ther, will find public convey onoei 
which start aeverol times a day, em- 
ploying about 3 hrs., and, returning to 
Mi^n in the afternoon. Ask far tliB 
diligence that pasaos through Binasco, 
08 many of the public conrcfanaoa 
taie the more dfroot road, hut I)y much 
the least intereatiiig, through CumpiJ 
Morte, Pontelungo. ajid Faale Camta, ; 
in which ease the ti'aveller will be set j 
down nearly 2 m. from the Certosa, 
and have to find liis way with soma J 
dlifioulty to it, -wVi^ ^a ftvaa wft^' 
proached from. \ie\m\&.. Tc« Xsm ^^^ 
wbieh. tliey aiA ou't ^a "ni "Oisa'SSKfUfc^ 



-i 



2ie 



JRoute 23. — Certosa of Pavia. 



Sect. ni. 



Thiomo : visitors to the Certosa, by 
setting out early, can be set down at 
JTorre di Manffcmo, one of the dili- 
gences passing by there, and, having 
secured their places, be taken up there 

, on its return in the afternoon, having 
plenty of time to visit the monastery, 
&c. Quitting Milan by the Porta Ti- 
cinese, the road enters what may be 
termed the most Flemish portion 
of the plain of Lombardy. Meadows, 
rich in clover, yield two or three crops 
a year; thick rows of sallows and 
poplars bespeak the humidity of the 
soil, luxuriant even to rankness. On 
either side are frequent transverse or 
longitudinal cuts and canals. Of these, 
the largest is the Naviglio di Pavia, 
completed during the iSi^nch occupa- 
tion, which joins the Ticino at Pavia. 
The road skirts this canal all the 
way. From the gate of Milan to 
Pavia, the canal descends 182 ft. 8 in. ; 
there are 13 locks, the whole descent 
jof which is 167 ft. 8 in. ; leaving for 
the descent of the canal alone 15 ft. 
The length is 20^ m., the breadth 
42^ ft. At first it forms a considerable 
stream, but is continually giving off 
part of its waters for the purposes of 
irrigation, and becomes very sluggish 
on its arrival at Pavia. 

IJ BinascOf a town of 5000 Inhab., 
remarkable for its castle, much mo- 
demised, still exhibiting the shield of 
the Viscontis. It was in this castle 
that the unhappy Beatrice di Tenda, 
widow of Facino Cane, and wife of 
Duke FiHppo Maria, was, bv his orders, 
beheaded in the night of September 
13th, 1418. Beatrice was a lady of 
irreproachable virtue ; but, in the 
agonies of the torture, she confessed to 
the crime of infidehty imputed to her 
by the Duke ; or, as some say, she 
was convicted by the felse testimony 
of Orombello, who, accused as her para- 
mour, inculpated her in the hopes of 
saving his own life, but in vain. Bea- 
trice had been not only a most affec- 
tionate wife, but a wise and faithful 
counsellor to her husband, to whom 
she brought vast domains ; and it is 

diMcult to account for his conduct. 



He- was much addicted to astrology, 
and a probable conjecture is, that, 
timid and cruel, some prediction that 
Beatrice would cause his death insti- 
gated him to the crime. 

19 m. from Milan, and 5 from Pavia, 
is Torre del ManganOy nearly oppo- 
site to which is a straight road lead- 
ing to the Certosa delta Beata Ver- 
gine delle Orazie, commonly called the 
Certosa of Pavia, the most splendid 
monastery in the world, founded by 
Gian Galeazzo Visconti, the first Duke 
of Milan. It was built by him as an 
atonement for guilt, to relieve his 
conscience of the murder of his uncle 
and father-in-law, Bemabo Yisconti, 
and his family, who, having by trea- 
chery made Imnself master of Milan, 
he sent to the castle of Trezzo, where 
they were poisoned. The founda- 
tion was laid 8th September, 1396. 
25 Carthusian monks were appointed 
to take charge of this sanctuary, and 
executed, down to their expulsion in 
1782, the task imposed on them, of 
augmenting the gloiy of the Madonna, 
by adding to the beauty of the Certosa. 
From 1782 to 1810 the Certosa was 
occupied by other orders, and in the 
latter yeai* it was finally closed. Ex- 
aggerated reports have prevailed of the 
subsequent neglect of this splendid 
monument; blame, however, must be 
thrown on the Repubhcan authorities, 
by whose order, in 1797, the lead was 
stripped from the roof. The monks 
were re-established in 1843, and the 
building is now well cared for, and 
kept in good order, by the produce of 
the monks' garden and casual offerings, 
and for more extensive repairs by the 
munificence of some wealthy Milanese 
families ; httle is done by the GK)vem- 
ment. There were in 1854, 25 monks, 

Ladies a/re admitted into the nave^ 
hut are not allowed to enter the side 
chapels, or the choir. 

The vestibule or principal entrance 
to the monastery is covered with fres- 
coes, principally by Luini. Its front 
towards the road is a spacious arch, 
flanked by two pilasters, and crowned 
with, a md.e\j "^xo^ecXhxv^ \sw\. \<cr« ^cwi^^ 



Bouts 23. — Certosa of Favi'i 



LOMBAROY. 



beneath nliich are 

coea. Thej are all much iiyured bj 

eipoaure to tlie weather. 

Through thia THBtibule a quadran- 
gulm court {109 ydi, long, 45J yda. 



The architect of tho church, except- 
iug the front, ifl baid to have been 
Meinrich von Gniundeu, or, »a the 
Italians write it, Enneo da Gamodia, 
tlie same nho began the Cathedral of 
□ years prerionaly. 



taste of our northern artiete, while the 
cutliedrol above mentioned abounde 
with Ihem." — Woods. The outer 
walls, the buttresBBB, the wide nichee 
cQ the eiterior of tho tmneept, and the 
dome are of the fine brickwork pecu- 
liar to the Lombard buildings of that 
epoch ; the interior and faijade are of 
marble. A.oibrogio da Foiaaao, called 
^or^OTitooe, known also as an eircellent 

S. inter, designed the richly decorated 
(ada, which was begun in 1473. " It 
is an immouBe heap of little parts, in 
the taste of the ciiique-ceiilo, oS-en 
beautiiid in thamsdyea, but leariug no 
impression as a whole, eicept on unde- 
fined aentintent of its imiaeuae prodi- 
gality of riches." — Id. This front riees 
from an eitenHve platform of throe 
steps : four pilasters and two square 
turret-B, correaponding with the general 
inl^maJ arrangement, divide it into five 
spaues of noorly equal breadth ; upon 
these apBcea that profusion of sculpture 
is displayed which forms one of the 
princirod features and attractions of 
this edtBce. Tho central portion is oc- 
cupied by a richly decorated portico, 
formed of an arched roof resting upon 
four isolated Corinthian coluamsi 
above this is a kind of triforium of tho 
Tuscan order, extending over the whole 
front, and serving as a base to a sort of 
shrine, on tho frieze of which is tie 
dedication to "ilBry the Vii^n, 
xaotber, daughter, bride oi God." A 



211 



id triforium, eitending over the 

three central dirislons, terminates the 

fr\int, which, after all, it appears was 

— 'erflnished. The otherwise inerilnbly 

[king defect of aocumulation of 



play of light and shade Kiiich is the 

'' " ' lahlc, the artist has 

le effect liy stained 
marbles. 

Each of tho pilasters and turrets is 
adorned with six statnes; the mastei^ 
pieces, however, of sculpture on this 
fai;ade are to he found on and about 
the portico, and the four beautiful win- 
dows near it. The hos-reliets on tha 
walla of the portico represent, on the 
rt,-hand side, the ceremony of laying 
tlia foundation stone of tlie church ; on 
the 1. the funeral procession bringing 
the. body of Giovanni Galeozzo &om 
Melegnano to the Certoaa (Nov. 9, 
1413) ; and above, Alexander III. grmit- 
ing a charter to the Certoaini The 
small baa-reliofs represent actions of St. 
Ambrose, St. John Bapt., St. Siro, and 
the Virgin, and are, according to tScog- 
nura, " oltrc ognicredcre degni d' am- 
mirazione.'' The hose is full of curious 
medallions, with heads of claaaic heroes 
and Eoman emperors, sacred and pro- 
fane personages, intermixed with arms, 
trophies, &c. 

Many first-rate sculptors contributed 
the plastic and marble works of tha 
irtosa; among whom wore Giov, 
Ant. Amadco, Andr. Fusina, A^ioetino 
Bnati, named il Eambaja, Marco 
Agrate, and Chriatofano Solori, called 
il Gobbo, to whom are ascribed the 
exquisite chiaelings in the candelabra, 
between the windows, and the bas- 
reliefs on each side the door. 

Interior. — The gronnd-plan of the 
church is a Latin cross, of which the 
length ia 249 ft., and the width 173, 
The nave haa four square divisions, 
eaeh subdivided on the vault, and with 
oblique groins. The groining of the 
side aisles ia singular, each space being, 
iact, ooveied with. V ' 



pointed vBiitB, martiov?, to. a wjusiaKt^ 
centra. BeyaniftieKiAettviit%,OQ*»W 



^12 



Route 23. — Certosa of Pavia. 



Sect III. 



side, two chapels open towards each 
square division of the nave. The choir 
and arms of the cross have each two 
square divisions, so that there are seven 
on the whole length of the church, and 
five on that of the transept. " On a 
critical examination, the traces of the 
various ages in which this edifice was 
erected become obvious. The most 
ancient portion dates from a period 
when the fundamental rules of archi- 
tecture were by no means settled, and 
the romantic style was no longer satis- 
factory : then follows the style of the 
revival ; then, as the building became 
Inore advanced, the proportions of Bra- 
mante were adopted, and more atten- 
tion was given to the ornamental part ; 
and thus age after age, each leaving 
the imprint of its characteristics." — 
Oruner. The eight statues before the 
pillars represent the four Evangelists 
and the Doctors of the Church ; they 
are works of the best artists of the 16th 
centy.' Rich bronze gates divide the 
nave from the transept. Every part of 
the interior is most richly decorated. 
The altars are inlaid with pietra-dura 
Work, executed in the finest manner, 
and in which the most rare and costly 
materials are employed. Many good 
paintings which were in the church have 
been removed. The best of those which 
remain are — 1st, Chapel on the rt,, 
Sorgognone, small fresco; the Madonna, 
and Angels adoring the infant Saviour ; 
' — 2nd, Oiovan* Oiacomo Fava, called 
also Macrino d^Alha, a very rare master, 
1496, an altar-piece in six compart- 
ments J 3rd, Carlo Cornara, S. Bene- 
dict, in a vision, sees his sister Sta. Sco- 
lastica ascending to heaven, with the 
date. 1668 ; — 4th, Borgognone, Christ i 
on the Cross ; — 5th, the altar-piece, and i 
the fresco in the vaulting, are by Bor- \ 
gognone ; and some stained glass, re- 1 
presenting St. Michael, by Antonio 
da JPandino; — 6th, the altarpiece of 
this chapel is by Ghiercino. On the 
other side of the nave, in the 2nd chapel 
from the W. end, is an altar once deco- 
rated with a painting in six compart- 
ments, aJl by Pietro Ferugino, Of these 
onJj- one remains. It is above the centre, 



and represents G-od the Father. The 
4 Doctors of the Church are attributed 
to Borgognone. In the 6th chapel is 
a splendid painting, St. Ambrogio on 
a tlirone and 4 Saints, by Borgo- 
gnone, 

The transejpts. — In the S. transept 
is the tomb of Gian' Galeazzo, . the 
founder, designed by Galeazzo Bel- 
legrinOf in 1490, but not completed till 
1562. Many artists of unequal merit 
worked upon it during this long period. 
Over his statue, recumbent upon a sar- 
cophagus, rises a canopy of the richest 
cinque-cento workmanship. Observe 
the trophies upon the pilasters. In 
the second story are six fine historical 
bas-reliefs: — Gian' Gtdeazzo receiving 
the baton of command from his father 
— his creation as Duke of MUan by 
the Emperor Wenceslaus — his founda- 
tion of the Certosa — the like of the 
Citadel of Milan — his victory over the 
Imperiahsts at Brescia (1402) — and 
the refoundation or dotation of the uni- 
versity of Pavia. These are attributed 
to Gio. Ant. Amadeo. Other parts are 
said to be by Qio. Qiao, della Porta. 
It seems from the inscription that the 
monument was constructed by GHan^ 
Cristoforo Bomano ; the statues of Fame 
and Yictory, at the extremities of the 
tomb, are by Bernardino da Novi. 
That of the Virgin and Child is by Ber- 
nardino de' Brioschi. The monument, 
however, was, in a manner, executed in 
vain. Gian* Guleazzo died at Marig- 
nano, 3rd Sept. 1402 j and his funeral 
was celebrated with extraordinary pomp 
in the Cathedral of Milan. Afterwards 
the body was moved, and the place 
where it was provisionally deposited was 
forgotten. 

At the end of the S. transept is the 
altar of S. Bruno, above which is a 
fresco, representing the family of Gian* 
Galeazzo Visconti on their knees before 
the Virgin : he is offering her a model 
of the church, Filippo kneels behind, 
and his two other sons, Giovanni and 
Gabriele Macia, on the opposite side. 
This fresco is by BramanUno^ by whom 
are also t\Ye 4 »«iTv.t«. ot\. eajcK «vdfi of the 
\ arch., and t\v© «ii%'^ oxv^<a «o\s!JcJ^\,\5:Kk 



lioute 23. — Certosa of Favia. 



abore, anpportmg sliielda on wHch the 
BnnB of the Vistontis are blended with 
the roottocB oC tho Carthuaiuns. Here 
also are two fine bronze candelabra, by 
I'oataaa, and some brilliant atained 

glfliS. 

In tie N. Iritasept are, the luotiu- 
menta of the unfortunate Ludorico il 
Moro, and that of hie beloved wife, 
Beatrice d'Este. She waa a Iad;f of 
TBTj flineular talent and beantj; and 
having died in childbirth, Jan. 2, 1497, 
he caused this raoniunent to bo oroctcd 
at an expense of 50,000 ducats. Her 
body was interred hHre ; but the monu- 
ment waa first placed in the ohuroh of 
St. Itlsria delle Ctnuie at Milan, and 
removed here in 1564. Both are aaid to 
be by Solaris and exe finely executed : 
the coBtume la cuHona. Before the 
altar, at the end of the N. transept, ore 
hIbo two fine candulabra, by FoHlaaai 
aud in the apsis ore freecoee, by Sor- 

TAe cioir.—The fine doors with in- 
taglios, and iHB-reliefs representing the 
principal events of the life of 9. Bruno, 
are by Vh-gilio de' Conti j and the 
intaraiatura, work in the seats by Sar- 
iolomeo da Polo, 1486 1 the fine balne- 
tnide, on wldch stand 4 bronze candlo- 
sticlts, is by FoatoHo, m alao the bas- 
reliefa on the walla, on each side of 
the altar, and the rich^ adorned hi^h 
altar. The frescoes are the last work 
of It. CreijBi. 

By the side of the altar, which is at 
the end of the S. transept, is an on- 

The Sagreslia Jfooo, covered with 
freacoes by Plelro Sorri (1600) . Jlei'e 
is an eioellcnt altar-pieoo, the lower part 
by Aiuirea Solari, the upper by Ber- 
nardo Campi. The piotores on eayh 
side are by Solari. Also, Lviai, St. 
Ambrose, and St. Martin dividing hia 
oloalc with the Beggar.— Jiri»v«io»e, S. 
T.-reaa with St. Peter and St. Pau].— 
Monfaffan, the Virgin with 2 aainf a and 
u Cliuir of Aiigels. — Some Btmdl p'lc- 

Tlie iora/oio de' Monaei, on the S. 
side of the choir, is aa nch in gold and 
ullnunarwe ae the church. Above the 



213 

rioUy-seulptnred doorway are seven 
medalEons of Bucheaaes of Milan. 
Over the Lavatory is a buet, said to be 
that of Heiarici of GtaundeK, the ar- 
chitect. Obserre also — AHierto Car- 
rara, two bas-reliefs, the Kisa of Judas, 
and the Washing of the Feet oftheDis- 
ciplea. — B. Luitti, a, fresco, of the Vir-, 

Sin and Child, the kttcr holding a pink 
ower. The stained glass is by Ciiato- 
Jbro ie' MotU, 1477 i a very beautiful 
IVum here yon may sacond to 



the roo^ ai 



10 the 



of the building. 

The Sagreslia Feeeiia. — Over the 
door are fine medallions of the Dukes of 
Milan ; and, on oaeh aide, B Ohoir o£ 
Angels, by Amadeo, considered nmongat 
hia beat productions. The Sacristy cor- 
responds in style with the Lavatory i 
in it is a aurious ancient altnr-pieoe, 
worked in the ivory of the teeth of the 
hippopotamus, containing 67 bnsBO- 
rOieroa and SO atatuea — all aubjects 
from the Hew Testament, bj JBernardo 
degli Ubhriaehi. Several puintinga ; 
the best are a portrait of Cardinal Co- 
lonnn, by Oaido, and a St. Augustine, 
bj Borgognoae. 

In the cloister oalled delta ^on^iia 

may be noticed numberless baa-rolio(a 

of terra-cotto, much pri^ed^' Cioog- , 

r Lord and the Woman of 

Children playing upon mosi- 

cal Instruments. The doorway of white 

■hie, leading into the church, ia a 

masterpiece oSAmadto. 

The great oloitler is 412 ft. lone 
by 334 ft. wide. The arches are ol 
moulded brick, in the finest cmque- 
ccn to style. Three sides are surrounded ' 
by 34 cells of the monlis. Each ia a 
separate dwelluig, containing 4 good- 
sized rooms, 2 above and 2 bwiw, with. 

small garden behind. 

A very beautiful wort on the Cer- 
tosa, containing arciiitectnral drawings 
of the building, and minute details of 
its variouH parts and rioh clccorations , 
(about 70 plates), has been published, 
by the brothers Gaetano ftud Francesco 
Durem. q£ Mi\am. 

The \)a.t\,\6 oi"ea-iia,1^.^"lS{&» 



214 



JRoiite 23. — Pavia — Duomo. 



Sect. 111. 



was fought in the neighbourhood of the 
Certosa. 

li Pavia {Inns: Albergo del Pozzo, 
clean and comfortable : La Croce Bi- 
anca', tolerable). Pop. 28,000. Pavia 
la Dotta was the capital of the Lombard 
kings, and the gloomy Castello has been 
thought to stand on the site of their 
palace. The present building, however, 
was raised in 1460, and completed in 
1469. When perfect, it formed an 
ample quadrangle, flanked by 4 towers. 
The interior was surrounded by a double 
cloister, or loggia : in the upper one the 
arches were filled in by the most deli- 
cate tracery in brickwork: the whole 
was crowned by elegant forked battle- 
ments. In the towers were depo- 
sited the treasures of literature and art 
which Gian' Gbleazzo had collected ; — 
ancient armour j upwards of 1000 
manuscripts, which Petrarch had as- 
sisted in selecting ; and many natural 
curiosities. 

All these Yisconti collections were 
carried to France in 1499 by Louis 
XIL, and nothing was left but the 
bare waUs. One side of the palace or 
castle was demoUshed during the siege 
by Lautrec in 1527 ; but in other re- 
spects it continued perfect, though de- 
serted, till 1796, when it was again 
put into a state of defence by the 
French. They took off the roof, and 
covered the vaultings with earth ; and 
when the rains came on in autumn, the 
moisture and the weight broke down 
the vaultings and ruined great part of 
the edifice. It has since been fitted up 
as a barrack : in some parts the tracery 
of the interior arches is tolerably per- 
fect; and the great ruined gateway, 
once entered by a drawbridge crossing 
the fosse, is still a fine object. 

The DuomOy or cathedral, was com- 
menced in 1488, but never finished. 
It was erected upon the site of an an- 
cient Lombard basiUca, of which there 
are some small remains now in course 
of demolition.. 

The first stone was laid by Gtileazzo 
Maria Sforza, and his brother Ludovicoj 
the captivity of the latter was one of 
the causes which prevented the prosecu- 



tion of the edifice. The architect was 
ChHstoforo Hocchi^ a pupil of Bra- 
mante. A spacious octagon occupies 
the centre, and a nave and side aisles, 
extending in each direction, were to 
have formed the cross ; the side aisles 
opening into the obhque sides of the 
octagon, which are smaller than the 
others. The pulpit is of great size, 
surrounding one of the large clustered 
columns. The colossal Terms, repre- 
senting the Fathers of the Church, 
bent forwards, and supporting the 
pulpit on their backs and shoulders, 
are finely executed in dark wood. A 
curious reminiscence of the age of 
romance is found in the lance of Or- 
lando, a decayed shaft as large as a 
boat's mast, suspended from the roof 
of the cathedraL 

In a side chapel is. the tomb of St. 
Augustine, the greatest of the Fathers 
of the Latin i^urch. It was pre- 
served and brought hither. when the 
church of St. Pietro in Coelo Aureo, 
where Liutprand £ing of the Lom- 
bards deposited the body in 700, was 
destroyed. 

Its date is about the 14th century. 
The body of St. Augustine (ob. 430) 
was removed from Hippo, a suffragan 
see of Carthage, during the Arian per- 
secutions, when the Cathoho clergy, 
being banished by King Thrasimund to 
Sardinia, transported the relic thither 
with them. Here it continued until 
Liutprand purchased it from the in- 
habitants, who, exposed to the con- 
stant inviasions of the Saracens, could 
no longer ensure safety to the pilgrims 
who resorted to the shrine. The body 
was deposited by Liutprand in a species 
of catacomb or sepulchral chapel, where, 
when opened in 1090, the bones were 
found, wrapped in a silken veil, to- 
gether with some of his episcopal orna- 
ments, aU contained in a silver shrine, 
of which the exterior is now exposed 
to view in the lower part of the present 
tomb. There is some uncertainty as 
to the names of the artists by whom 
this magnificent pile was erected. Ci- 
cognara, ^\vo ^a;}^ SXi Taxx%\. \i«b T^^koived 



Rmte 23.— P<uii 




216 



Horde 23. — Favia — San Mickele. 



Sect. III. 



grandiose" of the 14th century, sup- 
poses it was executed by Pietro Paolo 
and Jacohello delle Masegne, Vasari, on 
the contrary, attributes it to Agostino 
and Agnolo of Siena. This assertion 
Cicognara supposes to be contradicted 
by the date of its supposed erection, 
stated in the books of the priory to hnve 
been 1362. The tomb consists of four 
stories : the basement, the sarcophagus, 
properly so called, upon which is ex- 
tended the saint in his episcopal robes, 
the canopy, and the surmounting sta- 
tues and pinnacles. Great invention 
and variety are displayed in the smaller 
statues and bas-reliefs. Round St. Au- 
gustine are the saints whom his order 
produced. Angels adjust the shroud 
around him ; the Liberal Arts and the 
Cardinal Virtues, the principal events 
of the history of the saint during his 
life, and the miracles operated by his 
intercession after his death, adorn other 
portions of the tomb — 290 figures in 
aU ; and Giovan' Galeazzo Yisconti 
proposed to have added more. The 
mechanical execution corresponds with 
the beauty of the design. 

Some good pictures exist in the ca- 
thedral, but the darkness of the build- 
ing makes it rather difficult to distin- 
guish them. The chief are, 2>. Orespi, 
the Virgin and Child, St. Syrus and 
St. Anthony of Padua ; S, Sojaro, the 
Virgin of the Rosary; and G. B. Crespi, 
the Wise Men's Offering, The cam- 
panile is a noble massy tower of brick, 
not much altered from Gothic times. 

The church of San Michele ranks 
before the cathedral in age. " The 
exact date of the construction of 
this church is not accurately known. 
The first time it is mentioned is by 
Faulus Diaconus, who incidentally re- 
lates that, in 661, Unulfus took sanc- 
tuary in this church to escape the 
vengeance of King Grimoaldus. The 
probability, however, is that it had 
only been recently finished at that 
time ; because the particular veneration 
for the Archangel Michael, which com- 
menced in Apulia in 503, did not reach 
the North of Italy till a century later. 
In addition to which we find that, 



during the whole of the 6th century, 
the inhabitants of Pavia were occupied 
with the construction of their cathedral, 
San Stefano j and it is not likely that 
they would have carried on two works, 
of such magnitude at the same time. 
San Michele is 189 ft. long by 81 ft. 
wide.j the nave is as much as 45 ft. 
wide. The plan is that of a Basihca, 
with the addition of transepts. The 
chancel is approached by several steps, 
which was probably an alteration in- 
troduced in later, times than those in 
which the church was built. Above 
the aisles, on each side of the nave, 
there is a triforium or gallery ; and 
above the intersection of the nave and 
the transepts there is a Byzantine 
cupola. Under the chancel there is a 
crypt. The arches on either side of 
the nave are supported by compound 
piers. All the capitals of the piers 
are enriched with images and symbols. 
The roof is remarkable. Unhke that 
of the old Basilicas, it is not of wood, 
but vaulted with stone j but the pilas- 
ters which run up to support the vault 
are of a later character than the other 
portions of the building, and confirm 
the impression, suggested by the nature 
of the roof itself, that the present 
vaulted roof must have been substi- 
tuted for an older roof of wood. The 
walls of the building are of stone, 
massive and thick. The exterior is 
ornamented with small open galleries, 
which follow the shape of the gable 
in front, and crown the semicircular 
apse. The portals exhibit the com- 
plete adoption of the round form in- 
stead of the square, with the addition 
of several mouldings, and a profusion 
of imagery; nor are the ornaments 
confined to the portals. Bands, en- 
riched with imagery, are carried along 
the whole of the firont, and modiUions 
are let into the walls. The windows 
are roundheaded, and divided by small 
piUars. The ornaments of the portals 
are a mixture derived from Christian, 
Pagan, and Scandinavian sources, to- 
gether with some which are merely 
introdu-ced for the T^urpose of decora- 
\tioii, and. affiotd ^ %qo^ «!eaxq::^ ^"i 



LOMB- 



lloitle 23.— Pavia~Churc/ics. 



217 



tlieur pecuiinr style. San Mieliele 
mnv w tskeii as a apecimen of a 
Btjle wliicli the LombarJe sdoptod for 
llieir own."— G. Knii/ht. 

In the choir are some early Creacoca 

5 Antonio di Edtsia, a conteinporaiy 
Giotto'a 1 aiid there ia alao n toler- 
able punting by Moncalco. 

Santa Maria del Carmiiie, Or S. Fa,v- 
taleone, huilt in 133&, ia a elmrch de- 
HBTTing of notice ns u benutifiil apeci- 
BiBQ of tliB Snaat brickwork, and for its 
pointed atyle ntorc nkin to English- 
Gothic than almoEt any cb. in Italy : 
in the cornice arc interaecting oma- 
inentnl arches, and the W. front luia 

■ Urge rose- window, four pointed 
irindovra, aud three pointed door^, 
all formed in flnely-mouldod terra- 
eottn, the whole surmoimted by an 
elaborate, although perhapa hesTy 
romice, nilJi 7 elegant pinnaclBa. 
" The brick pillara of the inside de- 
serve notice; three squares form the 
nave, eaeh of wlsieh is covered by 
a simple groin, but opeiia by two 
email arches into the aide ainle?, and 
has a Tery anudl circular window 
abOTe. The beautifid bricknork lias 
been haeked, to retain a Coat of stucco 
or wMtewaah. The walli) and Taults 
are aldo of brickwork, but of tery 
different quality. Ttieae were evidently 
inlendcd to be covered. The upper 
cnpitals are of atone, ornamented with 
detiMjhed leaves ; the lower are of brick, 
cut into eacutcheoij facea." — Woods. 

Salt Fraitreme ia anotlier fliic church 
of the same materia! and style. " Tlie 
upper part of the front, with one large 
central areli, gurroundeii by a iiiimbec 
of plain and enriched bouda, is finely 
composed." — JFoodi. The line pointed 
■rch of the W. front ia very elaborate, 

■ great number of terra-ootta oma- 
menla introdnced. The inaiclo haa been 
modemiseil, and done badly. A paint- 
ing by Campi is tha only picture 
worthy of notice. 

Saaia Mariadi Canepaaora is a fine 
<p(>cimcn of the oinque-cento style, by 
JJi-amante. It wns heguu in 1493 1^ 
Biotanni Galeszi!o ilaria Sforza, and 
eontaiaa some indiSTereiit frescoes, and 
A^. Jfafy—1860. 



othora pretty good by MoiKaUa, and 
several subjects from the Old Tosto- 
mcut by Oiulio Cesare and Cavullo 
Pneacrati. 

Of the oalebrated church of San 
FicCro in Cielo d'Oro some portions 
remnin, partly in ruins, and partly naed 
as a storehouse. Hnre was oue of the 
moat interesting monuments in Italy, 
the tomb of Boethius. 

Tlio churches of San Teodoro and of 
San Marino were erected in the Sth 
and Gth centuries j but the interiors of ' 
both have been so entirely inodemisecl 
that there is little ia either to observe. ■ 
In the latter ia a good painting by 
Ceiare da Seifa, the Virgin and Chihi. 

The curious covered bridge over thfl 
Ticino was built hy Oian' Oakazio, 
and from his time to the present has 
been a favourite promenade of the in- 
liabitants of Pavia. The body of tha 
work ia brick, with stone quoina to tha 
archea. Ita roof is supported by 100' 
colunma of rough granite. 

A little way outaida tha gates is the 
fine Lombardchorchof Saȣiii0-aNco. 
It olTers a bcautifiilly varied outline. 

Outside the city ia the ch. of San 
Sahalore. In the inside Corinthian 
pilasters support pointed archea. The 
whole ia richW gilt and painted. Here 
is a achool for oliildren in conneiion 
with the univeraitj. 

The Vnicenity of Fatia cJaims b 
high antiquity. II ia said to have been 
founded by Charlemagne in 774 ; and,; 
thonghthia aascrtion ia not suaceptibl* 
of strict historical proof, it is certain 
that the civil law waa professed at 
Pavia at a very early period. That groat 
restorer and reformer of the Church 
of England, Lanfranc, Archbishop of 
Canterbury in the reign of tlie Con* 
qneror, waa bom at Pavia of ft family 
who poEseeaed by inheritance the right 
of admiiiistering the civil hiwa, perhaps 
derived from their senatorial dignity 
intheRomnnperiod. Tlie splendour of 
the University, however, arose mainly 
from Gian' GaleaKio, who, about 1390, 
granted ilBOmsKS iiA4i\;\Qti>il'era'^«»ff* 
that hii ia UBUftaj Yot\o\CTcii. ea "i^ 
founder. Bat ttio ^TiSoaeiA -offl^ 



218 



EotUe 23. — Pavia — University. 



SectllL 



have been a dead letter, had not the 
duke wisely called in the great Baldus 
as a professor of civil law. He was a 
man of wonderful acuteness and dili- 
gence, and possessed what would now 
be termed an Eiu*opean reputation, to 
the highest extent. Kings and princes 
consulted him upon points of public 
law, and his commentaries 

** on the Corpus, 
Big' and lumpy as a porpoise/' 

contain a mine of learning. In more 
modem times Pavia has been princi- 
pally distinguished as a medical school ; 
and in this branch of knowledge it has 
produced men of great eminence. It 
is yet in considerable repute, contain- 
ing about 1600 students. The anato- 
mical theatre is well contrived, and the 
professors of anatomy have always 
enjoyed a high reputation. 

Little can be seen of the ancient 
buildings of the University. Maria 
Theresa, in 1779, and the Emperor 
Joseph, in 1787, fronted and adorned 
much of the old part, and built two 
new quadrangles ; and still more re- 
cently (1816) the principal facade 
was erected by Marchess^ by order of 
the Emperor Francis I. The mu- 
seums of anatomical preparations and 
of specimens of natural history are 
both remarkably good. It also con- 
tains a library of 50,000 vols., and a 
collection of coins. To this university 
also is annexed a school of the fine 
arts, in which drawing and engraving 
are taught. The utility of this insti- 
tution has been much increased by the 
liberality of the late Marquis Mala- 
spina, who bequeathed to it a veiy 
valuable collection of paintings, prints, 
and other objects illustrative of the 
history of art, placed in a building 
which he erected in his lifetime to 
contain them. 

There are five fine courts, against 
the waUs of two of which are placed 
monuments of early professors, some 
of them when the chiu*ches where 
they had been originally erected 
were euppresaed. One of these is of 
^he celebrated jurist Alciat* Most of 



the older monuments are on the saatie 
model — representing the professor 
seated in the midst of his pupils, 
who are listening to his lectixres. 
Though often venerable-looking, long- 
bearded men, the pupils, to denote 
their inferiority, are made about half 
the size of their masters, which gives 
them the appearance of old boys. 
Their countenances and attitudes gene- 
rally denote intense attention. Some 
eminent men of more recent times have 
monuments here — Spalanzani, Fon- 
tana, and Scopoli, Volta, Scarpa, and 
Mascherini, all of whom were pro- 
fessors in this imiversity. 

Of the many colleges formerly an- 
nexed to the university, two only have 
remained, the Colhgio Borromeo, 
founded and supported by that family 
for the gratuitous education of about 
40 students, and resembling some of 
the Halls or Colleges of our English 
Universities, and the Collegio Ghislieri. 
In front of the latter is a bronze statue 
of its founder, Pope Pius V. 

From the university, four of the 
high and gloomy towers by "so many 
of which Pavia was once adorned, 
defended, or tyrannised over, are well 
seen. These have been lowered, and 
one of them is surmounted by bells, 
and converted into a kind of town 
belfry. They are still from 200 to 250 
ft. high, uniform in aspect, square, 
with small apertures all the way up, 
and adding much to the character of 
the city by their singular appearance. 
If the accounts of historians are to be 
credited, Pavia, the "Civitas Turri- 
gera," at one time possessed 625 of 
these towers. 

The facade of the Casa Botticelli, in 
the Corsia di Porta Marengo, is a fine 
specimen of cinquecento ornamental 
architecture. 

Pavia is not healthy; the water 
from the Ticino is bad, and, whatever 
may be the cause, individuals who are 
stunted in their growth, or deformed, 
are so numerous as to force themselves 
upon the observation. 

Amongst the notahiUa of Pavia must 
"be noticed >i\ie wiCiVsvA ^ic>%\?02DCka <i1 VJasv 



\ 



liMiBiHW! Kmle 34. — Jfifen to Ladi and Piac 



ladies, vhich is ratlier decliuiiig ut 
Milan. It is a ifarisilkcu tl'iI, tlu'own 
over tho iincoTerod head in tbs same 
inauner aa tlie white mil is uainl at 

On quitting Pavia we ctobb the 
Ticino by the ooTerod bridge, and 
enter tiie suburb called Borgo Ti- 
cino. Shortly after another branch of 
tho Tioino is psesed beibra reaolung 
San Martino, &baut 2 m. from Faria. 
4 m. inrther on, the Po is crossed by a 
bridge of boats. A toll of 2^ tr. is paid 
for each cairi^kge at the Ticino bridge 
□n quitting FaviR, and 3 ir. 4A c. 
crosaiug the Po at MezDana Corti. 

20 kil. CBst«ggio. (Rte, 7.) 

26 kil. Tortonn. (Rte. 7.) 

19 kil. NOYJ. (Rte. 5.) 

The route from Pafia to Alessandria 
may also ho performed by way of Mor- 
tars, to which the Bly. oitonds. T)io 
distance to Mortsra is ahont 16 ra. 
After leaving Son Martuio the road 
rana parallel to the Tieiuo, but at some 
diataniw, passing through Gtarlasco lialf- 
wny i there are public eonyeyanees from 
pBTJa to meet the Hly. -trains to and 
&om C^enos, Turin, and Fiauenia, at 
Casteggio. 



T MBLEONAKO 

(54 m.) 

6i posts. Mikn to Lodi, 24 m. 

Lodi to Pincenza, 30 ui. CoachsB 

leave Milan for Piaconia at 7 a.m. and 

6 P.M., perfomiing the journey in 8^ 

Leaving Milan by tlie Porta Jtomana, 
tbe road is for most part of tho way of 
the same character as that to Pavia j 
in some partB exceedingly marshy, in- 
tersected with numerous oanala and 
streams. It is porhapa the least agree- 
able side of Milan. If the traveller ia 
coming from tbe S. he will miss the 
festoons of tho Tines, nhioh, even before 
he reaches Lodi, will have almost en- 
tirely disappeared. The maize, though 



OEKOi 



(Rte. 13.) 



e onJtiTBtors 
labour in black mud alKive the ankla, 
convey the idea of uiihealthinesa ; but 
tbe meadows are beautiful, CiiSteau- 

..." The cultivation of rioe in. 

Lombordy is remarliably unhealthy; 
sickly labourers are seen walking along 
the hunks to superintend the distribu- 
tion of tho water. They are clad like 
i, in coarse clothing, and wander 
, pale as spectres, among the 
reeds and nusi the sluicis, which they 
have hareJy strength to open and shut. 
When crossing & canal tiiey aro fre- 
quently obliged, to plunge into the - 
fster, out ofwhich they come wet and 
overcd with mud, oarrjing with them 
erms of fever, which invariably attacks 
them. They aro not tho oidy viotims, 
'or the harvest labourers seldom gather 
n the crcyp wittuyat \jwii^ ^leiifiA mv^i 
Wjoi-s, the air in (ffl.\,\« «Kiraowi\*s^^ 



220 



Route 24. — ChiaravuUe, 



Sect. III. 



cultivation of the rice-planters is con- 
sequently restrained by law, and they 
are prohibited to extend its culture 
beyond prescribed limits." 

At 3 m. from Porta Komana, on the 
Vetabbia, a short way on the rt. of the 
Toad, is the very ancient church of 
JSan Giorgio di Nosedo, annexed to 
irhat was a residence of the Arch- 
bishop. The mansion is now an inn. 
The church was founded in 571, by 
Alboin King of the Lombards : it is 
still standing, and has the remains of 
a curious fresco. 

About 1 m. lower down the river, 
and 1 J m. to the rt. of the road, stands 
the Abbey of Chiaravdlle, a Cistercian 
.monastery, suppressed in 1797. A cross 
road, which leaves the post-route about 
1 m. from the Porta Komana, passing 
Tjy Nosedo, leads to it. " This was the 
church of the first Cistercian monastery 
that was established in Italy. The Cis- 
tercian reform was first introduced by 
"St. Bernard, who was Abbot of Clair- 
vaux in France. In 1134 St. Bernard 
crossed the Alps to attend a council 
at Pisa, and, on his way back, paid a 
visit to Milan. The citizens of Milan 
advanced 7 miles beyond their gates 
to receive him. His presence excited the 
most enthusiastic feelings ; and within a 
year after his departure a monastery was 
built at the distance of about 4 miles 
from the city, .which was to be governed 
by St. Bernard's rules, and to receive a 
name from the parent institution. The 
monastery was inhabited in 1136, but 
it was not till nearly the close of the 
twelfth century that the church was 
completed. It is in the Lombard style, 
and deserves consideration, as an archi- 
tectural composition, for the import- 
ance of its central tower. The body 
of the fabric is left perfectly plain, and, 
in effect, serves only as a base for the 
leading feature of the design. The 
tower alone is enriched. Octagonal in 
its form up to a certain height, it 
becomes a spire above. Both the 
octagonal and spiral portions are en- 
riched with Lombard galleries, which 
£ire an appearance of lightness, and 
attract the eye to that part of tlie 



building on which it is intended to 
rest. It is evident that the architect 
must have made the central tower his 
chief object ; and whenever an architect 
has had a pecuUar object, and has suc- 
ceeded in producing the effect which 
he desired, his work deserves to be 
studied." — G. Knight . 

This monastery was the favourite 
retirement of Ottone Visconti, who died 
here. What is called his tomb is still 
shown; beneath the inscription are 
sliields of arms, amongst which are the 
fleurs-de-lys of France. 

In the cemetery which adjoins the 
church are still several monuments of 
the powerful family of the Torriani, 
who selected it for their last resting- 
place. Hero lies the great JPagano 
delta Torre (who died 1241), the most 
distinguished of his race; and near 
him several of his descendants. This 
family was at the head of the popular 
party, and for two or three genera- 
tions govenaed Milan, keeping the 
nobles in subjection. Having con- 
spired against the Emperor in the year 
1311, they were defeated, proscribed, 
and banished ; and by their fall made 
way for their rivals the Yiscontis, who 
were at the head of the aristocracy. 

Here also is shown the tomb of the 
celebrated but ill-famed Wilhelmina. 
Her name passed into a once popular 
saying — egli ha da fare peggio che la 
Ghiglielmina. — She died in 1282, and 
during her lifetime she was regarded as 
a saint ; but after her death it was dis- 
covered that she had been the foundress 
of a secret sect, whose tenets involved 
the most fearful blasphemies in doc- 
trine, as well as the most abominable 
sins in practice. Her bones were taken 
up and burned, and her accomplices 
put to death. The cruelties inflicted 
upon them were most atrocious. 

The coimtry round this monastei-y 
was reclaimed by the labours of the 
Cistercians, who were in agriculture 
almost what the Benedictines were in 
literature. They invented the system 
of artificial meadows, called ^^prati di 
, ilfttrci/a " to which Lombardy owes so 



LOMBAEBT. 



'•e 24. — Mele^no — Lodi, ' 



BetUPQing to tlie post-road we p 
thraugh 

San Donalo. 

San Gvdiano. 

\\ ihUgtutno or Marigaa>io,Oa 
river Lambro: Pop. 4000. Here, on 
14t!i Sept. 1515, Frauds I. won, in 
liret year of his reign, the rietory 
wliich he aguireil a transient and di 
sivegloiy. Hoyinginvaded the Milan 
for tbepnrpose of asserting hia cliimi 
oal rights, he was nttAcked at Mel^iii 
by thft Swiss, to whom tliE defence of 
the MilajiesE territory lind been in- 
tnlstffll. Thebattlowaseuntinuodwitii 
great obstinacy during three entire days, 
and the 3wias were at length compelled 
to retreat, in good order, but learing 
15,000 dead upon the field, a Blau^h(«r 
which, if we may judge by the fceliiiga 
eipreased by Ariorto, ocoasionod great 
deliglit to the Italian heart : — 



" Vedete 



.oipe »■ S.ii 



Melegnano was alao the scene of a 
hard-fought battle on tlie 7th June, 
1B59, between tlie French and Aus- 
triaus, in which beth sides suflered 
severely : the Froneh commanded by 
Marshal Baraguaj d'Hilliers, the Aus- 
triana by Btniedel, forming the rear- 
guard of the army retreating after the 
disaster of M^enta. 

Cross the Mnzza, one of tlie many 
cwials of irrigatioii with which thu 
district abounde. Tlis approacli 
Lodi from Milan i^ somewhat ain; 
lar, &om the height of canseway 
whioh the road ja carried. A fine 
avenue of plane-trees borders it on 
either side. 

li LoDi. {Inns: II Sole, good, pivil 

Eple ; L'Eoropa ; I tre Ee, ycry 
_ .) The origimd settlement of the 
citizens, Lodi Vecchio, is about S m. 
off, to the westward. It was founded 
by the Boii, and, having been colonised 
by Cneiua Pompeiijs Strabo, the father 



221 ^ 



of Pompey the Great, tlie ei 
it Lam Fompeia. Cicero cans a, sim- 
ply Laat. The conversion of Last 
mto Lodi shows how, by the employ- 
ment of the oblique casen, the Latin 
language was corrupted into the modern 
dialect. 

The men of Lodi ware the great and 
constant rivals of the Milanese, who, in 
1111, entirely destroyed the city. "The 
animosity between Milan and Lodi woa 
of very old standing. It originated, 
according to Amnlf, in the resistance 
made by tlie inhabitants of the tatter 
city to an attempt made by Archbishop 
Erihert to force a bishop of his own 
nomination upon them. Tlie bloodshed^ 
plunder, and eonflagratioos whieh had 
ensued would, lie says, fill a Tolume iC 
they were related at length. "^ — Hatlam.. 
After the destruction of Milan, the 
Xjodigiani, who had fled to Pizzighet- 
tone, came (1158) before Barbarossa,. 
BS suppliants, weeping and bearine 
crosses, and requesting a home j and 
accordingly he gave them a village then 
called Monleguizone, granting them 
investiture by the delivery of a banner. 
The spot is said to have been fixed 
upon by !EVederiek himself ^ it was 
defended by the river Adda, and lies in 
a tractof eiuberantfertility: thusarosa 
the modem city, containing, now up- 
wards of 18,000 Inhab. 

The inhabitants of Lodi removed 
&om their ancient city the relics o£ 
their patron saint, Bassianus, whiohi 
they deposited in the Duomo, a flnn 
I/ombarel building. The porch is sup- 
ported by One griUIns ; perhaps not 
only the dBslgn, but even a part of thft 
materials, may have been brought &om 
old Lodi. This is certainly the case 
with respect to a bas-relief represent- 
ing tlie Last Supper, a rcmarltablo mo- 
nument of early Christian art, anterior 
to the settlement of the Lombards. 
The cycB are of enamel. Some fine 
paintings in tfmpera ore on the walla 
□ear the high altar. They are by 
Ovgtielmo and Alberto di Lodi, and 
were covered u^ till ^ittei ft>B\a^ Wl. 
years. J 



222 



'Boiite 24. — Lodi to Fiacenza, 



Sect. ni. 



The ch. of the Incoronata, by Bra- 
mante, begun in 1476, is a very beauti- 
ful specimen of the Kenaissance. It is 
an octagon, and contains some good 
paintings of Calisto da I/odi, an imi- 
tator of Titian. The subjects are taken 
from the events of the Passion of our 
Lord, the Life of St. John the Baptist, 
and the Life of the Virgin : the heads 
have great beauty. It is said that some 
of the pictures were executed by Titian, 
who, passing through Lodi, gave this 
help to his pupil. 

The great Piazza, surrounded by 
arches, is fine of its kind. The entrance 
of the convent formerly belonging to 
the Padri delV Oratorio is formed by 
an arch said to have been brought 
from old Lodi. On it is inscribed Igno- 
rantuB et Paujpertati : neither the form 
of the letters nor the nature of the 
inscription sanctions its supposed anti- 
quity. The terrible passage of the 
bridge of Lodi, and the heroic conduct 
of the young Buonaparte at the hpad of 
his grenadiers, May 10th, 1796, need no 
commemoration. The bridge is on the 
eastern side of the city, over the Adda. 

The Lodi district is the chief country 
for the production of the cheese usually 
called Parmesan. In the country it 
is called Orana. The territory in 
which the cheese is produced is 20 m. 
wide from Pavia to Milan and Lodi, 
and double that in length from Abbi- 
ategrasso, near the Ticino, to Codogno, 
near the confluence of the Adda and 
Po. The cows set apart for this pro- 
duction are about 80,000. It is seldom 
foimd profitable to rear them in the 
country; they come from the Swiss 
cantons of TJnterwald, tJri, Zug, Lu- 
zem, and Schweitz. They are brought 
at the age of from 3 to 4 years, between 
October and March, and give milk 
abundantly for about 7 years. More 
than 12,000 are imported every yearj 
the price of each is from 14/. to 18/., 
sometimes as high as 20/. After 7 
yrs. they are sold, when worn out. 
Q?he cheese produced from a cow is, 
on an average, 340 lbs. avoirdupois 
in the course of a year, which is 



weighed after 6 months. It is sold 
twice a year; that called la Sorte 
Maggenga (May lot) is that which 
is made between St. Gteorge's day 
and St. MichaeFs, 24th April to 29th 
Sept. ; the other is called la Sorte 
Invemenga (the winter lot), which is 
made between the 29th Sept. and the 
24th April. The average price is from 
92 to 100 fr. (t. e. from 3/. 13*. Sd. to 
4/.) for 171 lbs. avoirdupois. The 
total production of the year will be 
27,568,500 lbs. avoirdupois. After two 
or three years* seasoning in the ware- 
houses of the merchants, which are prin- 
cipally at Codogno, province of Lodi, 
and Corsico, province of Milan, the 
weight of the cheese is diminished 5 
per cent. About the half comprehends 
two inferior sorts. The first of these 
is cheese of a bad quality; the other 
inferior sort, although of a good qua- 
Uty, from some defect in the shape 
cannot be exported, and is consumed 
in the country. The whole of the 
better kind is sent out of the country. 
The quantity exported to Great Bri- 
tain is comparatively small. 

Three kinds of pasture are used for 
the cows ; viz. the marcito (or con- 
stantly flooded meadow-land) ; irri- 
gatorio stabile (the merely irrigated 
grounds) ; erhatico (rotative meadow- 
grounds). The ma/rcito consists in 
dividing the land into many small 
parallelograms, sensibly inclined to one 
side. The water which fills the little 
canals amongst them overflows these 
spots slowly; it spreads like a veil 
over these spaces, and by the incli- 
nation of the ground falls again into 
the opposite canal. From this it is 
diflused over other parts, so that the 
whole meadow country is continually 
flooded J from which there is main- 
tained a rapid and continual vegeta- 
tion in the heats of summer and the 
frosts of winter ; at the same time no 
marshy weeds prevail. The grass is 
cut five times a year; and in some 
parts below Milan, in the meadows 
(along the Vettabbia), even nine 
times. When cut on the 31st May it 



LoHKUtnr. Jiotttt 2S^—MSan to Cremona and Mantua. 



high; 



iclies hiat 
; it b 1( 



it ovBry subsequent 
cutting it 13 less — the eccond 10, 
the third 8, the fonrlh 6, &c. It is 
quite tafiteliss and iiieipid, and boreea 
refiiae to eat it, which proves tl 
Dion of manj Btrangere to be e 
oiiB, who ottrihute the fine taste of the 
fheeEO to the fluvour of the psatu! 
The mareUi meadows coqnint a co 
atant supply of water i when there 
not enough, the simple irrigating si 
tern it adopted ; the e;raunds are then 
watered at the intemu of several days. 
The erlaiico, or rotation meadow, alter- 
natea with the Gulttratioa of rice, grain, 
Sax, Indian eom, and oats. 

1^ Ciual Fiaierleago, n good - sized 
town, where the rood dividea ; one 
branch Leads to Cremona and Mantua 
(see Etc. 25) ; the other, which we 
follow, continnes to Ibmbio, S. Bocco 
and la Ca Soaa. Shortly af1;crwards 
the Po is crossed by two bridges of 
boats, connected by an island in the 
centre of the stream, a short drive 
Irom wliich brings us to the gate 
(Portn di Fodesto) of 

2 PUCENZA. (see Bte. '»). 



Milan to Cremona, G3J m. Milan to 
MautUB, 111 m. 

li Melegnano. 1 Sue pro- 

li Lodi ! ceding 

1 j Casal Poeterlengo. | Koute. 

Codogno, principally remarkable as a 
great cheese-mart. 

Maleo. 

Oera. 

The country called the Gem or 
Ghiai-a d'Adda is hereabouts tradi- 
tionally supposed to have been ouoe 
covered by a lake, called the I^ago 6e- 
rondo, and dried up, partly by drain- 
ago, and partly by evaporation. There 
is much in the aspect of the country to 
conflrm thia opinion. 

1. Piziighettone (Pop. 4000), onco a, 
fortress of importance. It was ori- 
ginally buiJt by the men of Oremomi 
in 1125 as B point of defence against 
the Milanese. Hero Francis I. was de- 
tained afU.r Ihe battle of Pavia. The 
fortlGcalions still look strong, though 
fhcj liave been partially dismantled. 
The place oilers no object of interest, 
eicept some (n-scoes bj Camrpi in the 
upal church The Adda, which 
through the town is hero a fine 
rapid stream 

Aqaa Itegra, where tlie Cremoncse 
sustained a signal defeat in 1166. 

3 Ckkmona, (ZniM ; none good. 
Tlie Sob d'Oro is tho best. There are 
diligences between Cremona and Pavia 3 
days a week, in about 9 hra. ; daily to 
Parma, in 7 hrs. ; and 2 from the Inn 
of the Copello to Brescia every day in 
6 hrs, (Soeltouteil.) 

Cremona ran tlie same course, and 
underwent the Bamevicissitudea, which 
befel most of the prinoipal cities of 
Italy during the middle ages. Cap- ' 
tured and destroyed by the northsto. 
■ arbamnimlNvayAiifcii'ui.o.V 



224 



Boute 25. — Cremona — Cathedral. 



- Sect. III. 



in a state of abandonment till the 7th, 
when, at the command of the Lombard 
king, Agilulfus, it was rebuilt. During 
the nominal rule of the Q-erman em- 
perors, and the anarchy which ensued, 
Cremona obtained municipal rights. 
No sooner were the Cremonese inde- 
pendent than, like the other enfran- 
chised towns of Italy, they quarrelled 
with their neighbours. Cremona was 
always at war either with Crema, 
Brescia, or Piacenza — but especially 
with Milan. When Frederick Barba- 
rossa vented his wrath on Milan, the 
Cremonese aided him in the subversion 
of their ancient rival, and in return ob- 
tained a new charter. But internal dis- 
orders were now added to foreign wars. 
The nobles quarrelled; Guelph and 
G-hibelline factions fought in the streets. 
In the latter half of the 13th centy., 
Cremona, in common with many other 
cities of Italy, had recourse to the 
singular expedient of calling in a 
Dictator, under the name of Podest^, 
who was never to be a native, that he 
might be entirely unconnected with 
any of the various parties whom he 
had to control. The Podesti was so 
•far of use that he preserved internal 
pea^e. But, after a time, an end was 
put to this anomalous, though bene- 
ficial domination, and a republican 
form of government was established. 
So much disorder, however, was the 
consequence, that the people, wearied 
with the strife of their rulers, again 
called out for a chief. The republican 
party were compelled to withdraw, but 
in strength enough to return to the 
•charge. Civil war thinned the popu- 
lation, and exhausted .the resources, of 
this imfortunate district. The Em- 
peror Henry VII., who came into Italy 
to vindicate the imperial authority, 
completed the ruin of Cremona when 
he attacked it in 1312 ; and in 1322 
Galeazzo Yisconti had little difficulty 
in avenging the former injuries of 
Milan by taking possession of Cremona, 
and incorporating it with the duchy of 
that citv. It is now a thriving place, 
containing about 37,000 Inhab. It 



has a good trade, and a fair is held 
here about the end of September, a 
time when the noncommercial traveller 
will do well to keep away. Cremona 
was once celebrated for the manufacture 
of musical instruments. The business 
was hereditary in families : and the 
remote ancestors of ArnaU, the most 
renowned of these modem makers who 
flourished 1704-1739, had supplied 
Charles IX. of France with excellent 
lutes and viohns. The instruments 
of the last Amati are yet in great re* 
pute, and fetch high prices. He was 
succeeded in reputation by Stradivarius 
and Guarnieri j at present the instru- 
ments made here have no peculiar 
excellence. 

The public works of Cremona were 
undertaken in the short intervals of 
tranquilhty which that city enjoyed. 
In 1107, after a sharp struggle with 
Brescia, the Cremonese began their 
Cathedral^ which, however, was no* 
consecrated till 1190, by which time 
the nave and the aisles were completed. 
Little more was done till after Cremona 
had become united to the duchy of 
Milan. In 1342 the transepts were com- 
menced, but the choir was not finished 
till 1479. The fagade was begun in 
1274, continued in 1491, ornamented 
in 1525, and terminated in 1606. The- 
various times at which the fabric was 
constructed sufficiently account for the 
different styles of its architecture. In 
the front, which is of marble, the 
Lombard predominates, and the pillars- 
of the porch rest upon the usual 
grijQTonised lions, of which one grasps- 
the serpent, the other an animal which 
holds a bird between its paws. The 
zodiac is over the door, and Count 
Von Hammer Purgstall has made 
good use of it in one of his treatises* 
upon the Mithraic mysteries. The 
noble rose-window, surrounded by a 
rich and delicately carved vine-leaf 
moulding, was built by Oiacinto Po- 
rata of Como in 1274. Other parta 
of the exterior are of moulded brick^ 
and worked with much beauty. The 
front of the N. transept, which is 



LoMBARDV. -ffoiift 35. — Ci-emoaa^Great Tow^ 



225 



ejifered bj apori^li supported bj lionr, 
is a £no apecimea of the pointed 
dtyle. It iaa three good rose win- 
dons. Tlie interior la one inaes of 
CDloiu'ing and gilding. Lanzi con- 
siders thia interior aa rivalling the 
Siitine Olumel, not, of oourse, as to 
the merit of the paiutiiigs, but in its 
pictorial insgniticeni'e. Tlie frescoes in 
the hdtb dccot in the following order, 
eiteudiog to the end of the choir ; — 
On the J. 8 pointings representing 
events in the history of the Tirrin bj 
B. Bocaerino; neit 2 of the Adora- 
tion of the Magi hj Bembo, signed and 
dated 1451; beyond the organ the 
Might into £g;ypt, nnd the Massacre of 
the Innocents, by AUobello di Melone, 
dated 1517 1 followed by Christ dis- 
puting with the Doctora, bj BoEOCciao, 
probably the boat of the series. On the 
opposite side of the eh., and next the 
door, is the Last Supper, with four 
sccHBa of the Passion of our Lord, by 
Aliobelh; the two neit, Christ bound, 
nnd before Pilate, by C. Morelti, U- 
lowed by tlie Saviour shown to the 
People, by BomaniHO : the lust three, 
and the great subject oftlie Crucifiiion, 
at the end, are by Fordenone. The 
frescoes on rather side of the prineipal 
entrance, rcpreaenting a Dead Christ 
and the Maries, are by the same 
painter; the Kcsurrection, hy OetHs 
tho vault of the choir is pamted by 
Soi)3CciiU>. In tho Ist chapel OD thert. 
is a Madonna aoil Cliild, by Purdenoiie, 
surrounded by Snints, nnd tho portrait 
of the Donatorio, one of the S.-liiiii la- 



he added the last touch 
painting with his left hand. It was 
unflnished at the time of his death, 
and it was corajileted by Sommac- 
ehiao ofBolf^ft. Four largo frescoes 
have been lately added by JJiotCi, a 
living artist. " The souUiem transept 
lias frescoes of subjects &om the Old 
^—J^artamenC, attributed to Oioiyio Cos- 
^BUJi^ Bad said to hare been executed 



about the year 13S3; they ai\? more 
curioos tlian fine in art, but interesting, i 
&out the iact of their liaving lasted so , 
well, especially considering the damp- 
ness of tho situation. The mlaniaiura, 
or inlaid work of the stalls of the choir 
(1489-ftO), by Oiovaii' Mana Pfalitui^ 
is very elaborate. There are some gooil 
specimens of mcdifevat sculpture inth* 
chapel of San Sieolo, of San PietrOf ' 
and San Maroellino. In the transept i* 
a singular ancient vessel, apparently of 
the ath or 10th oenty., ornamented at 
the 4 comers with winged and tailed 
monsters, in which, according to th» 
sacristan, St. Albert was accustomed tw 
knead bread for tho poor. St, Albert 
was born at Castel Quoltieri in thi* 
neighbourhood ; and, after filling the- 
episcopal chair of Tercellj, was, in. 
1201i, appointed patriarch of Jerusa^ 
len). He was the founder of the Car> { 
melite Order, and distinguished fbr hu< r 
niilily and kindness to tho poor. Tha- 
Saenilii slill contains n few curiouo- 
articles, ancient croeaeB, and the like s 
amongst others a largo silver crucifix 
byPoiii and Sacchi of Milan, made in 
1475. Deneath the Duomo is a (ine„ 
though not very ancient trypt, with, 
the tombs of (ho patron saints of ths- 

ThaBaliUlei-io, built, some say about, 
the year 800, others a cenlj. fator, is- 
in a plain and. simple Lombard style. 
It has, what is very rare intliis class at 
ediflees, a fine projecting porch, s\xvr- 
portcd by lions. Tlio windows, by 
which it is scantily lighted, might 
for a Nonnan castle. The wSla 
n are cnvered with ranges o£' 
Lombard arches, and fragments ot 
frescoes are seen in the gloom. In tho 
litre is a noble font hen-n out of a 
Lgle block of marble. By the side of 
the Duomo, connected by a lino of 2oj- 
„ , iscs the great tower, which haa 
obtained for Cremona its architectural 
celebrity. It was begun in 1388 1 in ( 
that year peace was made between Cre- 
mona, MQan, Piaeenza, and Brescia i I 
and iu cEleAJtalum pS "Cuw, ctci*, "Csi* ■ 
c was MlAe^\B^l.ctl 0.^ ft«. w 



226 



Route 25. — Cremona — Churches. 



Sect. m. 



expense of the Q-uelphs, or partisans 

of the Pope, not only of Cremona, but 

of all northern Italy. It is said to 

have been carried up to the square in 

the space of two years. The TorazzOy 

as it is called, is the highest of aU the 

towers in the N. of Italy, 396 ft. 

498 steps lead to its summit, from 

whence the eye surveys the extensive 

plains of the Milanese, intersected by 

the Po, and distinguishes the Alps to 

the N. and the Apennines to the S.W, 

In 1518 the bells were cast which 

hang in this tower, at which time it 

may be concluded the octagonal cupola 

was added. In the third story is an 

enormous clock, put up in 1594. The 

custode of the Torazzo lives in it. The 

staircase is not in the best repair; but 

it can be ascended without, difficulty. 

The ancient doggrel rhyme — 

" TJnus Petrus est in Romat 
Una turris in Cremona," — 

is an illustration of the popular cele- 
brity of this campanile. It had a 
chance of becoming even still more 
celebrated. In 1414 the Emperor Si- 
gismund and the Pope visited Cre- 
mona, then subject to the usurped 
authority of Gkbrino Fondulo. The 
Signore was cruel and treacherous, but 
wise and talented. The sovereign and 
pontiff consulted with him ; and, by 
his advice, Constance was fixed upon 
as the place where the* great council 
was to be held for the purpose of re- 
storing the peace of Christendom ; and 
Sigismund, besides other marks of 
favour, gave to Grabrino, in Cremona, 
the authority of a vicar of the empire. 
Grabrino invited his illustrious guests 
to mount the Torazzo and enjoy the 
prospect, and he alone accompanied 
them. They all came down in safety ; 
but when G-abrino was brought to the 
scaffold at Milan in 1425, he said that 
only one thing in the course of his 
life did he regret — that he had not 
had quite courage enough to push Pope 
and Emperor over the battlements, in 
order that he might have profited by 
the confusion which such a catastrophe 
would bare occasioned in Italy. 



Near the cathedral is what is called 
the Campo Santo, though now used 
as the repository of the archives, and 
where the functionaries of the cathe- 
dral assemble. It contains a vault, 
to which you descend by about 14 
steps; in it is an exceedingly curious 
but puzzling mosaic pavement, with 
allegorical figures representing a Cen- 
taur fighting against a figure repre- 
senting Cruelty, Faith and a figure 
kneeling before her, and Pity conquered 
by Impiety. It seems to be an early 
Christian work. The place was evi- 
dently an ancient Christian cem^eterv, 
as appears not only from its name, 
but from the bones and the inscriptions 
found there. 

Cremona had many convents, almost 
all of whTch are demolished. The 
churches are generally of dark red brick : 
those which have escaped demoHtion 
or modernisation are usually Gothic. 

Santa Agata is one of these; and 
the architectural traveller will here find 
what we should call the earliest Nor- 
man capitals, from which spring the 
latest Gothic arches. This church con- 
tains several excellent specimens of 
Qiulio Cafnpi; one, the Martyrdom of 
Sta. Agata, dated 1537, has obtained 
high commendations fr^m Yasari, usu- 
ally so sparing in his commendations 
of Lombard artists. 

Santa MargJierita, annexed to the 
episcopal seminary. At an earher period 
it wjis a priory, and has much in- 
terest, as having been bmlt under the 
directions of the celebrated Jerome 
Vida. Vida employed Qiulio Campi 
to decorate the church with his paint- 
ings, of which there are many'; tlie 
best is the Circumcision. 

San Nazaro. The cupola painted 
partly by Oiulio Campi, and partly by 
Malosso from his designs. Over the 
high altar is a good picture by Alto' 
hello. 

Sanf AgostinOy and San Chiacomo 
in. Breda, a fine Gothic cliurch with 
some remarkable paintings. — PeruginOf 
the Yirgin and Saints, a picture of 
great merit, carnal oS Vj >i}aa "Stc'Clc.Vv^ 






LOMBAHDY. 



M 25, — Cremona — San Sigismondo. 



227 



andmtoredinlSie.— e. S. Znpelli, 
the Tirgiii anil Child in a beautiful 
londHCape. — JUaSoaao, a, Dapositioafrifni 
the Croes; the TemptstioD of St, ,Au- 
thony. — JUimeruHi, St. Aiigiietiuy, and 
peraoniflcatious of the Orders suppoaed 
to have arisen out of the rules " '* 
tuted by the Saint. 

Sua Giorgio, t, snmptuoun building 
with nunioroUB paintingB. — Campi 
aad, Snnenegildo di Lodi, the ChriBtiati 
Tirtuea in the ranltiag of the nare. 
A. Carnpi, a HoW Family, the Infa 
playing with a Bird. — The piece oi 
the high altar. The Virgin and Child 
surrounded bj Saints, by BtmAo, dated 
1527. It waBOrigiuallypamteilfor the 
Scrritee in tha anppresBed chureh of Son 
Vittora. Tlie price En" which Campi at' 
pulated was 250 Milaneae lire, and 
nsaai per diem during seven months.- 
JlerHardiao GaUi, or Sajaro, a Ni 
lirity; the main idea taken from the 
celebrated 2fotle of Correggio, 
ing nearly the whole general c 
tion, but illiuninated by the ligfit uf 

The Palazio Publico, a relic of an- 
cient Cremona, was begun in 12()€, and 
is supported by lofty urcheB. Two 
towers are annoied to the building. 
The ancient gates of brasa are said to 
hove beon put up in 1245, in tho 
expectation of ft visit from tho Pope 
and the Emparor, The eiterior lias 
re<«ntly loat raudi of its character, 
owing to repairs. The interior, now 
used for the Toum Mall, contauiB 
sareral paintings. — Oraiio CosWe, the 
Descent of the Manna, dated 1597. — 
A. Campi, the Visitation, — Malouo, 
the Frotecton of the City, Saints Hi- 
merius aud Homobonuf. In the anje- 
charaber is a chimney-piece of alabaster, 
brought from the Haimoniii Palace, 
sculptured in Arabesque style by Fe- 
dora, in which the artist has introduced 
a portrait of Marshal Trivuliiio : it is 
much proiaed by Cicognara. 

Near this Palazzo is another and 

better eiample of the Italian-Gothic 

^^^pUed to civil purposes, in which the 

HKUq^ of Juriseonsuite used lo hold 



their aittings. It is now a bojs' schooL 
It 13 built of finely moulJed brick. 

There are many private residences in 
Creuiona ; some of the older ones ore 
fair spetimona of the oinquo-cento style. 
Such is the Paliaxa Saa Secuudo : the 
sculptures on the eiterior are by Ber- 
nardo Sacchi, The Falaito Saimondi 
is hj Fedoui; the pilasters are of a most 
fiuieiful atylo, and adorned with ara- 
besques. 

There are some tolerably good ctJ- 
lections of pictures at Cremona. ( 

Marchess Pallavioini, a Presentation 
by BemardiHO Campi j an excellent 
library and some curious manuscripts. 

Caimt jSf^Auzi, manyspecimenBof the 
Cremonese eohool. B. Campi, a H^ 
tivitj, considered as oiio of his best 

Count Ala Foraoni, a och collection 
of drawings (some by MicAet Aagelo)^ 
paintings, and coins. 

The district round Cremona produces 
Hax of a superior quality. Humeroua 
ins of ondont castles are scattered 



Just out of Cremona, on the Man- 
an side, but not exactly on the road, 
the noble church of San SigismOTido, 
was in this church that IVancesoo 
SforiB married Beatrice, the only child 
of Fdippo Maria Viaconti (Oct. 36, 
1441) i and thua, after the death of his 
fethor-in-law, became the founder of tho 
new dynasty. Cremona vras the dowry 
of the bride ; and IVanceseo, as a token 
of affection both to her and to the dty, 
rebuilt the church as it now stands. It 
its of a single nave with twelve 
chapels, and is full of the works of 
're artists. — A. Campi, the" DeooUa- 
ofBt. John the Baptist. Tlie vault- 
ing of the chapel in which this picture 
is placed, as well as the bas-reliefs, are 
all by Ownpi, and he claims them by an 
inscription dated 1577. — Bemariino 
Campi, St, PhiKp and St. James. The 
vaulting ia ^^ \\\Ta-. ftiB iJdk^ -st* 
ftmsliedbi' Maloaso,— QT,uVuiCa,™sn,^^», 



228 



Eoute 25. — Cretnona to Mantua, 



Sect. III. 



interesting picture for its portraits, over 
the high altar ; the Virgin and Child, 
and Francesco Sforza and Bianca Maria 
Visconti presented to them by St. Sigis- 
mundwith St. Chrysanthus by his side. 
The painter hiw introduced his own 
likeness and that of his mistress in the 
faces of the latter saint and of Santa 
Daria. Campi has subscribed his name 
and date, 1540. He was paid 200 scudi 
Woro for the work. The vaulting is en- 
tirely covered with paintings, principally 
by Bernardino Oatti : the smaller orna- 
ments, angels, foliage, and the like, by 
him, are graceftd and beautiful. — By 
Camillo Boccaccino are the paintings 
in the tribune and round the high altar. 
Of these Lanzi says, " the finest are 
the four Evangehsts ; three are seated ; 
St. John is standing, his figure thrown 
backwards, as if by a movement of sur- 
prise, and skilful in the drawing and 
perspective. It seems strange that so 
young a man as Camillo, and one who 
never frequented the school of Cor- 
reggio, should so well have caught his 
style : this work, which is a model in 
perspective and the optical delusion of 
eflfect, was finished in 1537. The two 
side pictures are also much-esteemed 
works of Camillo. One represents the 
resurrection of Lazarus ; the other, the 
Woman taken in Adultery : both are 
surrounded by an elegant frieze, in 
which the angels sporting with a cro- 
zier and other sacred emblems are ad- 
mirable for their life and grace. 

"The church of St. Sigismund is 
literally covered with the works of the 
brothers Campi ; hardly a square inch 
has been left vacant. These frescoes, 
bearing date many of them 1566-77, 
are all vigorous and brilHant, and are 
perhaps, on the whole, some of the 
best that could be adduced in favoiu* 
of the material. Among other colours, 
a green of an emerald kind, and a most 
vivid blue, I have never before seen 
equally well preserved : they are espe- 
cially brilliant here in an Ascension by 
Bernardino Gatto, ctdled il Sojaro, a 
pupil of Correggio. Probably this 
cbiireb was built of better materials 



and on a drier soil, as the walls with 
their decorations are in perfect {Hreser- 
vation down to the very pavemont." 
—S. A. Mart, B.A, 

1 Cigogtholo, Near this place is aa 
ancient castle, modernised, but still a 
fine object. 

„ Pass Villa Bicinardi, which has a 
gallery and library, and gardens pos* 
sessing local celebrity. 

San Lorenzo. 

li Piadena, a small town. In I^tin 
it is called Blatina, and as such it has 
given its name to Bartolomeo Sacchi^ 
the historian of the popes, this being 
his birthplace. [Here a road branches 
off on the rt. to Casal Maggiore.^ 

Pass Calvatone, said to be on the site 
of the cityof Vegra, destroyed by Attila. 

f Bozzolo, a good -sized town of 
5000 Inhab., anciently a small ind&> 
pendent repubhc. 

San Martino delV Argine ; a mile 
beyond which cross the Oglio at Mar* 
caria, where is an ancient castle. 

1^ Castellucchio, 2 m. ; after passing 
wliich, and about 7 m. from Mantua, 
we reach the Austrian frontier at 
Le Grazie. Here is the churcii of Sta^ 
Maria delle Grazie, consecrated in 
1406, and built by Francesco Gonzaga. 
Lord of Mantua, as the sanctuary oi 
a supposed miraculous painting of the 
Madonna, which had previously been 
venerated in a small church situated 
upon the bank of the adjoining marshy 
lake. The chief votaries of this sacred 
object were the boatmen of the lake; 
But in 1399 Gonzaga addressed liis 
vows to the image, praying that the 
Virgin would intercede for the de- 
Hverance of Mantua from the pesti- 
lence which then desolated Italy, and 
the result was the erection of this 
church, togetlier with the now sup- 
• pressed monastery, of which only a 
' small portion remains, tenanted by the 
two chaplains by whom divine ser- 
' vice is performed. The architecture i0 
I good Italian- Gothic ; the church con- 
tains a strange array of votive images 
arranged on each side of the nave above 
the arches, ut^ow colvxmrva richly gilt 



LOMBAEDY. 



Eotite 27. — Milan to PescMsra. 



229 



and caired. The; are as Is^ege as, and 
coloured to life, in crerj Itind of coa- 
tiuDB, representing the individuals 
whose gratitude i9 commemorated in 
the Terses beneatb. Here maj' lie aeBU 
the Emperor Charles T., Federigo Oon- 
zaga. Pope Piua II., the ConnGtabla 
de BourboD, and e. host of other cele- 
britiea. Othera represent the trials 
and perils from ivhioh the yotariea 
baro biien delirered, torture, anguish, 
death. AH testify their gratitude to 
the Virgin for the help tfiey have ob- 
tained tlirough her interGesainn. 

The choir ia painted by Lallanzio 
Gamiara, of Breaeia, and there are 
also aeroral ourioua paintings in the 
uuinprona side chapele. Tlicre are also 
^ome intereating momunente. One of 
the most reniBj'kable is that of Baltas- 
sare Casllghone (ob. 1529), the cele- 
brated author of the 'Cortigiano :' the 
epitaph was ■written by Cardinal Berobo, 
and the monument designed bj GHulio 
Somano. The mauBalanm is simple 
and nobis — a plain liarcopluigiis, svu-- 
mountod by a statue of our Lord. Bal- 
tassare'a mfe, Ippolita ToreOi, had pre- 
Tioualy been buried here ; a touching 
epitaph declares her beaut; and Tirtuee. 
Camillo, their son, lies in the same 
chapel. The supposed miraculous pic- 
ture of tlie Virgin is an Italian paint- 
ing, apparently not older than the 16th 
century. A long dark cloister, much 
dilapidated, leads to Uie oliuruh. It is 
still annually visited b; large numbers 
of pilgrim!, yet it looks deserted and 
tiecayed. 

Ciiriatone, on the Lago Superiore, 
formed by the widening of the Mincio. 
Here was fought, on the 29th May, 
1S48, a very sanguinary action between 
the AuEtrians and tlieTuscan auxilinrica 
of Carlo Albei'to, the latter oorupoaed 
ehielly of Tolunteers, who defended 
theniselyos heroically against a superior 
force before retreating. In this battle 
the students of the university of Pisa 
took a distinguished part. 

Ihe tract around Maalua la called 
StmuUo, from the ancient walls 
t to OB&ad the mtj ogninst the 



|&' 



tyrant Eocelino ila Bomano. The 
country ia very fertile, but not agree- 
able, from the marshea upon nhich it 
borders. The gnats and mosquitoes, the 
"zaniare" and the "papaiaiie," tee 
numerous and annoying in summer, 

Donatus informs ua that Tirgil wb« 
bom at Andes ; a local and veir anoient 
tradition has identiQed tliis pWe with 
Pieiole, about 2 m. from Mantua, at 
the S. citremity of the Lsgo Inferiore^ 
surrounded by woods and groves, ia 
which the willow predominates. One 
of the QonEBgaa built a palace hero, 
to which he gave the name of the Fir- 
ffiliana. 

1 Mantua (ace Htc, 30). 





ROUTE 27. 


.AN TO T 


EIE ATJaiBIAH FKOHMES AT 




A, BT TBKl-lOttO, BBBOAUO, 


BREBCIA, 


SOLPBEIKO, BTO.— BAIL. 










BO C™>:«gUo. 


Melw. 




88 OspfWlMlO. 


CoBHmn. 






Trevtgllo. 










116pQnUlS.MU«. 








SerHW. 










POEIlllDUga. 






Ul PeachUm. 


Pdlaiiolo; 







230 



Route 27. — Cassano — Tremglio — Chvari. Sect. III. 



the most convenient means of visiting 
Bergamo and Brescia, and the Alpine 
▼idleys, of considerable beauty and 
interest, that open into the plains of 
liOmbardy between the lakes of Como 
and Ghtrda. Trains start 4i times a day 
from Milan, employing 1 hr. 48 min. to 
Bergamo, 3'20to Brescia, and;4-20 to De- 
senzano, near which the territory of the 
new Italian kingdom ends; two of which 
continue onwards to Peschiera, Yerona, 
and Venice; the latter starting from 
Milan at 6' 10 and 11*15 a.m., and 
reaching Venice at 5*55 and 10'30 p.m. 
The station at Milan is outside of the 
Porta Tosa. 

The Ely. follows in a straight line 
to the Adda, passing by 

11 kil. lAmito Stat, 

7 kil. Melzo Stat, descending as it 
approaches the Adda, before reaching 

10 kil. Cassano Stat., a little way 
below the town, and crossing the river 
on a handsome bridge. Cassano is a 
large town full of silk-works. There are 
some ruins of an ancient castle. Cas- 
sano occupies an important military 
position on the Adda, at which were 
fought two sanguinary battles, between 
Vend6me and Prince Eugene, in 1705, 
and between Suwarrow and Moreau 
the 27th April, 1799. Crossing the 
plain for 3 m., we arrive at 

5 kil. Treviglio Stat., near the town 
of the same name of 6000 Inhab., a long, 
straggling place. The church is rather 
a remarkable building, and there are 
some good second-rate pictures in it. 
Diligences start for Caravaggio and 
Chiari, making the journey in 2 hrs. 

The more direct .road to Brescia, 
along which a rly. is projected, passes 
by Caravaggio and Chiari, but, except 
its passing through a very rich district, 
offers little interest, whilst the present 
line of rly. makes a considerable detour 
to include Bergamo, running through 
a more picturesque country. 

X^Caravaggio, 3 m. from Treviglio, a 

town of about 6000 Inhab. In the 

principal church, with a Lombard fa- 

fAdeand high beU-tower^are some good 

paintings hy Cammed: near the town is 



the sanctuary of the Madonna, built in 
1575 from the designs of Pellegrini. 
The name of this town is more gene- 
rally known from the two painters, 
both called " da Caravaggio," who were 
bom here in 1495 and 1569 — PoUdoro 
Caldara, the scholar of Baphael, and 
Michel Angelo Merigi, who has some- 
times been compared to the great 
Michael Angelo. 

Mozzonica, near the river Serio, a 
small village. 

1 J Antignate. 

5 m. on 1. is Bomano, a large town 
in the midst of a fertile district ; it is 
the country of Rubini, the celebrated 
tenor, who built himself a handsome 
villa there. 

Calcio, near the rt. bank of the Oglio, 
once a small and independent commu- 
nity, and still a flourishing place ; on 
the opposite. side of the river, on a 
rising groimd, is Urago d' Oglio. 

I Chiari, a town of 10,000 Inhab., 
whose ruined walls mark its ancient 
importance. Many Boman remains are 
foimd here. The principal church is a 
building of considerable size. Much 
trade is carried on, especially in silk. 
2J m. beyond Chiari is Coccaglio, on 
the rly. between Bergamo and Brescia.] 

On leaving Treviglio" the rly. nms 
parallel to the course of the Adda and 
Brembo, but at a distance of some 
miles, as far as Bergamo, through 
a country richly cultivated in mulberry 
plantations, especially on approaching 
the hilly region. 

10 kil. Verdello Stat., near the large 
village of that name on the 1. From 
here the hills behind Bergamo, and the 
Alps beyond, come finely into view, the 
line ascending gradually to 

II kil. Bergamo Stat. 
Beboamo. (Inns: the only ones are 

in the lower town ; the Albergo d'ltalia 
the best, obliging people, and a good 
restaurant ; the trout of the Lake of 
Iseo is particularly good; La Fenice.) 
There are pubUc conveyances to Lecco 
daily in 4 hrs. ; to Edolo and the Val 
Camonica on Monday, Wednesday, 
and "Fxi^iay, \>7 "RaSiwtti.^ «& fesc «» Gor- 



LoMBAHDY. Eoitts 27. — Ihrgamo — PuUic Buihiings. 



231 



logo, &iid tben, aBGDnding b; Iho Val 
OiivBllinii, tlie road passoa by Lovere 
rniABreno, and roMhes Edolo the Bame 
evening, returning on the iiit<!miodiatB 
dajH; OFthetauriBtniH^go&omEdolo 
to Bresois without returning to Ber- 
j^mo, on Tues., T1iiir9., and Sat. ; to 
Zogno and Fiaiea in the Tnl Brem- 
bsJia daily. 

Bergamo, which CDntAins upwards 
of 3S,(»0 Iiiiiab., I'onsistB of an upper, 
the CiTTi, and a lower town, the latt«r 
cflEed the Borgo of San Leonardo, 
half a miln distant &om eaoh other. 
TraveUere should not fail to yisit Iha 
former, in which the moat interesting 
objects are contuned, tlio lower town 
being tbo Beat of buaineaB. 

The CitUi or old town of Bergamo, 
the Pergamiu oT ancient writers, stands 
upon a steep and loily hill, one of the 
last spurs of the JUps towards the 
plain ; two roads lead to it from the 
lower town — that from tho Prato, good 
and lined with trees, easj of access to 
carnages, and that from the Piazza de' 
Meroanti, but steeper and more direct, 
both uniting at the huge Doric Porta 
di S. Gincomo. 

The position of Bergsino caused it 
to bo strongly fortified by the Vene- 
tinns, the greater part of tho wnils, 
although dismantled, still standing, aud 
now converted into beautiful boule- 
yards, commanding views of eitraordi- 
nary beauty and eiteut ; the walk near 
tlie Porta S. Oiocomo on the 9. side of 
the town is particularly interesting in 
this respect, 6it«nding to the Alps and 
Apennines, over the plains of Lom- 
bardy, in which the steeples of Milan, 
Monia, and Cremon^t are so conspicu- 
ous objects : there are two principal 
gates — of 8. Qiaooma on the E., obo™ 
which is the Boeca, now oonyerted 
into a barrack ; and the Porta di 9.* 
Alessandro on tlie W., orer which rises 
the bastion once connected with the 
Oaat^ljo, and which, commanding the 
town, was hiduded in it^ outworks. 

The houses of the CiUi are solid 
and lofly : narrow streets and narrower 
eicoli che ddee often joined together 



by arches. In ereiy part of the C'itt& 
arevcitigCB of tho middle ages — pointed 
archways, eortiles surrounded by ar- 
oades upon massive columns, seen in 
perspective through the gBtewa;^B. Tho 
atih is almost whoUy inhabited bjr 
the Bcrgamase nobility, who keep 
themselves apart from tlie traders of 
tho lower town. Amongst themselves 
theymaintain the use of the Bergamnso 
dialect, the most inharmonious peihapa 
of northern Italy. 

Hariequin, according to the tradi- 
tional cast of the ancient Italian drama, 
was aBerganuuc.and the pereomfieation 
of the manners, accent, and jargon of 
the inhabitants of the Val Brembana. 

Tlie prmcipal objocts of interest in 
the upper town are included in a very 
limited spooe surrounding the great 
square, riz. the Palaxxo IfMom at 
delta Bagiona, the Paiano Vfcehio, 
and the Fublic Library ; the oh. of 
Sta. Maria Maggiore and the ColUoni 
oiajMZopeningoutof it[ the Cathedral 
and the ch. of Santa Orala in one 
of the adjoining streets. A few boon 
will suffice Co see everything here, in- 
cluding an eicursion to the hill of the 
Gastello, which no one fond of line i 
scenery should omit to visit j all this 
may bo done between the arrival and 
departure of two siiceossive railway 
trains, by taking a carriage at the 

The Palazzo Nwno or della Sagiona 
was erected from the designs of Se8- 
mozzi, and has never been finished, the 
only parte completed being the Doric 
portico and the left wing, on the front 
of which is a figure of B. Colleoni; this 
palace is now occupied by the municipal 
authorities and offices, and forms one 
side of the Piazia Maggiore i opposite 
to it stands thePn!oiso Veceiia, or Bn- 
letto, roatmg upon 3 lofty Gothic arches, 
with a projecting Hnghiera; in front 
of it has been placed a statue of 
Tasso, wlioro Bergamo claims for Ono 
of its oitiiena, as, ^though bom else- 
where (Sorrento), his fether "sas » 
native ot tbe to-jm, b,i\4 cQavij^iK&. Vj 
prosfflripUon Vo \eii-ve St-, 'Coa *\»!«^ 



232 



Route 27 .^-^Bergamo — S, Maiia Maggiore, Sect. III. 



does not offer the most remote resem- 
blance to the great poet. The Public 
Library fills the apartment on the first 
floor 01 the P. Vecchio ; passing under 
one of its arches, we find ourselves 
in firont of the ch. of Santa Maria Mag* 
giore and the fine fa^de of the Colleoni 
chapel annexed to it. 

Ch. ofSta. Maria Maggiore. A por- 
tion of it is in the earlj Lombard style, 
others more recent ; the more ancient 
portion dates from 1134: the N. part was 
erected in 1360 by Giovanni di Cam- 
pello: it is of black and white mar- 
ble. The southern porch, elaborately 
worked, is surmounted by a turret con- 
taining a statue of a saint, whilst 
over the principal entrance is a statue 
of King Lupus, who in the middle 
ages enjoyed a great reputation at 
Bergamo. The interior of Sta. Maria 
Maggiore is rich in stucco decorations 
and paintings j the cupola in the form 
of an elongated octagon ; the tribune 
and transepts supported on high Italo- 
Glothic arches. The only sepulchral 
monument worth noticing is that of 
an Archbishop de Longis (ob. 1317) in 
alabaster ; a monument by the eminent 
Swiss scidptor Vela has been recently 
erected here to the celebrated composer 
Donizetti, a Bergamasc. To the rt. of 
the principal entry, upon the outer 
circular projection of a chapel, are 
remains of old frescoes of the early 
Lombard school, some supposed to 
be as early as the 14th centy. The sa- 
cristy, an octangular building, erected, 
as appears from the inscription, in 
1430, is among the earhest examples 
of the introduction of the Koman or 
classical style in juxtaposition with 
Gothic. The dado has pointed arches, 
but the two upper stories are Compo- 
site, accurately worked. The campanile, 
which is upwards of 300 ft. in height, 
is one of the towers so conspicuous 
in the view of the Cittd,, Adjoining 
Sta. Maria Maggiore, and opening 
out of it, is the Capella Colleoni^ the 
sepulchral chapel of Bartolommeo Col- 
leoni, the celebrated condottiere of the 
IStb centy. ; the ik^ade, which has lately 



\ 



been restored, is very beautiful, oma* 
mented with different coloiured marbles, 
most elaborately worked; in two round 
spaces are busts of Julius Csesar and 
Trajan, with their pagan designation 
of Divus, strange ornaments for a 
Christian edifice ; the bronze doors are 
modem ; the windows are divided by 
candelabra stems, with varied capitals 
and arabesques, placed so close to each 
other that the apertures for light are 
narrower than the diameter of these 
columns. The interior of the Colleoni 
chapel has been painted chiefly by Tie- 
polo ; there is a picture by 2). Crespi 
of one of Colleoni' s battles, and a Ma- 
donna with the infant Saviour, St. 
John, and St. Joseph, by Angelica 
Kauffman, but the principtd omiunent 
is the sepulchral moitument of the 
founder (who died in 1475) hj Amadeo. 
The bas-reliefs of Christ led to Mount 
Calvary, the Crucifibdon and Entomb- 
ment, and of the Nativity, Epiphany, 
and Annunciation, are very good; 
upon the urn above stands the gilt 
equestrian statue of the great Condot- 
tiere. The fine tomb oi Medea Col- 
leoni, the child of Bartolommeo, which 
formerly stood in the ch. of Basella on 
the Serio, has been recently removed 
to her father's chapel ; several branches 
of the Colleoni family still exist in the 
province of Brescia, collaterally de- 
scended fromBartolommeo, whose prin- 
cipal possessions were situated on the 
Serio, near Malpaga, where he retired 
in his older days in almost regal splen- 
dour, the last of the great Italian 
leaders of tflat troubled period. 

The Duomo has a fine cupola, a 
conspicuous object; and the propor- 
tions and general character of the build- 
ing are good, but as a whole it has a 
bare, undecorated look. It was de- 
«igned by Antonio Mlarete, but has 
since been much altered. It contains 
several paintings, but of little interest. 
There is a curious and ancient Baptis- 
tery, said to be as old as the 5th 
ceniy, 

Santa Grata is the church of a re- 
6tore6Liiu\mftT^,Ni\iia\^lafta been, newly 



LoMBARUY. Jiotite 27, — Beiymno—Neiglibourliood. 



gilt nnd decorated. Tlie altarpiece, 
by Salmeggia, 16Z3, repreeontB the 
Virgin and Bercral Saints, amongst 
them Santa Qratit bearing the head 
of St. AleiandQr. This picture, i 
sidered as the masterpiece of tlie ax 
was rarriod off to Paris. Thcro 
some lianil^ome mosaics in tliia elegant 
little buildmg. 

of interest. At the 4t!i altM on tliel. 
a Holy Farailj with Saints, bj L. 
Lotla, signed and tUted l&Sl i '"" 
altar, an Ancona, in 10 eompartm 
b; ^. freeitide; at the let altar on 1., 
St. Jolm between Saints, ono of the 
finest works of Previtale; and at the 
Snd altar on tha same side, an Ancona, 
in 10 camnartmonta, bj Borgogaonn. 

Otiier clmrobeB are Sant' Andrea. — 
In the taulting are froBcoes by Pado- 
crtitino — The Tttgio and Sainta, bj- 
Moretii. Church of SanP Alesiandro 
in ColoitHa — St. John the Baptist, by 
the jomiger Falna. Church of Sa» 
Bartolommeo — A Virgin i one of the 
best works of L. LolCn. Church nf San 
Michek al Pozzo— a Tirgra and ChUd, 
by L. Lotto. 

There is a grand view &om the torraeie 
of the Caaa Terzi, one of the Guest 
palaces in the upper city. 

There is rather a good pubhc li- 
brary in the Srolelto ; and the Aeca- 
demia Carrera, with a collection of 
paintinga, lately enriched by Covnl 
LocMt bequest of his gallery to his 
uatire town. 

Boj^mo contains some prirate col- 
leotiona of paintings— the Musoo Sopi, 
the Albani, Cainozii, and Vcrdoa Qal- 



The situation of the upper town of 
Sergamo is remarkably &io. A walk 
of less than half an hour will take 
the traveller to the hill of the Castello 
W. of il, by the road emerging from 
the Porta di S, Aleesandro ; tha fort- 
rtWB which stood here is now in ruins, 
but the panoramic Tiew fi'om it will 
amply repay the trouble of the eit- 
conion ; it embraces the course of the 
Brembo on the W., Die pJaiii of Milan, 



tlic Brianca, and the innnmerabla 
towers scattered over them, with tha 
ateopies of Milan, Monia, and, farther 
still, the Monte Kosa, and eren Monte ' 
Tiso, 152 m. off. The Apannines be- 
yond the Po are well defined in clear 
weather, with Creraa and Cramona in 
the foreground. 

The lower town is t!ie seat of busi- 
ness. In ordinary times it offers little 
to uiterest the traveller ; it consigts of 
two principal streets, that by which it 
is entered ii-am Milan, &om wliich 
another, in which are the hotels and 

?rincipal shops, branches off to the 
'rato, a large open square, where tbc 
fair is held, and which contains the 
theatre, barracks, and the fine gate 
loading to Crema. An important fair 
is held here. It begins about the 
middle of August, and lasts a month. 
This mart, called the Fiera di Sanf 
AlesaaiHlro, wluch has been known to 
haTB been held since the 10th centj., 
is the Leipsic fair of northern Italy. 
It is not only a very largo businesa, 
but also a great pleasure fair, to which 
tliB gentry of all the country about 

Bergamo is celebrated in the annals 
of music by the number of good com- 
posers which it has produced — amongst 
them Itubini (d, 1854) and Doniietti. 

Neighhourhood of Bergamo. The 
country around is one of the most 
renowned in Lombardy for its sillj, ' 
the great source of the wealth of its 
landed proprietors. The province con- 
tains some of the most beautifiil land- 
scapes in the Lombardo-Yenetian ter- 
ritory. The soil is of the greatest 
ferfihtj, and is eiceedingly well wa- 
tered, the river Serio being the main 
trunk of irrigation. 

Some othOT pleasant excursions may 
be noticed. There are mony Hna feudal 
castles dotted about the country on all 
aides, memorials of the contests of the 
Goelphs and Ghibelliiiesi such as the 
Cattelio di Ti-etno upon the Adda, 
about 13 m. by the road to the 
S.W. of Bergamo, and othcta i^i ^J^lKl 
eastward, ncai ftit \a^UJ \'ieQ. "^Ma. 



234 



Boute 21, — Lake of Iseo. 



Sect. ni. 



Santuario d^Alaano, 4 m. firom Ber- 
gamo to the N.E., at the opening mto 
the plain of the Val Seriana, has some 
fair paintings and sculptures. 

" About 8 m. to the N. of Bergamo 
is the church oiSan Tomaso in I/mine. 
It stands alone on the brow of a hUl, 
from whence there is a beautiftd view. 
Its extreme age is obvious from its 
external appearance, but it is still in 
good preservation, for which it is 
indebted to the excellence of its con- 
ei,truction. No record of the date of 
^an Tomaso has come down to our 
time. The evidence of style, however, 
places it among the buildings of the 
vth century, during which this part of 
Italy was at rest, and a great zeal for 
church-building prevailed. The plan 
is nearly identical with that of San 
VUale at Bavenna, a rotunda crowned 
with a cupola. The cupola is not sup- 
ported by pendentives, but by the waUs 
themselves, assisted by the lateral 
resistance of the arches of the wings. 
The pillars are stunted and thick, and 
their capitals exhibit the usual imagery 
of the Lombards : the manner of con- 
struction of the walls is in their style. 
The Lombards were fond of the cir- 
cular or octagonal form, and employed 
it in their churches, as they did that of 
the BasiUca. If the round form is to 
be adopted there can hardly be found 
a more graceful model than is afforded 
by San Tomaso" — Q-> Knight. 

Travellers by the Stelvio or Splugen 
roads, who wish to reach Venice with- 
out passing through Milan, may con- 
veniently take the road from Como to 
Lecco, and from the latter to Bergamo, 
which is heavy, and with long ascents 
and descents, but affords pleasing scen- 
ery. (See Rte. 19.) 

[A pleasant excursion may be made 
from Bergamo to the lake of Iseo. A 
good road to Sa/mico, which is situated 
at the S. end of the lake where the Oglio 
leaves it, turns off from the Rly. Stat, 
at G^rumello, from which the distance 
to Samico is about 6 m. At less 
than halfway, near where the rly. 
oroBBBB the Cheno, Goriago is about a 



mile to the 1. of the road, which has a 
church containing some valuable paint- 
ings, and a saloon painted in fresco by 
Oiulio Bomano, and now used as a hay- 
loft. About 4 m. before reaching Sar- 
nico, on the rt. of the road, is the old 
castle of CalepiOi built in 14B0, and 
finely placed on the steep banks of the 
OgHo. There is a poorish Inn at Sar- 
nico. The lake of Iseo presents some 
beautiful scenery. The " Monte dell' 
Isola'* rises bol(fiy from its surface. It 
is very deep, and abounds in fish. The 
vegetation of the shores is rich, and 
the olive-tree flourishes in the more 
sunny exposures. Many towers, cities, 
and villas are dotted round its shores. 
The Villa Fenaroliy at Tavemola, on 
the W. shore, opposite to the Monte 
dell' Isola, commands a fine prospect 
of the lake and of the small town of 
Iseo on the opposite shore.. 

The lake of Iseo (Lacus Sevinus) 
is the fourth in size of the subalpine 
lakes of Lombardy, occupying an area 
of 22 Eng. m. It has the same elon- 
gated form as those of Como and Q^arda, 
and, like them, fills the bottom of a 
great trough or transverse valley. Its 
principal feeders are the rivers Bor- 
lezza and Oglio, that descend from the 
Alps through the Val Caraonica, and 
its only exit is by the Ogho at Sar- 
nico ; it is 700 ft. deep in some parts, 
and its surface is 680 ft. above the 
level of the sea j near its centre is 
an island, about li m. long, with 
two villages, Siviana and Pesdbiera. 
The climate of the shores of Iseo is 
nearly the same as that of the lakes 
of Como and Maggiore, but, from its 
greater elevation above the sea, of a 
more alpine character than that of the 
Lago di Garda. The town Iseo has ex- 
tensive silk- works ; it is said to owe its 
name to a temple of Isis. It is about 7 
nules by the footpath along the shore 
of the lake from Samico to Iseo, which 
is the principal port on the lake, and 
from whence a steamer starts twice 
a day for Lovere, at 10 a.m. and 6 
P.M., returning at 4 A.M. and 4 p.m., 
.from May to September, taking about 



\ 



LOUOAHDV. 



Houte 27. — Loixi-f, 



2 hrs. to run tlie dUtuice. Tliere 
a tidj Inn at Iseo, bj the Wftter-Bide, 
kept by Angdo Ferrari. At the foot 
of the moimtatii, nesrl; opposite to 
leeo, to the northward, ia Predore, 
where tlii>re ure Eoine pknUitioQB of 
orange and lemon trees. 

I/OTOrc may also be reached by a 
road wliich turns off l<) the i., out of tha 
high roud at Albano, about 6 m. from 
B^omo, and psaaea through the bathi 
of TceBcorre, where there ia a yilla of 
Count Oianforte, and a chapel pointed 
by Loremo Lotto. The principal ch. 
ofTreaoorre contains a good picture 
by Salmeggia. Hem^ tbo road runs 
np the YhI CaiBUina by the side of the 
Cherio torrent, and along the "W. shore 
of two ainsll lakes, Spinous and Ot^r 
The distance from Bivgamo to Lu< 
bythiBroadiBal)Oiit2GEng,ni. (/«».■ 
U Cnnone d'Oro, poor.) 

XiOTere is well known as thi 
during serei 
Wortfej Moj 



itagu, V 



Lady Bute, her dangh- 

■, dated the 21st July, 1747:— "I 

am now in a place the most beautifully 

the Tunbridgo ot this pact ctf the world, 
to which I waa sent by the doctor's 
order, my ague often returning, I 
found a very good ladgioir, a great deal 
of good company, and a vQlagoin many 
rcspscts resembling Tunbridge Wella, 
not only in the qoalitj of the waters, 
which is the same, hut in the manner 
of the buildings, most of the houses 
being separate ei little distances, and 
all built on the sides of hills, which 
indeed are Sir different from those of 
Tunbridge, being six times as high ; 
they are really vast roolcB of ditfiinmt 
flgiires, coTered with green moss or 
Bhort gra«B, diversified by tufts of trees, 
little woods, and here aud there vine- 
yBTda, but no other oultiyation, eicept 
gardens Ukc those on Itichmand>hill. 
— Tlie fountain where we drink the 
waters rises between two hanging hills, 
and is orer-shadowed with lai^B trees 
that give a ireshness in the hottest time 
of t& day." in a suhfloquent letter 
the ^aeribei part of her resideiieo ; — 



" I hare been these six weeks, and stiU 
Bin, at my dairy-house, which joins to 
ray garden. I belieie I hate already 
told you it is a long mile from the 
castle, whicli is situate in the midst of 
a Tcry hirge village, once a considerable 
town, part of the walls stilt remaining, 
and hjis not facaut ground euough 
about it to make a garden, which is my 
greatest amusement. This spot of 
'ground is so beautiful, I am afraid you 
will scarce credit the deeeriplion, which, 
however, I can assure you shall be yerj 
literal, without any erobelliBhment from 
imagination. It is on a bank, forming 
a kind of peninaula, raised from the 
river Oglio BO ft., to which you may 
descend by easy stairs cut in the hir^ 
and either take the air on the river, 
which is as large as the Thames at 
Biehmoud, or, by walking up an avenue 
300 yards on the aide of it, you find a 
wood of 100 acres, which waa all ready 
cut into walks and ridings when I took 
it. I have only added 16 bowers, in 
different views, with Beats of turf. 
Th^ were easily made, here beine ft 
large quantity of underwood and » 
great number of wild vines, which twist 
to the top of the highoat ti«eB, and 
from which tliey make a very good, sort 
of wine they call bnisoo. I am now 
writing to you in one of those arbours, 
which is BO thick-shaded the sun is not 
troublesome, even at noon. Anotbtir 
is on the siii of the river, where I have 
made a comp-kitolien, that I may take 
the fish, drese and eat it immediatelyi 
and at tils same time see the harkg, 
which ascend or descend every day to 
or from Mantua, Ouastalla, or Pont de 
Vie, all oonBiderablB towns. Tliis wood 
is carpeted in their succeeding seasonB 
with violets and strawberries, iuliahited 
by a natjou of nightingales, and filled , 
with game of all kinds, eioepting deel 
and wild faoar, the first being unknown 
hero, and not being large enough for 
the other." More modem trnveUera 
do not agree in Lady W. Montagu's 
enthuaiastie description of Lovere, and 
suppose she must hayonusaAwjoi.^ 
that of Boroo oti^et a*ea QQ >« itocmSi, 
tliB lake ot Isea. 



236 



RonJte 27. — Bergamo to Brescia, 



.Sect. m. 



Lovere has two large churches with 
pictures, and a fine cenotaph hy Canova, 
one of the repetitions of that of Vol- 
pato, erected by Count Tadini to his 
son, who was crushed by the fall of an 
arch. At some distance from Castro, 
about 2 m. to the S. of Loyere, on the 
shore of the lake, is a narrow abyss 
called the Orrido di Tinazzo, where the 
torrent precipates itself with a roaring 
noise. It is a very singular place. 
The road firom Lovere to Bergamo 
is carried along it for several yards 
on arches ; the water below is out of 
sight. To the N. of Lovere is the Val 
Camonica, through which the OgUo 
flows, and along which there is a good 
road as far as Edolo, near the head of 
the valley. (See Handbook of S. Ger- 
many, E.tc. 231.) 

The traveller who does not wish to 
return from Lovere to Bergamo will 
find a very fair road on the E. side of 
the lake, through the villages of Pisogne, 
Sale, and Sulzano, to Iseo, and which 
from thence joins the old post-road 
from Bergamo, 3 m. before reaching 
Brescia.] 



BERaAMO TO BEESOIA. 

The distance from Bergamo to Bre- 
scia is 30 m. through generally a fine 
country, crossing the several large 
water-courses descending from the Alps, 
which bring fertility with them to the 
plains at their base. Leaving the lower 
town by the long and dirty suburb of 
San Antonio, 

[5 kiL from Bergamo by the Rly. 
the Serio is crossed, near the village of 
Seriate, with a large modem church. 
. Aroad branches off from hereon thel., 
leading to the alpine Val Seriana, and 
another to the rt., to Martinengo and 
Bomano, passing by Malpaga, whose 
castle, built on Boman ruins by Barto- 
lommeo Colleoni, still retains its gate- 
ways and drawbridges ; the inside is 
decorated with historical frescoes — one 
saloon £]led with those by Carianniy 
a pupil of CHorgione^s^ representing the 



visit of Christian II. of Denmark to 
Bartolommeo, highly interesting for the 
costumes. 1^ m. between Malpaga 
and Martinengo is a curious belfry, rich 
in architecture and sculpture, and the 
celebrated Sotonda of GMsalba^ one of 
the masterpieces of Cagnola. 

About 2 m. W. of Malpaga, on the 
other side of the Serio, is a chapel 
called La JBasella, formerly containing 
a masterpiece hjAmadeo,the sepulchral 
monument of Medea, only child of 
Bartolommeo Colleoni, which is now in 
the chapel of the family at Bergamo.] 
(See p. 232.) 

5 kil. Seriate Stat. From this station 
we cross the plain between the last 
declivities of the Alps and the small 
detached range of hills of Monticelli 
on rt. ; similar to that of Mont' Orfano 
between Como and Bergamo, and 
formed of the same conglomerate 
(p. 151) : there are some picturesque 
ruins on its E. extremity. 

7i kil. Gorlago Stat., not far fi^m 
the Cherio torrent, descending from the 
Val Cavallina. A road strikes off* here 
on the 1. up this valley to Lovere, at the 
]^. extremity of the lake of Iseo, passing 
by the smaller one of Spinone. 

6 kil. Qrumello Stat. From here the 
best road to Iseo branches off to 
Samico at its S. extremity, which is 6 
m. distant. From G^rumello the rly. 
runs in a more S. direction, crossing 
the rich plain of the Oglio. Before 
reaching the station at Falazzuolo the 
line crosses the latter river on a fine 
high bridge and viaduct, from which 
the view of the town at some distance 
on the rt., with the river flowing at the 
bottom of the valley far below, and of 
the high tower, which forms so 
conspicuous an object, is very fine. 

4 kil. Palazzolo {Stat.\ The town 
stands on both sides of the river, which 
runs in a depression belowthe surround- 
ing country, and from its situation was 
an important miUtary position in the 
wars of the Brescians and B^gamaschi ; 
on both sides are considerable medifevid 
remains ; on the W. an old black castle, 
now built into a church, and on the 
\ "E. an. exVenoBYsre ioi^i-c^^*^^ ^K!5wa. ^^iVasJsv 



£3Ai*iR&r. 



Jtoute 27. — Ih-M 



has been ereotod a verj higli modem 
bell-tower, aurmouuted hj a statue of 
at. George, from nhidi the liew in- 
dudea Milan, Cremona, &c. BejQiid 
Pdaiiuolo wo TBHjnter on tlia great 
plijn extending to Srescia, tbo road 
nuiniag tkt the base of ttie ineulated 
ridge of hilla of Cologne and Moal- 
o^ano, oil tbo 1., nt the S.E. extremity 
of nbieli lies 

8 kiL Coccaglia (Slat.). The moun- 
tain above it {Monte Otfano, on wbich 
there is a ehiirch, and a, oonTent higher 
up) eomnianda a nobto yiew. The tra- 
veller vho can spare a Couple of 
hours vfUl be well repaid for walWng 
up to its auiDinit by the splendid 
panorama discovered mim It. 

Senalo, in the plain on 1., the birth- 
place of the paiuters Morello and 
BicMno. 

S Idl. OtpedaMto. {Slot.) 

11 til. Bbesdi* (Stat.) ; just out- 
side thf Porta San Nazzaro, on the 
S.W. Bide of the town. {i"niK .- Albergo 
Beale dclla Fosta, in the Coutroda 
Idirga, fair ; il Glambaro, resorted to 
by Italian familiea. Stahloa in the inns 
here nmdFT them bU disagreeable.) Tliis 
)3 a £ne and flouriBhing <7itj, uow ixin- 
taining 40,000 Inhab., and appearing 
Terr prosperous. "Breidd Varmata" 
has been anciently celebrated equally 
for Iho streligtli of her fortiiimtions, 
the Tolaur of her inhabitants^ and the 
eiooUeneo of the arms and weapons 
heremaou&ctured. The Bruscians have 
not degpnerated from tlieir ancestors 
in bravery ; but the fortifications are 
dismantled and the mnnufa«ture of fira- 



the opposition of the Austrian autho- 
rities. — Brescia has S gat^s : 1, Porta 
ili 8. Qiotnnni, leading to Milan 
— 3, Snn Nazzaro, to the Kailwaj- 
etation and Creraa^S, San Alea- 
sandro, to Ctcmonn — 4, Torlunga, to 
Verona and Mantua— S, Porta Pile, to 
Tal Trompia and the other mountain 
valleys. — Brescia was anciently con- 
sidered as one of tbe most opulent 
cities of Lombard/, second only to 
Sfiian. Bat the capture of the oity by 



Qaston de Foix, the "gentjl Due de 
Nemours," the nephew of Irfmis XII. 
(1512), inflicted a. blow upon its pras- 
peritj irom which it never reeovered. 



QBtioir states, Brescia feU like tlie rest 
of tbe YeTietiaii possessions, but nas 
recovered by tlio vigour of the Count 
Luigi Avogadro. The inhabitants de- 
tested the French, and the standard of 
St. Mark being hoisted tbe whole dis- 

Thc castle, however, was stiU held by 
tbe French , and Gaston de Foil marched 
against Brescia with an army of 12,000 
men, the Ilowur, says the ' Loyal 8or- 
viteur,' of Frencli chivalry. Amongst 
them was the " Chevalier sans peur et 
Sana reproche," the celebrated Bayard, 
who, in the attack of the breaidi by 
which tlie French entered, reoeiveil a 
wound which he thought to be mortali 
The IVeneh poured in, and the city 
was taken by storm ; the Ytmetian 
troops made a desperate but ineffec- 
tual resistance in the " Piozia del Bro- . 
lotto" to which they retreated, and the 
inhabitants emulated tbo soldiers in 
valour. Tlio city was given up to pil- 
lage, and the Frenoh, the " Bower of 
cluvBlry," under the guidance of the 
" gentil" Qaston de Foil, truly termed 
by Sismondi the most forooious of the 
chiellains who ever Commanded an 
army, indulged during seven days in 
pillage, lust, and slaughter, ThoFrench 
boasted that 4G,000 of the inhah. 
perished. 

The spirit of the wariare may be 
iUustraied hy two celebrated passages 
ill the history of the siege of Brescia, 
— the etcape of Tattaglia and thsgene- 
roaii/ of Bayard. Amongst the orowds 



with a'ehild in her arms. The French 
chivalry cut at mother and child, and 
the boy received in the arms of his 
mother five sabre wounds; his skull 
was fractured and his upper lip spht 
In spile of this treatment ho lived, yet 
the wound in toa Vt^ ^aa wi WK«tft 
that lie nevot Mlj ■cecijv wB&.\i\% 's^nr^'. 



BoMe 27. — Brescia. 




« dllllilltlli 111 






LoMBARDY. Route 27. — Sresda — l/istoi-kal Anecdotes. 



239 



hence he was called Tartaglia, or the ' 
atulterer: but liis memory has been 
preaervecl, not bj tbe injuries wliich lie 
aliRred with so mnny others, but by hie 
talent as one of the greatest mathema- 
tioiauB of tbe IStb century. 

With respect to Baysrd, he was 
placed by S orchera upon a door torn 
from its ningHa, and carried to the best- 
looking houee at hand, beliered to be 
that of the Cigola family in tbe Ginr- 
dini Publici, formerly the Mereato 

mail wbo had Bed to a monaatery ; but 
his wifii and 3 Mr daughters remained 
at home, in the Lord's kfeplng, and 
were hid in a hayloft under the hay." 
The mother, when she heard the ttioek- 
ing at the wickat, opened it, " aa await- 
ing the meroy of Qod wilh conatancy;" 
and Bayard, notwithatonding his own 
great paij], observing her piteoua agony, 
placed sentinels at the gate, and ordered 
them to prohibit all entrance, well 
knowing that hia name was a defoncc. 
He then assured the noble lady of pro- 
tection, inquired into her condition, and, 
despatching some archers to lier hus- 
band's rtdiaf, feceivod >'iTn courteously, 
and intreated him to believe that he 
lodged none Other than a friend. Hia 
wound oonfined Um for 6 weeks, norwaa 
it closed when he remounted liia horse 
and rejoined tho army. Before hia do- 
parture, the lady of the house, still oon- 
eidoring herself and her family aa pri- 
soners, and her mansion and whole 
property as the lawful prize of her 
Bueat, yet pereeiying his gentleness of 
demeanour, thought to preToil upon 
him to compound for a moderate ran- 
som, and having placed 2500 ducats in 
a casket, she besonght bis acceptance of 
it on her knees. Bayard raised her at 
tbe moment, acat«d her beaide himself, 
Budinquiredthe sum. Ho then aaaured 
her that if she had presented tilm with 
100,000 crowns, they would not gratis 
him BO mncli as the good cheer whidi 
he hod tasted under licr roof; at first 
he refused to take them, but upon her 
eamesUy pressing him , and seeing 
'* that she mode the present with her 
whole heart," he reg Hasted permission 



to bid adieu to her clnugbtera. " Tho 
damsels," aays the ' Lojal Serviteur, 
'* were exceedingly fair, virtuous, end 
well-traineil, and hod greatly solaced 
the good knight during his illness by 
their choice singing, and playing on the 
lute and virginals, aud their much- 
Bunninc needlework. When they en- 
tered the cliambor, they thanked him 
with deep gratitude aa tbe guardian of 
their honour ; and the good knight, 
almost weeping at their gentleness and 
humility, answered:- — 'Fair maidens^ 
you are doing that which it is rather 
my part to do, to thank you for the 
good company which you have afibrded 
me, and for which I am greatly bound 
and obliged lo you. You know thsfc 
we knight-ndvcnturers are ill provided 
with goodly toya for ladies' eye», and 
for my part T am sorely grieved not to 
be better furnished, in order that I 
might offer you some such as is my 
duty. But your lady mother here hsa . 
given me 2600 ducats, which he on that 
tahlo, and I preaent each of you with 
1000 in aid of your marriage portions j 
for my rccomponco I ask no more than 
that you will be 1''^''^^ ^° P™? ^^^ 
for my welfare.' So he put the ducats 
into their aprons, whether they would 
or no : then turmng to the lady of tho 
house, he said, ' These remoimng 500 
ducata I take, madam, to my Own use j 
and I request you to distribute them | 
among the poor nuns who have been 
pillaged, and with whose necessities no 
one con bo better acquainted than your* 
self ; and herewith I take ray Irave !' 
After having dined, aa he quitted his 
chsmbei' to take horse, the two fair 
damsels met him, each bearing a little 
ofTcring which she had wopkad during 
hisillnessi oneeonsistedofSrioh brace- 
lets vi-oven with marvellouB dohcocy 
from her own beauteous hair, and fine 
gold and silver threads ; the other was 






embroidered with 



much subtilty. Greatly did the brave 
knight thank tliero for this lost cojir- 
teay, saying that such presents from so 
lovely hands were worth 10 •»» iitiswra,-, 

Lrm aufli ttie ■OMisfe wiVa ^ia«s«.^ 



his arm aufli ttie -^Misa wiV-A ^larasfti"^ 



J 



240 



BotUe 27. — Brescia — Roman JRemains. 



Sect. III. 



vowed to wear them both, for the ho- 
nour of their feiir donors, while his life 
endured ; and so he mounted and rode 
on. 

" The booty," says the * Loyal Servi- 
teur,' "was rated at 3,000,000 of crowns. 
Certain it is that the taking of Brescia 
was the ruin of the French cause in 
Italy : for they had gained so much 
that a great part of them returning 
home forsook flie war, and were much 
needed afterwards at the battle of Ba- 
venna." As for the unfortimate city, 
famine and pestilence followed the ra- 
vages of war, and the void of popula- 
tion has scarcely yet been replaced. 

The inhabitants of Brescia, and espe- 
cially of the neighbouring mountain 
valleys, have always been remarkable 
for their military spirit and bravery, 
which were again manifested during 
the political agitation of 1849. Upon 
the renewal, by the Piedmontese Q-o- 
vemment, of the hostilities which had 
been suspended by the armistice of the 
preceding year, a general rising of the 
people of Brescia took place, and 
putting at their head one of their fel- 
low-citizens. Count Martinengo, they 
held the town for several days against 
the Austrian garrison in the castle 
above and a considerable force de- 
tached from Verona for the reduction 
of the town. The cannon of the be- 
siegers, aided by the artillery of the 
fortress pouring shot and shell from 
the heights, at length compelled them 
to submit. The traveller as he goes 
through the town will see on all sides 
traces of the havoc committed by the 
cannon on its public edifices and 
palaces. 

Brescia is pleasantly situated, and 
there are lovely views from the heights 
above the city. It is not far from the 
torrent Mella, the ancient Mela, noticed 
in the verses of Catullus. 

" Brixia, Cycneae supposita speculee, 
FlaTiu auam molli percurrit flumine Mela, 
Brixia Veronie mater areata mese.*' 

The Mela here mentioned is sup- 
posed to be the river of which Virgil 
apeaka : — 



" tonsis in vallibus ilium 

Pastores, et curva legunt prope flumina 
Melle." 

Brixia is known to have become a 
Boman colony, but we are not informed 
at what period this event took place. 
It was also a municipium, as ancient 
inscriptions attest. Strabo speaks of it 
as inferior in size to Mediolanum and 
Verona. 

The antiquities of Brescia were in- 
vestigated in the 17th century by Bossi, 
who describes them in his JHemorie 
Sresdatie, but who trusted more to his 
fancy than to his observation. A tall 
Corinthian column was then protrud- 
ing through the soil, and Bossi in his 
treatise gave the drawing of the whole 
temple to which it had belonged. The 
column escaped demolition, but no one 
paid much attention to it except Otro- 
lamo loli, who from a child was accus- 
tomed to wonder at the relic ; and, 
mainly by his persuasion and ex^tions, 
the mimicipal authorities were per- 
suaded to institute an excavation ; the 
result was the discovery of the entire 
portico, and of much of the adjoining 
structure. The columns, with the 
exception of the one which so long 
declared the existence of the rest, are 
broken at various heights, but the por- 
tions remaining are very perfect, and 
so are the stairs and the basement, 
which are entirely in their original 
state. The latter is composed of 
upright blocks of marble, one block 
composing its whole height. The 
masonry indeed throughout is magni- 
ficent. The columns are elegant, both 
in proportion and execution, and good 
workmanship is visible in the sharply- 
cut capitals and mouldings which lie 
around. Where the outer casing is 
removed you may observe the bands 
of brick binding the structure. The 
architecture has many peculiarities, 
and, like almost every Boman building 
of the same period, shows that the archi- 
tects considered themselves as by no 
means bound by such rules as those 
which TitruYiu/has laid down. The 
building is called a temple, and is 



LOMBAEDY. Ro'jte 27. — Breada — Homan Remain: 



241 



inaar!ptif>D9 to Iibtb been envted 
reatorod. by Veapaaian in the year 72 of 
our era, and dedicated toHeruules: but 
its Torm seemi toindicatethat it was in- 
tended for Bome oClier purpoie, perliape 
a DOurt of juBtice ; and it is not cren 
certain whether the muti